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Volume III. 

November 6, 1883 — May 19, 1885. 

« I 




- - r 

^ -r -§ i\ i 



Abstract of Transactions — i vol., 150 pp., includes a summary ol 
lions of the Society from its first regular meeting, March 4, i9 
uary 18, 1881. 

TRANbACTiONS Vol. I, 142 pp., includes transactions down to January 

Transactions Vol. II, 211 pp., includes transactions to and incliu 

Communications for the Society should be addressed to Col. F. A. 

U. S. Patent Office. 

Exchanges and specimens should be sent to Dr. W. J. Hoffman, 


• • 

• • •• 

• • •• 

• • 

• • • 

• • 

• • • 


• "• 

• •• 

• • 









Stcnoic A, Somaioiogy, ROBERT FLETCHER. 

SccnoN B, Sociclogy, LESTER F. WARD. 

SBcnoN C, Pkiloiogy, Philosophy, and Psychology, GARRICK MALLERY. 
5»ccnoN D, Technology OTIS T. MASON. 
























Article I. — Name, 

The name of this Society shall be **The Anthropological 
Society of Washington." 

Article II. — Object 

The object of this Society shall be to encourage the study of the 
Natural History of Man, especially with reference to America, and 
5^1 include Somatology, Sociology, Philology, Philosophy, Psy- 
chology, and Technology. 

Article III. — Members, 

The members of this Society shall be persons who are interested 
'n Anthropology, and shall be divided into three classes : Active, 
'^rresponding, and Honorary. The active members shall be those 
*Ho reside in Washington, or in its vicinity, and who shall pay the 
^ties required by Article XV. Failure to comply with this pro- 
vision within two months after due notice of election, unless satisfac- 
^'jniy explained to the Council, shall render the election void. 
Corres[)onding members shall be those who are engaged in an- 
'•'ro[>ological investigations in other localities; honorary members 
•ha!l be those who have contributed by authorship or patronage to 
^^t Advancement of Anthropology. Corresponding or honorary 
Ambers may become active members by paying the fee required 
^^y Article XV. Any corresponding member from whom no scien- 
^ifit: contribution is received for two years after his election may be 
dropped from the list of members by a vote of the Council, but 
*hcn so dropped shall be eligible to reinstatement. 

All members shall be elected by the Council and by ballot, as fol- 
^: The name of the candidate shall be recommended to the 
Council, in writing, by two members of the Society, and eight 
Amative ballots shall be necessary to an election. 

lb person shall be entitled to the privileges of active member- 

f bdbre ptjriBg the adrnwioa fee provided in Article XV. 


Article IV. — Officers. 

The officers of this Society shall be a President, four Vice-Presi- 
dents, r. General Secretary, a Secretary to the Council, a Treasurer, 
and a Curator, all of whom, together with six other active members, 
shall constitute a Council, all to be elected by ballot at each annual 
meeting. The officers shall serve one year, or until their successors 
are elected. 

Article V. — The Council. 

All business of the Society, except the election of officers at the 
annual meeting, shall be transacted by the Council, five members 
of which shall constitute a quorum. 

The Council shall meet one half-hour before the regular sessions 
of the Society, and at such other times as they may be called to- 
gether by the President. They may call special meetings of the 

Article VI. — The Sections, 

For active operations the Society shall be divided into four sec- 
tions, as follows : Section A, Somatology ; Section B, Sociology ; 
Section C, Philology, Philosophy, and Psychology; Section D, 
Technology. The Vice-Presidents of the Society shall be ex-officio 
chairmen of these sections respectively, and shall be designated by 
the President to their sections after their election. It shall be the 
duty of these sections to keep the Society informed upon the pro- 
gress of research in their respective fields, to make special investiga- 
tions when requested by the Council, to announce interesting dis- 
coveries, to collect specimens, manuscripts, publications, newspaper 
clippings, etc., and in every way to foster their divisions of the 

All papers presented to the sections shall be referred to the Coun- 
cil, and through it to the Society. 

Article VII. — The President. 

The President, or, in his absence, one of the Vice-Presidents, 
shall preside over the meetings of the Society and of the Council, 
and shall appoint all committees in the Council and in the Society. 

At the first meeting in February the retiring President shall de- 
liver an address to the Society. 


Article VIII. — The Vice-Presidents. 

The Vice-Presidents shall respectively preside over the sections 
to which they have been designated, and represent such sections in 
the Cooncil and in the Society. 

Each of the Vice-Presidents shall deliver an address during the 
jear upon such subject within hb department as he may select. 

Article IX. — The General Secretary. 

It shall be the duty of the General Secretary to record the trans- 
actions aud conduct the general correspondence of the Society. 

Article X. — The Secretary to the Council. 

The Secretary to the Council shall keep the minutes of the Coun- 
cil, shall keep a list of active, corresponding, and honorary mem- 
bers, with their residency, shall notify members of the time and 
place of all meetings of the Society, and shall perform such other 
duties as the Council may direct. 

Article XI. — The Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall receive and have charge of all moneys ; he 
^11 deposit the funds as directed by the Council, and shall not ex- 
P^d any money except as ordered by the Council. He shall 
notify members in writing when their dues have remained unpaid 
fcr six months. 

Article Y^Y. — The Curator, 

The Curator shall receive, acknowledge, and have charge of all 
b«x>b, pamphlets, |)hotographs, clippings, and other anthropologi- 
cal material, and shall dispose of them in accordance with Article 
^I, keeping a record of them in a book provided by the Society. 

Article XIII. — Meetings. 

, The regular meetings of the Society shall be held on the first and 

t the third Tuesday of each month from November to May, inclusive. 

LAb umoal meeting for the election of officers shall be held on the 

pU Tuesday of January in each year, a quorum to consist of 

tf acdTC members who aie not in arrears for dues ; and visitors 

"HH be admitted. 1 tugs of the Society shall be 

ad in aocotdance ihed rules of parliamentary 

L* - 









practice. Papers read shall be limited to twenty 
which the subject shall be thrown open for d 
thereon to be limited to five minutes for each speaker. 

Article XIV. — PubUcatians. 

The address of the President, provided in Article 
transactions of the Society, shall be printed and publ 
or at such periods and in such form as may be de 

Article XV. — Fees and Dues, 

The admission fee shall be five dollars, which shall cj 
member from the payment of dues during the year in 
elected. The annual dues thereafter shall be three doll 
prior to the election in January. The names of mei 
to pay their dues one month after written notice from ) 
urer, as provided in Article XI, shall be dropped froii 
unless from absence of the member from Washington or \ 
factory explanation, the Council shall otherwise determi 

Article XW I,— Gifts. 

It shall be the duty of all members to seek to increai 
; . feet the materials of anthropological study in the natioi 

1 tions at Washington. All gifts of specimens, books, ] 

I maps, photographs, and newspaper clippings shall be H 

the Curator, who shall exhibit them before the Society i 
regular meeting after their reception, and shall make sa 
or entry concerning them, m a book provided by the 
will secure their value as materials of research ; after 
archaeological and ethnological materials shall be depa 
National Museum, in the name of the donor and of th 
all crania and somatic specimens, in the Army Medical 
all books, pamphlets, photographs, clippings, and abstn 
archives of the Society. 

Article XVII. — Amendments. 

This constitution shall not be amended except 
vote of the active members present at the anm 
election of officers, and after notice of the p« 


hve been gmn in writing at a regular meeting of the Society, at 
lent one month previously. 

Article XVIII. — Order (ff Business. 

The Older of business at.each regular meeting shall be : 
I. Reading the minutes of the last meeting, 
t. Report of the Council upon membership. 

3. Report of the Curator. 

4. Reading the papers and discussions. 
$. Notes and queries. 


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Gec^rxrfcical Societr cf Plr2>w Firs^ Fraace. 

SccuetT cc .\jKJc:sirxs cf ne Xtcnare, Sc 

Iitliaa Aacfirjccicgxai ScciistT, FV-carof. Irxl"i- 

R_-yaI A^idtfaiT oc 6<iles L<crsv H>c-.'^rT. x^c 

Rjyal LizoEsi:! Acatieasr. Krccie. lit^T- 

Gec^^nrkical Scci^sr cf LiiiCca, L^jCcc F\:cr£^a_ 

Art^.-cc^-'^cil Sccwrr cf Mxii-ci, Mi^xi. 'JierE-irT. 

Gc'jgraf iical x=fi Searicjcx- Soojjit. Fnro.-ct a-M. ^Jt 

*Jiei?gTaf ileal S<:c£i-:t cf Drsc-jc I>:ssc^a. v>r-^a=T 

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loelaadjc Archzc«afK>I Scoctr, Rcri-ai-Jt, I eel 


Swedish Society of Geography and Anthropology, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Geographical Society of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. 

Aoaqaarian Society, Zurich, Switzerland. 

VKtorii Institute, London, England. 

lik of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Ramsey, Isle of Man. 

Archaeological Institute, Liege, Belgium. 

Aichaeological Society of Athens, Greece 

Geopaphical Society of Halle, Germany. 

Viisir Brothers' Institute, N. Y. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Society, Wilkes Barre, Pa. 

Philoio{^al Society of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

Borcan of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

Rlttde Island Historical Society, Providence, R. I. 

Dcs Moines Academy of Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Techflial Society of San Francisco, Cal. 

SvithsoQiin Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Natkmil Mosenm, Washington, D. C. 




iHnRomGm mm of wasbington. 



Prof. Demethi Anoutchine, Moscow, Russia. 

Prof. Spencer F. Baird, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. Adolf Bastian, Berlin, Prassia. 

Dr. John Beddoe, Bristol, England. 

M GiORGE Busk, London, England. 

Prof. G. Capellini, Bologna, Italy. 

M. Emilk Cartailhac, Toulouse, France. 

M. Erxejjt Chantre, Lyons, France. 

Mr. John Evans, Ix)ndon, England. 

^0^- H. Fischer, Freiburg. Baden. 

R«T- I/)RiMER FisoN, Navuloa, Fiji. 

Pfof William H. Flower, London, England. 

^f Krnrst Haeckkl, Jena, Germany. 

^^- W. His, Leipzig, Germany. 

Pfof. Abkl Hovelacque, Paris, France. 

P^f. Thomas 1L Huxley, London, England. 

^'- JoAQLiM Garcia Icazbalceta, Mexico, Mexico. 

^'fJoHN Lubbock, London, England. 

P">f- Paolo Mantegazza, Florence, Italy. 

'^'r Henry S. Maine, London, England. 

^- Washington Matthews, U. S. A., Washington, D. C 

^'- A. B. Meyer, Dresden, Germany. 

*^f- Gabriel de Mortillet, Paris, France. 

Df. M. Much, Vienna, Austria. 

"*f. Frederick MOller, Vienna, Austria. 

■H Gen. PiTT-RiVERS, London, England. 

^ Samuel Pozu, Paris, France. 




Prof. A« DE QUATREFAGES, Paris, France. 

Prof. GusTAT Retzhts, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Prof. A. H. Sayce, Oxford, Ei^knd. 

Dr. EsnL Schmidt, Leipzig, Germany. 

Prof. Waldemar Schhidt, Copenhagen, Denmaiiu 

Prof. Japetus Steenstrup, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Dr. Paul Topinard, Paris, France. 

Dr. Edward B. Tylor, Oxford, England. 

Prof. Rudolph Virchow, Berlin, Russia. 

Prof. Carl Vogt, Geneva, Switzerland. 


Dr. Charles C. Abbott, Trenton, N. J. 

Dr. H. B. Adams, Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, Waterbury, Conn. 

Mr. Hubert H. Bancroft, San Francisco, CaL 

Mr. Ad. F. Bandelier, Highland, 111. 

Mr. MoRiz Benedikt, Coblenz, Rhine-Prussia. 

Mr. A. F. Berlin, Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Geo. F. Black, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Prince Roland Bonaparte, St. Cloud, France. 

Dr. J. E. Bransford, U. S. Navy. 

Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mr. Lucien Carr, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. Drake Carter, Versailles, Kentucky. 

Sr. Alfredo Chavero, Mexico, Mexico. 

Dr. Arthur Chervin, Paris, France. 

Dr. John Collett, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mr. G. C. Comfort, Syracuse, New York. 

Mr. A. J. Conant, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Frank Cowen, Greensburg, Pennsylvania. 

Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, Manchester, England. 

Mr. George M. Dawson, Montreal, Canada. 

Prof. Alex. Ecker, Freiburg, Baden. 

Dr. George J. Engelmann, St. Louis, Mo. 

Gen. L. Faidhrrbe, Paris, France. 

Mr. M. F. Force, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



M. P. Cazaus db Fondouce, Montpellier, France. 

Mr. FiANas Galton, London, England. 

Dr. Enrico H. Giguou, Florence, Italy. 

Mr. Basil H. Gildersleeve, Baltimore, Md. 

Count G. GozzADiNi, BoIo$^a, Italy. 

Mr. Horatio Hale, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

Prof. G. Stanley Hall, Cambridge, Mass. 

Major A M. Hancock, Churchville, Maryland. 

Prof. Robert Hartmann, Berlin, Prussia. 

Rer. Horace Edwin Hayden, Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. FtEOEticK VON Hellwald, Stuttgart, WQrtemberg. 

Col. H. H. HiLDER, St Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Alfred W. Howitt, Gippaland, Victoria. 

1>T. P. R. Hoy, Racine, Wisconsin. 

Col. C C. Jones, Augusta, Ga. 

Prof. Augustus H. Keane, London, England. 

Hon. J. Warren Keifer, Springfield, Ohio. 

Prof. Washington C. Kerr. Raleigh, N. C. 

Dr. Frirdrich S. Krauss, Vienna, Austria. 

Rev. Geo. A. Leakin, Baltimore, Md. 

^- GusTAVE Le Bon, Paris, France. 

I>r. Oscar Ix)ew, Munich, Bavaria. 

Prof. Oscar Monteuus, Stockholm, Sweden. 

I^. John G. M(»RR1S, Baltimore, Md. 

l*rof. Edward S. Morse. Salem, Mass. 

Marquis de Nadaillac, Paris, France. 

Mr. E. W. Nelson, Colorado Springs, Col. 

St. Orozco y Berra, Mexico, Mexico. 

Mr. Ivan Petroff, . . 

M. Alphosse Pinart, Panama, United States of Colombia. 
Prof, I. PoMlALOWSKY, St. Petersburg, Russia. 
Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, Newport, R. I. 
Prof. Frederick W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. 
Prof. JoHANNF^ Ranke, Munich, Bavaria, 
M. EristE Keclus, Clarcns, Vaux, Switzerland. 
^ H. RivettCarnac, Allahabad, India. 
^* Edmund S. Slafter, Boston, Mass. 
'imiO StIEDA, Dorpat, Russia. 
Leipzig, Germany. 


Dr. Hermann Ten Kate, The Hague, Holland. 

Dr. Alton H. Thompson, Topeka, Kansas. 

Mr. Arni Thorsteinson, Reykjavik, Iceland. 

Dr. AuRftLE DE TOrOk, Budapest, Hungary. 

Mr. E. P. Vining, Chicago, 111. 

Dr. H. Wankel, Blansko, Moravia. 

Mr. W. C. Whitpord, Milton, Wisconsin. 

Rev. S. J. Whitmee, Dublin, Ireland. 

Col. Charles Whittlesey, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Preset Daniel Wilson. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson, U. S. Consul, Nantes, Frtmce. 

Prof. ALEX. Winchell, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Count G. Zaborowski, Paris, France. 


Dr. Geo. N. Acker, Demonstrator of Physiology, Nat Mcf 

Mr. Charles F. Adams, U. S. Civil Service Commission. 

Dr. A. T. Augusta, Physician, 1319 L street N. W. 

Mr. Wm. H. Babcock, Solicitor of Patents, P. O. Box 22a 

Dr. Frank Bakrr, Professor of Anatomy, 326 C street N. 

Mr. Henry M. Baker, 1411 F street N. W. 

Mr. Henry H. Bates, Examiner-in-Chief, U. S. Patent 01 

Prof. Alex. Graham Bell, Scott Circle. 

Dr. Emil Besspls, 1441 Massachusetts Avenue N. W. 

Dr. Horatio R. Bigelow, 1228 N street N. W. 

Mr. Otis Bigklow, Banker, 1501 i8th street N. W. 

(icn. Wm. liiRNKV, Attorney, Le Droit Park. 

Mr. J AS. H. Blodgett, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. J. F. Hrandsford, U. S. Navy. 

Mr. J. Stanley Brown, 1318 Massachusetts Avenue N. 

Mr. KosoN A. Bur dick, U. S. Pension Office. 

Prof. K. S. HuRGESS, Washington High School, 810 12th 

Dr. Swan M. Hurnktt, Oculist, 1215 I street N. W. 

Mr. Anton Carl, U. S. Geological Survey. 

IVof. J. W. Ciiickkring, Jr., National DeaM||liitf 

Mr. ICdwin ConMns, Sixth Auditor's Office. 



Mr. Frank II. Gushing, Bureau of Ethnology. 
Rer. J. Owen Dorsey, Bureau of Ethnology. 
CapL C. E. DuTTON, U. S. A., U. S. Geological Survey. 
Hon. DotMAN B. Eaton, U. S. Civil Service Commission. 
Prof. Edward Allen Fay, National Deaf-Mute College. 
Dr. Robert Fletcher, Editor of /nd^x Medicus^ The Portland. 
Mr. Weston Flint, Librarian U. S. Patent Ofifice. 
Prof. E. T. Fristoe, Columbian University. 

Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, President of the National Deaf-Mute College. 
Mr. Henry Gannett, U. S. Geological Survey, Lc Droit Park. 
Mr. Albert S. Gatschet, Bureau of Ethnology. 
Mr. C. D. Gedney, U. S. Coast Survey Office. 
Mr. G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geological Survey. 
Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant Director U. S. National Museum. 
Mr. J. King Goodrich, U. S. National Museum. 
Prof. J. Howard Gore, Columbian University. 
Mr. Elgin R. L. Gould, 1014 loth street N. W. 
Hon. J. M. Greg«>ry, U. S. Civil Service Commission. 
Dr. CiL\s. E. Hagner, Physician, 1400 II street N. W. 
Mr. .Amos W. Hart. Solicitor of Patents, Lock Box 13. 
•^Ir. 1.. ]. Hatch, 131 8 Massachusetts Avenue, 
l^r Wm. II. Hawkks, Pliysician, 1330 N. Y. Avenue. 
Mr. H. W. IIknshaw, Bureau of Ethnology. 
Mr. S. I). HiNMAN, Yankton, Dak. 
I'r W. J. Hoffman, Bureau of Ethnolojjy. 
Mr. Wm. H. Holmes, Bureau of Ethnology, 
^r- I>. L. IIuNriNtiTON, U. S. A., Surgeon General's Office. 
Mr. I).\vii) Hu rcHESON, Lil)rary of Congress. 
Mr. John Irwin, Jr., City of Mexico, Mexico. 
KcirAdra. Tii<)RNTt)N A. Jenkins, U. S, N., 2115 Pa. Ave. N. W. 
^r. Jfjs. Takkr Jf)lINS<)V, Physician, 937 New York Avenue N. W. 
Mr \ II. Kauffmann, iooo M street N. \V. 
Mr. (jrijr(;k Kknnan, Journalist, Lock Box 23. 
Mr. Mark B. Kerr, U. S. Geological Survey. 

^' A. F. A. Kino, Dean of the Nat. Med. Col., 726 13th street N. W. 
Hon. John J. Knox. New York, N. Y. 
IktWlLUAM Lee, Physician, 211 1 Pennsylvania Avenue. 
LBECH.Jamithsonian Institution. 

r. Merchant, 3043 West street, Georgetown. 



CsBpC E. P. Lruu U. S. X., X&ty DqxmBesc 

flkd^ A&THCR MjlCAXTHinL, S^^JtCJU g CoBit, D. C isoij 

Mx. HEXkY B. F. MACFAALA3a>, 1727 F Street X. W. 

CoL Gauucx Maixexv, U. S. A^ Bcreaii of Eifamlugf^ 

PfoC Ons T. Hasox, U. S. Xatiooal Mssesa, i J05 Q 

Mr. J. J. McElho3(e, Repofter to Coi^ress 1318 V 

Mr. W J McGce, U- S. Gcok^ical Sorrw. 

Mr. J. D. McGciRE, EUicoCt Citr, Manrlaiid. 

Mr. Cosmos Mixdexeff, Bureau of Etfanolocr. 

Mr. Victor MiXDELnr, Bnrean of Edmologr. 

Dr. James E. Morgan, Pbjsidan, 905 E street X. W. 

Mr. John Murdock. Smithsonian Insdtvtioo. 

Dr. P. J. Murphy, in charge of-ColamUa HospitaL 

Ensign Albert Xiblack, U. S. X.. U. S. Xational Mi 

Mr. J. A- Xorris, 1236 13th street X. W. 

Mr. Ei/wAKD T. Peters, 1225 F street X. W. 

Mr. pKkirv B. Pierce, Examiner, U. S. Patent Office. 

Mr, J. C. PiLUNG, Chief Clerk, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. Wm. M. Poindexter, 807 17th street. 

Mr. J'/H?i AbDisoN Porter, Hillyer Place. 

Dr. J'/HS H. Porter, 2720 M street, Georgetown. 

Pf'/f. SAMf;Ki. Porter, National Deaf-Mute College. 

Maj. J. W. Powell, Director U. S. Geological Surrey. 

Df. D. Webster Prentiss, Physician, 1 224 9th street N. 

Mr. S. V. I'RouonT, Interior Department. 

Lieut. \V. \V. Kkisingkr, U. S. N. 

Mr. John II. Kknsiiawk, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. Ki.MKR k. KKVNoi.iiS, U. S. Pension Office. 

Mr. If. I.. Kkynomjs, Jr., Bureau of Ethnolog)\ 

Mr. Wm. J. Kiikks, Chief Clerk Smithsonian Institution. 

Prof. C. V. Kii.KY, Kntomologist, U. S. Agricultural Dej 

Dr. Lkwih W. Hi rriiiK,, 3259 N street N. W. 

Mr. Milks Hn( k, ('My of Guatemala, Guatemala. 

Mr. C. ('. KoY^K, Bureau of Kthnology, 607 I street N. 

Mr. John Savauy, Assistant, Library of Congress. 

Mr. Nkwiow r. ScuhiJiK, Siuiihsonian Institution. 

Col. Franklin A. Sr.r.LV, Lxaminer, U. S. Patent 

I»r. K. W. SiiuiKLiu, U. S. A.. Smithsonia# 

lion. W. H. Snp.LL, JumIcc I'n'ice Court, D. 


Mr. Chas. W. Smiley, Statistician, U. S. Fish Commission. 

Mr. John D. Smith, U. S. Pension Office. 

Mr. Thorvald Solberg, Anacostia P. O. , D. C. 

Dr. Z. T. Sowers, Physician, 1324 New York Avenue. 

GcD. Elus Spear, Solicitor of Patents, Lock Box i. 

Dr. J. 0. Stanton, Physician, 1344 G street N. W. 

Mr. Jamis Stevenson, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Rer. Benjamin Swallow, Washington, D. C. 

Prof. William B. Taylor, Smithsonian Institution. 

Prof. Cyius Thomas, Bureau of Ethnology. 

Mr. A. H. Thompson, IJ. S. Geological Survey. 

Mr. Gilbert Thompson, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. J. FoKD Thompson, Surgeon, 1000 Ninth street N. W. 

Dr. J. M. Toner, Physician, 615 Louisiana Avenue. 

Mr. Frederick W. True, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. Lugen M. Turner, Smithsonian Institution. 

Mr. Lester F. Ward, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Dr. James C. Welling, Pres't of Columbian University, 1302 Conn. Ave. 

Dr. J. H. Yarnall, 3028 P street N. W. 

Dr. H. C. Yarrow, U. S. A., 814 Seventeenth street N. W. 


Stoat Moimds and Graves in Hampshire county, W. Va. By L. A. Ken- 

GLA. [Abstract] i 

Ao Osage Secret Society. By J. Owen Dorsev. [Abstract.] 3 

The Textile Fabrics of the Mound-builders. By Wm. H. Holmes. [Ab- 

strict.] 7 

The Census of Bengal. By James A. Blodgett. [Abstract.] 9 

The Houses of the Mound-builders. By Cyrus Thomas. [Abstract.] — 13 
The Cherokees probably Mound builders. By Cyrus Thomas. [Ab- 
stract] ^^ 24 

Mind as a Social Factor. By Lester F. Ward. [Abstract] 31 

The Smithsonian Anthropological Collections for 1883. By Albert 

NiBLACK 38-50 

"* Discontinuities in Nature's Method. By H. H. Bates . 5I-5S 

Recent Graves in Kansas. By Alton H. Thompson. [Abstract.] 56 

** Elements of Modem Civilization. By J. M. Gregory 57-64 

Higntionsof the Siouan Tribes. By J. Owen Dorsey. [Abstract.] 65 

International Ethics. By E. M. Gallaudet. [Abstract] 65 

Comparative frequency of certain eye diseases in the white and the colored 

race in the United States. By Swan M. Burnett. [Abstract] 67 

Collection of Antiquities from Vendome, Senlis, and the Cave Dwellings 

of France. By Elmer R. Reynolds. [Abstract] ._. 67 

Evidences of the .Antiquity of Man on the site of the City of Mexico. 

BvWm. H. Holmes 68-81 

How the Problems o( American Anthropology present themselves to the 

English Mind. Address, by E. B. Tylor .-_ 81--95 

Australian Group Relations. By Alfred W. Howitt. [No abstract.]. 95 

The Elskimo of Baffin Land. By Franz Boas ...95-102 

■ Seal Catching at Point Barrow. By John Murdoch 102-108 

Origin and Development of Form and Ornament in Ceramic Art. By 

Wm. H. Holmes. [Abstract] -.112-115 

Cm the Probable Nationality of the Mound -Builders. By Daniel G. 

Brinton 116 

Moral and Material Progress Contrasted. By Lestek F. Ward 120-136 

Study of the Circular Rooms in Ancient Pueblos. By Victor Mindelefk. 

[.Vo abstract.] 137 

Circular Architecture Among the Ancient Peruvians. By Wm. H. Holmes. 

[No abstract.] 137 

Mjihological Dry Painting of the Navajos. By Washington Matthews. 

[Abstract].- 139, 140 



Medicine Stones. By H. W. Henshaw. [No abstract.] , 

Mythological Piiinting of the Zafiis. By James Stevenson. [N< 

stract.] , 

The Chiricahoa Apache "sun circle." By Albert S. Gatschet.., 

The Genesis of Inventions. By F. A. Seely ^ 

Sinew-backed Bow of the Eskimo. By John Murdoch .. 

The Cobatore of the Sknll. By Washington Matthews. 

stract.J — — . . . «. 

From Savagery to Barbarism. Annual Address, by J. W. Powell, 1 



Seventy-Second Regular Meeting, November 6, 1883. 

Colonel Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary reported for the Curator the receipt of fifty- 
ihrec gifts of publications since the last meeting in May. 

On motion of Col. Seely, the Society passed a vote of thanks 
to the gentlemen who had donated the publications above referred 

The retiring President, Major J. W. Powell, then read his ad- 
dress entitled "Human Evolution.'** 

Sb'enty-Third Regular Meeting, November 20, 1883. 

' "iMicl Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

The clc( tion of Dr. ('harles Warren, of the Bureau of Education, 
iM Mr. S. H. Kiuiffman, as active members, was announced. 
In :hv alxciuc of Mr. L. A. Kengla, his paper, entitled ** Stone 


'-^ aad by Prof. O. T. Mason. 


Tnc mounds or graves described in this paper are found on 
*-t cistern side of the South Branch Mountain, Hampshire Co., 
* Va.. ak^ut one mile and a half from the mouth of the South 

1"^*'«i., on the proj^erty of Charles French. This entire region 
**» once held by the Massawomec Indians, and the locality 
■^consideration was the hunting ground of the Tamenents. 
^Niihed in VoL II, Transactions Anthropological Society, Washington, 

^^KdktlM Amuial Report of the Smithsonian Institution for iSS.^, pp. 


The graves or mounds were of a very peculiar constnictiod 
ing one of the stone graves of Tennessee and yet possesi 
specific characteristics. The most noticeable feature is] 
ence of a rude stone cist completely covered with a ht|| 
loose stones. In some cases these piles were of great extm 


Major Powell said that as many were not personally fan 
the stone graves and mounds of the upper Mississippi andl 
great tributaries, he would remark that these forms of n 
for the dead consisted of stones placed edgewise so as tc 
oblong space, the stones presenting an almost continuous 
upon which was placed a stone slab as a cover. 

The discovery of articles of modem manufacture was ik 
occurrence, and the recent investigation by Mr. Carr, of tin 
Museum at Cambridge, and the researches of the Buret 
nology combined to show that the *' Mound-Builders" ca 
classed as a people distinct from the historic Indians i 
those localities where such remains are still found. 

Prof. Mason stated that the paper just read was useJ 
reason that the subject pertained to a region comparative 
our city, which had not yet been investigated. Several 
a party consisting of Dr. Rau, Mr. Reynolds, and other | 
visited the Luray Cave for the purpose of investigation, 
Reynolds subsoi|ucntly opened some stone graves near tha 
These wore really cairns. 

Major Powell s;ud that in Kentucky and elsewhere st< 
arc found by -the hundred. He had opened great number: 
in tho s;\mo mound, showing that {xjople had buried 
diverse ways and at different times, the manner being 1 
grave was atldcil to stone grave until scores were erected. 

Prof. Mason ini|uircd whether single stone graves hac 
covered over which largo heaps of stones had been erected 
Major PowF.i i. rcplicil that he had not, to his recollect 
single graves sv^ i"oyer^\l» but where there were several 
many of the western t TUX'S are said to cast stones upon 
of their dead ; but more definite intormation as to thetri 
tice was desirable. 

Prof. GoRK s^iid that duriuij a recent rial ** 


ginia he learned of quite a number of mounds, none of which had 
jret been opened, and suggesting that this would present a good 
field for future investigators. The large number of stones referred 
to in the paper seemed a curious coincidence with a discovery made 
in New Mexico, consisting of a large stone erected near one of the 
poeblos about which lie several wagon loads of stones, thrown there, 
it is said, by passers by for '* good luck." 

Dr. Reynolds presented some facts referring to his examinations 
in various portions of the Potomac valley, and concluded by say- 
ing that at the site of an '* ancient'* burial ground at Front Royal, 
which had been partly washed down by high water at various times, 
Ivchad found, among other things, medals, &c., of perhaps colo- 
nial times. 

lilajor Powell said that while in Minnesota last summer he in- 
quired of a Sioux Indian their reason why they buried upon 
scaffolds, and was informed that in ancient times the Sioux lived 
imong tfie lakes of Minnesota, and buried their dead in mounds ; 
that when they left that country they expected some time to return, 
»d so buried their dead on scaffolds, that they might gather the 
bones and bring them back and bury them in the grave mounds of 
their ancesters. 

Prof. Mason stated in conclusion thai many stone graves have 
bctn found in localities which do not abound in stones, plainly in- 
ii'iimg that a strong motive caused them to be brought from great 
'ii>tances. Probably the people had originally lived in a stony 
countr)', and in new fields had clung to old usages. 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey then read a paper entitled '*An Osage 
Secret Societv*," which was further illustrated by a chart, enlarged 
"Orn an original pictographic representation obtained from an Osage 


The writer has found traces of secret societies among the Omahas 

ImI cognate tribes of the Siouan family. Such a society is still in 

among the Osages. It must not be confounded with the 

of the Indian doctors. Each gens in the Osage 

^ in the order, the latter being the depository of the 


mythical accounts of the origin of the gentes. It takes 
to relate the tradition of any gens, making eighty-four daj 
to hear all the traditions. The order consists of seven dej 
Songs of the Giving of Life. 2. Songs of the Bird (di 
Songs of the Sacred Thing (bag). 4. Songs of the Pack-s 
Songs of the Round Rush. 6. Songs of Fasting. 7. Sot 
Return from the Fight. Women are admitted to the or 
none of the younger people are initiated. Extracts were xt 
the two versions of the tradition of the Tsi-shu wa-shta-ke 
making gens of the left side of the tribe. This tradition i 
•* What is told of the old time (U-nu'' U-dha-ke)." 


Major Powell thought it probable that this society mig 
the preparation of medicine, or for some myotic rite other 
perpetuation of mythic history. 

Mr. Dorse Y replied that there are other societies than I 
mentioned, entirely distinct, and solely for the preparation 
cine, as he had been able to ascertain. From this society 
the directions to lieads of war parties, plans for erectin( 
hanging the kettles, and laying the pieces of fire-wood 
the makers of the war drum, the stand, moccasins, and M 
certain individuals being selected for each of these duties, 
belong to this society, and these have two small circles 
upon the forehead, one above the other. The crease or f 
the hair is painted to represent the path of the sun. I 
they face the east at sunrise, and the west at sunset. The 
the lodges are i)lacod at the eastern side, and the dead ai 
with their heads toward the east ; hence no one will ever si 
his head pointing in that direction. 

Major Powell then stated that he had, during last wind 
tigated the organization of medicine societies among the ] 
According to this tribe diseases are caused by mythical. 
such as the boar, elk, deer, owl, spider, &c., and for e« 
there is a distinct medicine society, the head personage of; 
itiates cat h year young men to cure the various forms of 
longing to his cUlss. The traditions of the mythical 
disease is preserved by the different chiefs of the 

The neophyte is instructed through four differ 


four different moons, and through four years to instruct him in the 
mythologic cause of disease. 

There are certain medicines employed for the various complaints, 
composed in part of root decoctions. They are prepared by taking 
one root running from the trunk directly to the north, one to the 
east, one to the south, and one to the west. The preparation of the 
medicine require ceremonies which last during four nights each, of 
four moons, and of four years each. 

Mr. DoRSEY stated that part of the Osage ceremonies were strictly 
secret, though the latter portion was public. 

Prof. Mason inquired whether these ceremonies had in any way 
been influenced by contact with the whites, or whether they were a 
crystallized custom. 

Mr. DoRSEY replied that he had found recurrences of these cus- 
toms in other cognate tribes, and believed that this special cere- 
nooy was original. 

Prof. Mason desired to know of Mr. Dorsey whether it was not 
unusual to admit him to the secret meetings, to which the latter 
replied that it was only after the Indians had discovered that he 
'TIS familiar with the ceremonies, learned of the northern tribes, 
that they imparted to him the fact. The speaker further stated that 
the recitations are also in an archaic form of the language. 

In^Tncral, all the points obtained from the Osages tally with the 
infonnation obtained from other cognate tribes. 

Major Pdwell said that people on reservations may be classed in 
two (iivisic)ns, those who are yet pagan and those who profess the 
ChaMian religion, but the latter take part in ancient religious rites. 

The people '»f Jemez, although Catholics, still visit the mountains 
once a month to i>erform their mystic rites. Some of the Iroquois 
iiso adhere to their ancient mystic ceremonies and practise them at 
stated times. 

The importance of a knowledge of Indian languages is illustrated 
by Mr. Dorsey's paper for the collection of myths and facts per- 
taining to secret ceremonies, as is also the knowledge of similar 
CBtoms among other tribes so as to know the method of approach 
ad extraction. 

Mr. OoKSBY replied that he usually gained the confidence of his 
by fint telling them the myths of other tribes. 


Seventy-Fourth Regular Meeting, December 4^ il| 

Col. Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. ■ 

The Council, through its Secretary, reported the electioi 
Amos W. Hart and Dr. Horatio R. Bigelow as active memj 

A letter was read from Mr. Gatschet giving informad 
respect to investigations in the folk-lore of the southern 
peoples by Mr. Krause, one of the corresponding merabee 

The death of Sven Nilsson, of Lund, Sweden, an honors 
ber of the Society, was announced, whereupon the Secreta 
brief reference to the labors of the deceased. 

Mr. William H. Holmes then read a paper on ** The 
Fabrics of the Mound-Builders."* 


It was stated that very few specimens of these fabrics are [ 
in our museums. They are subject to rapid decay and as a 
to pieces on exposure to the air. 

Carbonization and contact with the salts of copper have 
most important means of perservation. 

It has occasionally been noticed that fabrics of various Id 
been used in the manufacture of pottery and that impre 
these have often been preserved. 

The writer conceived the idea of making casts in claj 
impressions and by this means restored many varieties 
heretofore unknown. 

The restoration is so complete that the whole fabric can, 
cases, be analyzed. 

It has been made of twisted cord and is seldom finer ii 
than common coffee sacking. 

The fibre used has probably been obtained from bark, wi 

* Published in the Third Annual Report of the Bureau of EthnolcM 
" Prehistoric Textile Fabrics of the United States derived from im 


The meshes are usually quite open, knotting and other methods 
of ixing the threads and spaces having been resorted to. 

The combinations of threads are much varied and are of such a 
diaracler as to make it quite certain that the weaving was done by 
hand, the threads of the web and woof being attached to or wound 
iboat pins fixed in a frame or upon the ground. 

Specimens of the pottery and casts therefrom were shown and 
black board analyses of the fabrics were given. 


Prof. Mason inquired of Mr. Holmes^ whether he gave technical 
Mines to the various forms, to which Mr. Holmes replied that he 
found that impossible. 

Major Powell said the paper that had just been read by Mr. 
Holmes is of exceeding interest to all students of North American 
archaeology ; first, from the fact that his methods of research are 
unique; and, second, that the results of his investigations throw much 
light upon the status of culture reached by the j)eople who con- 
structed the mounds and other burial places found so widely dis- 
tributed ihoughout the eastern portion of the United States. The 
research sheds light both upon the textile and ceramic arts of these 
I-eoplc, and in both departments they are shown to have been in no 
respect sufx?rior to the Indian tribes first discovered on the advent 
of the white man to this continent. 

It is interesting to notice, in this connection, that the early publi- 
cations in relation to the mounds and mound-builders of the valley 
of the Mississippi represent these people as having passed into a 
much higher culture than the North American Indians at large, 
and much has been written concerning a civilized people inhabit- 
ing this country anterior to its occupation by the Indians. In 
the light of the research which has been prosecuted during the past 
years in various quarters and by various persons, the manufactured 
evidence of the existence of such a people is rapidly vanishing, and 
this from many points of study. It is shown by a careful examina- 
tion of the early travels in this country, and accounts of missionaries 
»nd various historic records, that some of the early tribes discovered 
'^txt themselves mound-builders. This is clearly shown in the late 
publication of Mr. Lucien Carr, Peabody Museum, and by the re- 
I icvches of Professor Thomas, of the Bureau of Ethnology. The 



researches of the Bureau of Ethnology also show that manj 
mounds were constructed after the arrival of the white mai 
continent, as works of art in iron, silver, rolled copper, 
found. Glass beads are also found, and many other articl 
festly manufactured during the last few centuries, these usi 
ing such articles as are exchanged by traders to the Indians 

Mr. Henshaw, also of the Bureau of Ethnology, has mac 
teresting investigation of a subject which throws light upon t 
tion. The early writers claimed that the stone carvings i 
the mounds were often representations of birds, mammals, ai 
animals not now existing in the regions where these moui 
found, and that the mound-builders were thus shown to be 
with the fauna of a tropical country. And they have even 
far as to claim that they were familiar with the fauna of A 
has been claimed that elephant carvings have been fount 
these carvings have all been carefully studied by Mr. Henshani 
discovers that it is only by the wildest imagination that the; 
supposed to represent extra-limital animals; that, in fact, th< 
rude carvings of birds, such as eagles and hawks, or of m 
such as beavers and otters ; and he has made new drawings 
various carvings, and will, in a publication which has gone i 
present them, together with the drawings originally publishi 
he makes a thorough discussion of the subject, being ^ 
thereto from the fact that he is himself a trained naturalist, 
with these various forms by many years of field study. 

It will thus be seen that many lines of research are con 
in the conclusion that the mound-builders of this count! 
at least to a large extent, the Indian tribes found inhabit 
country on the advent of the white man, and that in non 
mounds do we discover works of art in any way superior to 
the North American Indians. 

I congratulate Mr. Holmes upon the skill with which, 
prosecuted this work, and thank him for the clear expositioj 
he has given us this evening. 

Prof. Mason stated that from the organization of the Sc( 
had been more and more confirmed in the idea that the 
in which the truths of anthropology could be brought oi 
specialists, artists, physicians, patent examiners, etc. 
just read is an excellent illustration of this opinion. 


CoLSe£ly expressed his interest in the illustrations given by 
Mr. Holmes of research into the state of an art of which none of 
the products exist. Though absolutely extinct their vestiges remain 
in other arts ; and to those able to read the record written in these 
vestiges they reveal facts as interesting as they are well ascertained. 
It takes the trained eye and skillful hand of an artist, supplemented 
by technical knowledge, to unravel these records. Without inti- 
mate acquaintance with the textile art and the structure of different 
£d>ncs, the impressions found by Mr. Holmes were hopelessly illeg- 
ible. This indicates the true method of research into primitive 
am, and there should be more of it. 

Mr. James A. Blodgett, Special Agent of the U. S. Census, 
read a paper on " The Census of Bengal." 


The first attempt at a general census of British India was in 187 1-2 
and showed the population to be about 238,000,000. 

The report for the census of Bengal in 1881 has been lately re- 
ceived in this country. It includes the northeast part of India north 
of the 20th parallel of latitude and west nearly to Benares. Here 
ia an area of less than 200,000 square miles, a little above the joint 
inraof Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, is concentrated a popu- 
lation of some 70,000,000 or two-fifths greater than that of the 
whole United Sta^tes. 

The authorities took no account of resources or of any but per- 
sonal items. The preliminary arrangements were so completely ad- 
jcsted as to take on a single night not only the fixed population 
bat generally all travelers and all vagrants. 

.\lmost two-thirds of the people are Hindoos, nearly one-third 
Mohammedans, about 158,000 Buddhists, and 128,000 Christians. 
The enumerated members of the Brahmo Somaj, the reform sect 
reprebented by the learned Hindoo who spoke in Washington a 
few weeks ago, were under 1,000, chiefly in the city of Calcutta. 

Child marrriages prevail to a considerable extent, the ceremony in 
a considerable per cent, of cases occurring before the tenth year of 
^. Although the parties may not at once live together, the death 
of one after the ceremony leaves the other legally widowed. 
Hjodoo widowers marry again, but Hindoo widows do not. The 
of child marriage is lowest among the Buddhists. 


There are 65 castes reported of 100,000 or more each, 
lesser castes or tribes. Hindooism gradually absorbs the a 
tribes, and occupations mark castes something like guilda 
em countries, so that caste mingles questions of religion, 1 

About twenty languages are spoken. Over half the peo 
Bengali as their mother tongue, over one-third speak Hia 
and only about 36,000 speak English as their mother tong 

Education is low. The Hindoos are l)est educated of 1 
classes. In Calcutta the education of boys compares favor 
that in some western cities. The education of girls is 
secured at all, except among the Christians. 

Admirable maps and diagrams aid the presentation of 
in the census. 

The digest of the census of Bombay has also been recei 
without the fullness of discussion or the maps of the Bengi 
The general relations of population and of customs are n 
same as in Bengal. A new series of languages occurs, ', 
and 830 castes are reported, some of which are essentially 
with some of the Bengal castes, but many castes are inteni 
in India. 

The reports do not follow a uniform spelling in anglicis 
so common words as Hindustani, Mahomedan, and Brahn 


Major Powell said : I have been much interested in t 
read by our fellow-member, Mr. Blodgett, as a simple a 
presentation of the more important facts presented in th< 
census. One line of facts is of especial interest to me— 
that relating to the census of the castes of Bengal. 

Two great plans for the organization of mankind into 1 
tribes and nations, are known : Tribal states are organizes 
basis of kinship; national states, on the basis of property, wh 
last form appears as territorial organization. Yet from tim 
there spring up incipient methods of organization of anoti 
Men are interrelated in respect to their wants, and ultimi 
ganized thereby through the organization of industries ord 
that is, organized on an operative basis through the divisioil 
This method of organization appears in many ways, and 


its altimate outgrowth results in the organization of aristocracies in 

larioos grades, with subordinate classes, as serfs and slaves. Again 
ft appears in the organization of guilds. This form of organization 
was wtU represented not many generations ago in England, and 
ftlics of it still exist among the English people. It appears again 
in another form in India by the differentiation of people into castes, 
each caste having a distinct calling or group of callings. 

In my studies of sociology it has often been a matter of surprise 
to me that the state has not oftener and to a larger extent been 
bised upon an organization dependent upon callings, trades, or 
occupations — that is, that the state has not oftener been organized 
opon an operative or industrial basis. But when we accumulate the 
bets of history relating to castes, classes, guilds, &c., it appears 
that the method has been tried in many ways and it has never suc- 
ceeded in securing justice to that extent as to commend its adoption. 

A caste may be briefly described as a body of men constituting 
a mit or integral part in the state, and such a body of men are or- 
ganized upon the basb of the industries or callings which they pur- 
SK. Around this organization are centered many other institutional 
characteristics. Marriage within the group is prescribed, marriage 
without the group prohibited ; and many religious sanctions grow 
up around these institutions, and many social barriers to prevent 
escape from the body and entrance into another. 

Much has been written about these castes of India, sometimes 
from the standpoint of religion, sometimes from the standpoint of 
conquest, and sometimes from the standpoint of McClennan, erro- 
neous theories relating to exogamy and endogamy, names which he 
gave to correlative parts of the marriage institution found among 
nio^ of the tribes of the world who are organized upon a kinship 
basis. It is true that the institution of caste exhibited in India may 
t« profitably studied from each of these standpoints, but the essential 
characteristic of caste organization is this : That the people are 
tbereby organized upon an operative basis, about which religious 
arid social sanctions are gradually accumulated ; that such an or- 
ganuation is in part the result of internal agencies arising from the 
(iiflfcrentiation of industries, or division of labor, as it is called in 
political economy, and in part by conquest, as the conquerors 
wally engage in those vocations deemed most honorable, and 
compel the conquered to engage in those considered least honorable. 
Bf nch methods, /. ^., the division of labor through the inherit- 


ance of callings from ^unily to ^mily, and diroogh the 
vision, through the selection of callings of conquerors a 
position of others upon the conquered, castes are prima 
lished. In the process of this establishment, and sat 
moral and social sanctions gather about these institutions, 
are firmly established only to be overthrown by great sod 
sions, or, and chieflv, by the march of civilization and th 
itant establishment of justice and those institutions desi| 
cure justice. 

All light thrown upon the institution of caste in India m 
comed by every scientific student of sociology, and this 
Bengal, as set forth by Mr. Blodgett, is a valuable contr 
this subject. 

Dr. JoHXSOX inquired as to the effects of these early 
upon the offspring ; whether the children were well dev 
deformed ; the effects upon health of the crowding of n 
viduals ; whether syphilis pre^-ailed and its general effects. 

Mr. Blodgett replied that the census officials were i 
careful not to push questions that might stir into oppa 
prejudices of the people. Great difficulty arose as to th« 
of early cohabitation from the delicacy of the question and 
variance of English and other European customs ; but ai 
ceremony took place at betrothal, betrothal became the 
which to count marriage. 

Cohabitation was probably at an earlier average tlui 
western nations, but statistics do not, in this census, help n 
the general knowledge obtained by obser\'ant individuals. 

There seems to be a high vitality up to advanced matB 
after, say, forty-five years of age, the vitality seems to be 
of the European. 

No statistics are recorded on syphilis. The vital statu! 
considerable value, however, nidicating the predominant 
tilential diseases in districts badly drained, overcrowd* 
other adverse sanitary conditions, and special inquiry 
to leprosy. 

.\s to guilds and castes, a trace of such tendency may 
the perpetuation as a civil corporation in the city of 
more than one society originally founded on the occu] 
members, and now retaining privileges then granted, ?^ 


iooger constituted of persons following the employment for which 
they were founded. 

Dr. FiXTCHER said he inferred from Mr. Blodgett's remarks that 
cohabitation does not follow betrothal, and added that it is con- 
sidered a disgrace if a child is not betrothed when she arrives at 

Prof. KfASON referred to similar kinds of legislation in this country, 
prohihitiDg marriage, especially the laws, in many states, against 
Duscegeuation. He also said that caste originated at a time when 
diecoDquering Aryans were in a great minority, and to preserve the 
pvity of their stock they made stringent laws against intermarriages. 
Tbc laws of Menu prohibit intermarriages. 

The President informed the members that the 2d volume of the 
Tnosactions was now ready for distribution, and copies could be 
obtained by calling upon the Secretary, at the May Building, 7th 
lad E streets N. W. 

Seventy-Fifth Regular Meeting, December 19, 1883. 

President Col. Garrick Mallerv in the Chair. 

The Council rejxjrted, through its Secretary, the election of Mr. 
Pern B. Pierce, of the U. S. Patent Office, as an active member. 

l^c Secretary of the Council read a letter from Mr. Wilson, U. 
i^ Consul at Nantes, France, relating to his antiquarian researches 
I' that country. 

Prof. Cyrus Thomas then read a paper entitled ** The Houses of 
THF Mound-Builders,"* illustrated by diagrams and specimens of 
<-y plastering. 


Prof. Thomas commenced by saying that while the ruins in Cen- 
tal .\raerica furnished abundant materials for judging the architect- 
vnl >kil! of the ancient people of that region, no such opportunity 
was offered in regard to the mound-builders, all their buildings 
hring crumbled to dust. Still we are not left wholly in the dark 
iifcgard to them. He then went on to show that they must haye 

•Published in Magazine of Am. History, 1884, 110-116. 


been of perishable materials, and that the little circular d 
from fifteen to fifty feet in diameter surrounded by earl 
are the sites of ancient dwellings. From the fact that 1 
is found in the center he inferred that they were mud 
conical wigwams of the modern Indians. Remains of 
are common in middle and west Tennessee and m sa 

Farther south, during the explorations carried on ? 
Bureau of Ethnology, there have been found in many of tl 
layers of burnt clay broken up into fragments.. From 
facts ascertained m regard to these remains, which canno 
in this abstract, and the descriptions given by early ej 
the houses of the Indians of this section, he argued that 
the remains of the houses of the mound-builders. 


Mr. Jas. H. Blodgett said : I hope Prof. Thomas wil 
suggestion of Mr. Carr, whose recent work was referred I 
suppress part of his own work because Mr. Carr has antid 
in his statements. The public has become so thorough 
into the idea of a mysterious lost race of mound-buildi 
will be necessary for every one who knows of facts indi 
contrary to state them on all proper occasions. Latelj 
reference to the mysterious lost mound-builders in the l 
of a prominent writer, I suggested to him that it mi| 
him to criticism, and referred him to one or two eminent : 
endorsed the view that our red Indians were competent 
work. My suggestion was the first information receii 
author's office that any such view was seriously held am 
ferred to an article in a standard Cyclopeaedia some yean 
form myself as to the true view. I trust Dr. Thomas wi 
testimony in its due place. 

Prof. Mason said he had always wished to see this 9 
cussed by gentlemen who had had as much experience in 
as Major Powell and Prof. Thomas. It seems that i 
thickening more rapidly than the proofs are forthcomid 
own mind he had no doubts upon the subject, but took fl 
nistic stand for the purpose of drawing out such facts m 
others who were adherents of the belief that the mOH 



■ere a distinct race, and one of greater antiquity than is now known 
Id be the case. 

Major Powell said the paper by Prof. Thomas is a valuable con- 
dihotioo to our knowledge of the North American Indians. It 
opportunely falls in with the present lines of research in two dis- 
tinct ways : First, as identifying the mound-builders with various 
tribes found on the discovery of this country ; second, as an addi- 
tion to oar knowledge of the dwellings of the ancient inhabitants 
of this country. 

At our last meeting we had an interesting paper from Mr. Holmes, 
vbo, from his studies, concluded that the mound-builders were 
00 other than the Indiaas inhabiting the country. Last year we 
had a paper from Mr. Henshaw arriving at the same conclusion 
from the facts discovered in another field of research. And now 
Prof. Thomas finds that some of the earth-works of this country 
are domiciliary mounds, as suggested long ago by Lewis H. Morgan, 
who was the great pioneer of anthropologic research in America ; 
and, further, that the houses found in ruins on the mounds are such 
as were built by the Indians, as recorded in the early history of the 
Kttlement of this country. 

Thus it is that from every hand we reach the conclusion that the 
Indiaas of North America, discovered at the advent of the white 
nun to this continent, were mound-builders, and gradually the exag- 
gerated accounts of the state of arts represented by the relics dis- 
covered in these mounds are being dissipated, and the ancient 
civilization which has hitherto been supposed to be represented by 
the moundi is disappearing in the light of modern investigation. 

But Professor Thomas* paper is valuable from the fact that it 
^ves us a clearer insight into the character of the habitations of 
these people. The Indians of North America made their dwellings 
ID various forms and of various materials. The rudest dwellings 
lound in the country are those made by some of the Indians of 
Utah and Nevada of the great Shoshonian family. These are 
simple shelters made of banks of brush and bark, especially the 
hark of the cedar, piled up so as to include a circular space, but 
open toward a fire. Boughs near the summit of the bark project 
over a portion of this space, and bark and boughs are piled indis- 
criminately on all. Such a shelter is good protection against wind, 
iidgto some degree, against snow and rain. But these same people 
<ffiBonally build larger habitations with small posts and cross- 


pieces, upon which wattles of willow withes are made, and 
is covered with willows. I have known such a commui 
to l)e built large enough to accommodate from seventy-fi 
hundred and twenty-five persons — all the members of a litt; 
whilo at other times the same tribes have been found occu; 
rude dwellings above mentioned. Nor have I been able tc 
their reasons for changing from one to the other. This 
observed : that the communal houses are but rarelv used. 
Many of the Indians of California build houses made 
riven slabs and polos inclined against a central ridge-pole an 
wi:li eanh. sometimes but i>art way up the sides of the incli 
so:i^e:imes quite over the toi\ At one end of such a dw 
a:x*r:uro is lof: for the escaj^ o( smoke. The Na\-ajos oft '.csitics, exoep: that they are conical in shape ao 
:v.v"*.:.i: er.rrar.vo — wi kind of l>oo:h like a ,V^/^ ccKhfre, 
ea-tir:*. vor::.-^:". of :he U:v":evi S:a:es. as among the Iroqm 
y?'. ■'.: ho\:se were :r..iv:e of ix^Ies .ir.d slabs. Manv of tho 
\^tr-j .or." v..::*..-.!. .\rour.o. r\rj.::v!d Luke and in manv d 
: : r ••. > .^ : : .*. v < o-.::*. : : \ : u" i : v". a _.::-.;> we.-e :iuce ot rerds, « 
: " ■ .' ^V ^ >: .- . ;, <..- -.v.- : : -.v. .^ : ■ esvi h : m>^ were made s 

« • « ■ • « k ■ 

>• »%., .."^ A - :.> ifccre w^v»cii 1 

x-'^-.-.v \.,..» ."^.....i..^. ..>. . .. o ■> . » . -c rce\«^ i 

• > ... •_...K 

• - - ". - % . . . , . ..>^>. — V- A . ^t e .-«iu a 

• ■ - 1 

• ■ « ,.^.^ ,«.. .•^•k ^^ >• .• '.... •_ ... .. ? _ .^ • - .c s 

~ ■ V ■ '. V "H ' ■ • .V <- ""i* " --•-•"r»«t I 

-■ -•- ".i, » ^~ • •."^ • f^^ 

■* , V,' 

^» , • \"^ >■ .'. V ■ . 

V. '^ 

. -.^ .-7::- Ir.ii 

• •.».- vzr; :'-j| 

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.; N:r] 


Ottcnsive pueblos of that region you are all quite familar. To 
I mj large extent it is observed that the arrangement of dwellings 
in a Tillage is significant. In very many cases they are arranged 
by clans and phvatries. When such an arrangement does not exist 
there b usually some other device taking its place. For example, 
inoog Muskokis, or Creeks, near the centre of the village, there is 
a square laid out in a very systematic manner with seats, or rather 
sjttces for sitting, on the ground relegated in a particular manner 
to phratries and clans, sd that the tribe was arranged, in the coun- 
cil held from time to time in the square, in a systematic order. 
U«ally over these sitting places booths were erected, and the posts 
that upheld the booths marked in a more specific way the seats of 
the officers of the village. In connection with these council squares 
a Tcry interesting council lodge has been discovered. The booths 
of the square did not furnish ample protection at all seasons of the 
fov, and in order to meet their wants on such occasions a huge 
cooical lodge was constructed of the tall trees of that country. 
Slender trees 50 or 60 feet in height were cut down, trimmed, and 
iodined against a central, standing tree. Thus a huge conical 
Wge, 50 feet or more in height, was constructed, under which the 
whole village could take shelter. Under this they gathered in in- 
clement weather to conduct their dances. And just here it should 
U remarked that the Creek Indians have yet a tradition of a time 
when they built their houses with wattled walls, the interiors of 
which were plastered— exactly such houses as have been described 
hy Prof. Thomas. 

The subject of house-building among the North American Indians 
i» one of very great interest, as the various tribes exhibited much 
*k»ll in utilizing the materials at liand, whatever they might be — 
lark, poles, slabs, tules, skins of animals, stone, etc. 

Prof. Mason further stated that he had handled thousands of 
lodun weapons, utensils, &c., and found that many objects occurred 
w» the mounds for which no particular use could be now assigned. 

Major Powell replied that it was very doubtful, at this time, if 
anything existed that could not be explained through the survival 
of similar articles now in use among some of the more isolated tribes 
of Indians. 

ftol ScuDDER referred to and reviewed some of Prof. Putnam's 
■MttigatioDsand discoveries at Madisonville, and referred specially 


to the exhumation of figurines, pearls, meteoric iroDyand roi 

of hammered silver. ' 

Prof. Thomas, in reply to Prof. Scudder's statement of j 


recently been found by Prof. Putnam in certain Ohio moiiai 
that all of the types mentioned, except one, had been ofal 
the assistants of the Bureau of Ethnology. 

Major Powell said : The discussion this evening has \m 
many interesting facts relating to the early inhabitant 
country, especially to the dwellings which' they occu|Med m 
antiquity of the ruins which have been discovered. 

In I S5 6 or '7 I was making exploration of mounds oq 
of Peoria Lake, in Illinois, and I discovered in a mound 
plate — ^a thin sheet of copper, cut in the form to represent 
At the time I supposed it gave evidence of the superior d 
of the mound -builders. Some months after, in more cai 
amining this thin copper plate, I discovered that it had b< 
and cut bv machiner\', and this led me to believe that it m 
manufacture of Indians, but that it was probably maimfii 
white men. If the supposition were true it is manifes 
mound had been erected subsequent to the association of 
dians with white people. This was the first suggestion to 
that the age of the mounds had been misinterpreted, an 
general conclusion that the mound-builders were not tri 
in this country on its disco ver\- was erroneous. Since thai 
line of evidence after another has led to the same conclusio 
years ago I published this conclusion in general terms, a 
year it is strengthened, and it may be fairly said at the pn 
that it rests on a sound inductive basis. 

But this conclusion does not overthrow the belief that m 
mounds are of great antiquity. Domiciliary mounds, buria 
and mounds for many other purposes are discovered e 
throughout North America in vast numbers, and doubt! 
00} "t ion of mound-building dates t*ar back in remote antiqv 
nuuilKTs of the mounds themselves testify to this conclusio 
conditions under which man>" of them are found lead tc 
opinion. To account for the great numbers of the mo 
not nocesjsiry. but is in fad illogical, to assume a dense p 
I-engih ot" time will give the s^ime result; and I think i 
ilcarly shown that the n\nnK^r of Indians inhabiting the i 
the lime of its liiMovory l\\ Eurv^jvans has been Xnf wk 


eoonnously exaggerated. It is probable that at the present time the 
Domber of Indians in the country does not equal that of the time 
of the landing of Columbus. On the other hand, the disparity 
between the numbers of the two periods is not great. 

Bat here I must be permitted to remark that ofttimes the evidence 
idduced to prove the antiquity of the ancient works discovered 
throughout the country is unsound. There is abundant evidence 
of antiquity — ^good geologic evidence. Stone implements are found 
io geologic formations to such an extent as to leave no doubt that 
this continent was inhabited by man in early quaternary time ; but 
wmd evidence must be clearly discriminated from much of the 
evidence which is adduced. Travelers and scholars sometimes talk 
very loosely on this subject. Let me illustrate this. 

In the southwestern portion of the United States we discover in 
nst numbers the ruins of ancient stone villages. Often these ruins 
oe found at sites where water is not now accessible, and hence it 
hit been averred again and again that all this arid portion of the 
United States was at some early period densely inhabited, and that 
the country has been depopulated by increasing aridity. And this 
secular change of climate has been adduced as evidence of the great 
antiquity of these works. 

In 1870 I discovered ruins on the Kanab Creek in Utah and 

some of its tributaries elsewhere in Utah and Arizona, away from 

the neighborhood of water, and, like many other travelers, it at 

^rst setmed to me that I had discovered evidence of change of 

rhmate. But my work in that region was that of the geologist 

rather than of the anthropologist, and I early discovered that such 

evidence is valueless. In that arid country years — perhaps tens or 

scores of years — will pass without great rains. During such times 

the larger valleys are filled with the materials brought down by the 

»ish of rains and minor streams, and sucli accumulation in the 

Talle\-s of this arid region is very often found. But there come at 

fTtaier or less intervals storms of such magnitude, precipitating 

^ters in smh volume that the valleys themselves are cleared of the 

accumulated f ands. When this is done streams flow through them for 

I nilcs or scores of miles where they did not run before, and the few 

I ipings along the water courses are unmasked and yield a constant 

I ■Wty. And I have in my mind at the present time a ruin which 

to be far away from water, and which was far away from 

water ten years ago, but at the foot of which to-day a beau- 


tiful stream is running, this valley having been cleared of il 
not more than eighteen months ago. Abundant instance 
kind can be brought up. 

Savage people abandon their homes for reasons not fully 
appreciated by civilized men. Some disease carries off a gi 
or a number of i>ersons in a tribe, and panic seizes the pc( 
they leave their homes, perhaps burn them, under the be 
evil beings or evil influences have taken possession therec 
this occurs verv often. I have mvself more than once witnr 
effect on a tribe of an epidemic or the m\*sterious death ol 
l^ersonage. For this reason the sites of Indian villages, eve 
dwellings may be erected of stone, are not very permanent; 
constantly changing. In the southwestern portion of the 
Siaies there are other causes for change, namely, those m 
alx)ve — ph}*sical causes. A tribe settling on a flowing s 
one time may have that stream buried by drifting sands 
springs all masked and l^ compelled thereby to change tt 
taiion. And such changes doubtless were frequent. 

Again, we know thai a i>eople living in a central villi 
small summer residences scattered about the countrv bv th 
springs, where they cultivate their little crops of grain a; 
vecotaMes ; so that a lar^e group of such dwellings may 1 
i:a:hert\i abou: sc^me central ]^i:eb:o — not giving evidence c 
jvvu:a:ion. but only of the habits and customs of a smaO 
jxvr'.e. In <-.:».->. manner i: nuy be shown that the extens 
la::.''n of u"ie s.r::hwes:ern jorrion of the country-, based 
evidence c:* the r^:n< so .:V-uncan:Iy found, does not hoM 

...^. K«^X. «%«.^.v ... • . V (. «^ vc....>r.CS :C.a«C LPCHID 

.^...T* ..w** V. -TV, v>v.v«^> 1..%. M. ..!.«»..• v.. »m «* *i *\«C^1 V 

..--w— ^...-. . . . -> V ^ t.*. .> \ e>'.-i.r*..>..ex» on gcwQ 



Seventy-Sixth Regular and Sixth Annual Meeting, 

January 15, 1885. 

CoL Garrick Mallery, President, in the Chair. 

Tbc Council reported, through its Secretary, the election of Mr. 

^ J McGee, of the U. S. Geological Survey, as an active member, 
tod Hon. Thomas Wilson, U. S. Consul at Nantes, France, as a 
corresponding member. 

The annual report of the Treasurer was then read and submitted 
to the Society. 

On motion of Major Powell, a committee was appointed, con- 
Ming of Messrs. Thomas, Dorsey, and Flint, to audit the report. 

Tbc Society then proceeded to ballot for the officers of the ensuing 

The following is the result of the balloting: 

Prbiddtt J. \V. POWELL. 


Vice P»EsmFVTs J ^'^^^ '^' ^'ASON. 

>iCEntEsiDENTS . . . . -^ LESTER F. WARD. 


GcNEiAL Secretary . . . DAVID HUTCHESON. 

Secxetary to the Council . . F. A. SEELY. 



CouNaL AT Large 


The amendment which had been duly proposed to the Constitu- 
tion was then taken up and adopted as additional to Section I, 
Kit. III. viz. : 

" Corresponding members from whom no scientific contribution 
iicccived for two years after their election may be dropped from 
le list of members by a vote of the Council, but when so dropped 
be eligible to reinstatement.** 

22 TSA5SAcnos5 or the 

S tmtii '$ £>L3i T H Regular llfxmrG. Febnaij 5, i|| 

Maior J. W. Pottell, Presdent, in the Chair. 

The Caasxilr chrrynzh its SecreULzr, reported tbe dectioiiyi 
members, of the following gentkmec. : 

John Jar Knox. ]>>nnan B. Eaton, John M. Grcgorr, '. 
T. Peters, Herbert H. Bates. Anton Caii. 

The Cnrator read the following report of the poblicauoos 1 
bj the SocietT since the first ineeting of the present sessioa in 

From the SoaETT. — Ball. Bofialo Societr Xat. Histonr. 1 

Xos. I, 2, 3, for 1 881, '82. 

Wyoming Historical and Geological Societr. PJ 

No. 7. 1883. Memorial. (Isaac Smith C^erhool 

Ymer. Bull, issued by the Swedish .\nthropologi 

Geographical Soc'y. Stockholm. 1SS3. Farts i- 

Bull. Anthropological Society of Pans. 6th vol.. 

Part 3. May and July, 1SS3. 

Archivio, etc.. from the Italian Societv of Anthn 

Ethnology and Comparative Psychology'. XIII. 21 

cule, 1883. 

'— .\nnual Report of the Frankfort (Germany) So 

Geography and Statistics. 1881-18S3 

Bull, of the Library Co., of Philada. Jan., 1884. 

From the Publishers. — Science and Nature. An Inter 
Illustrated Review of the Progress of Science and I 
Paris. Ballicre et Fils. Dec. 29, 1SS3. 

From the Author. — No. III. .\merican .Aboriginal Lit 
Consisting of ''The Giiegiience; A Comedy Balle 
Nahuatl -Spanish Dialect of Nicaragua. Eldited bj 
G. Brinton. Philada. 1883. 8vo. Pp. 94. 

.Aboriginal .American .Authors and their productions 

ally those in the native languages. By Dr. D. G. ] 
Philada. 1883. 8vo. Pp. 63. [This memoir is 
largement of a paper laid before the last Internatioi 
grc»ss of .Americanists, at Copenhagen, Aug., 1883.] 

A Brief Account of the More Important Public CoUe 

American Archxology in the United States. B^ 
Phillips, Jr. Philada. 1883 8vo. Pp. 9. j 


From the Author. — Micrometry. By D. S. Kellicott. (Sec. 
Buff. Acad. Sci.) Chicago. 1883. ^vo. Pp. 23. Re- 
printed from the Proc. Am. Soc'y of Microscopists. 

Der Bronze-Stier aus der BijCl Kala-Hohle. By Dr. Hein- 
rich Wankel. Wien. 1877. Svo. Pp. 32. Map and 


Ucber einen prahistorischen Schadel mit einer Resection 
des Hintcrhauptes. By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 
1S82. 8vo. Pp. 19. 2 plates. 

Ueber die angeblich trepanirten Cranien des Beinhauses zu 
Sedlec in Bohmen. By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 1879. 
8vo. Pp. II. 

Einc Opferstatte bei Raigern in Mahren. By Dr. Hein- 
rich Wankel. Wien. 1873. ^P* 22. 

Prahistorische Eisenschmelz-und Schmiedestatten in Mahren. 
By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 1879. Pp- 4^- ^ P^* 

Wo bleibt die Analogie? By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. 
i4to page. [On rock inscriptions, found in Smolensk, Rus- 
sia.] By Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Without date. 

Urgeschichtliche Ansiedelung auf dem Misskogel in Mahren. 
Bv Dr. Heinrich Wankel. Wien. W. d. 

Bilder aus der Mahrischen Schweiz, und ihrer Vergangenheit. 
Wien. 1882. 8vo. Pp. 422. III. 

From Ernest Chantre. — £ludes Pal^oethnologiques dans le Bassin 
du Rh6ne. Bronze Age. Paris. 1877. 8vo. Pp.8. III. 
and chart. 

The Burial Places of the First Age of Iron of the Frencli 
Alps. Lyon. 1878. 8vo. Pp. 15. 60 fig. 3 pi. 

.\nthropologie. A Lecture. Lyon. 1881. Pp. 29. 

Paleoethnologic Researches in Southern Russia, especially 
in the Caucasus and the Crimea. Lyon. 1881. 8vo, Pp. 
27. PI. 12. 

Geologic ^Ionograph on Ancient Glaciers, etc. MM. 
Fahan and Chantre. Lyon. 1880. 8vo. Vol. I. Pp. 
622. Vol. II. 572. 111. folio atlas. These volumes are 
replete with anthropologic material. 

The Bronze Age. Researches on the Origin of Metallurgy 
in France. Paris. 1875. 3 ^o\s. Folio. Profusely illus- 

The First Age of Iron. Mounds and Burial Places. Lyon. 
1880. Folio. Pp. 60, and 50 lith. plates 


From Dr. Heinrich Fischer. — A Review of the II and ! 
of Trans. Royal Ethnographical Museum of Dresd 
sisting of a work on objects of Jadite and Nephi 
various quarters of the globe. By Dr. A. B. Mey 
Pp. 9. 

On motion of Col. Seelv a vote of thanks was passe 
donors of books and pamphlets mentioned in the Curator* 

Mr. Cyrus Thomas then read a paper entitled " Ci 
Probably Mound-Builders.*'* 


The speaker commenced by referring to some discover 
by Prof. Lucien Carr in 1876 in Lee County, Virginia, whi 
together with the historical data, led him to the conclin 
some, at least, of the mounds of this region were the wor 
Cherokees. The evidence in this case consisted of the re 
a building of some kind found in a mound which must 1 
responded very closely with the " Council House " oba 
Bartram on a mound at the old Cheroke town of Cowe. 

He next referred to some mounds recently opened by tl 
ants of the Bureau of Ethnology in western North Caro 
East Tennessee, the contents of which, together with the I 
the Cherokees, induced him to believe they were also built 

Prof. Thomas then entered upon the discussion of the < 
tory of this people, the purport of which was to show that 
occupied this region at least as far back as 1540, the da) 
Soto's expedition. 

He then referred to the specimens found in the mounds 
to, which he contended indicated contact with Europeans, 
ing some of the specimens to the Society as evidence of thi 
ne >s of his conclusion, maintaining that if the mounds w 
after the api>carance of the Europeans they must be the woi 
Cherokees, as they were the only people known to have in] 
this particular section from the time of De Soto's expedit 
its settlement by the whites. 

As further proof of his position he referred to carved sto 
engraved shells, and copi^er ornaments found in these moi 
ciscly like those described by early writers as made by am 
among the people of this tribe ; also to numerous articles cl 

* I^ublibhcd in Magazine of American History. 1S84. XI^JI 


wJ »DiJ European manufaclure dug up from tht site of an old Chero- 
be twn near the Hiawassee river, the former being precisely of 
'hriune character as those found in the mounds alluded to. 

border to ihow that these mounds could not have been built 
ty tie Creeks or more southern Indians he presented arguments to 
pore that the Etowah mounds in Bartow county, Georgia, ivere on 
tk lite of the town named by the chroniclers of De Soto's expedi- 
iwa Caaxulc, which evidently from the narrative cou!d not have 
ten in the territory of the " Chelaqucs " (Cherokees). He then 
»liod(d to ihf construction of the mounds of this group, and to 
jpreimens found in one of them, (exhibiting some of the speci- 
tDMs). which showed clearly that they were built by a different 
(tofile from those who erected the mounds of North Carolina and 
E»st Tennessee. 


Major PowEU. said Prof. Thomas' paper furnished additional 
widence thai a number of our Indian tribes were primitive mound- 
toWers. In relation to that part of the paper respecting the 
indent habitat of the Cherokees, 1 have some curious evidence 
btfftf. Some years ago I discovered tliat the Cherokees, Choctaws, 
Cfuduiaws, Muskokis, Natchez, Yuchis, and other tribes have 
nootiglhem the tradition of an ancient alliance for offensive and 
Waiive purposes against the Indians to the west of the Mississippi 
liw of the Siouan stock. In the grand council of the tribes men- 
Woetl the terms of an alliance were under consideration, and from 
^y today the subject was considered without arriving at a conclu' 
■». The relation of the tribes to each other could not be ad- 
JBlnl Eitufaclorily to all, and it seemed likely that the council 
•»U break up without effecting an alliance. Now the savage 
SWe or body-politic is a kinship body; the lies are of consanguinity 
iodsffinity; and this is the only conception of a state possible to 
people in thi» grade of culture. So the disagreement arose about 
•he letUB of kinship by which the tribes should know one another, 
u tbii would establish their rank and authority in the alliance. 

\Ati many days had passed in fruitless discussion a Cherokee 
ontor proposed a planof alliance that has given him renown among 
•ll the tribes interested down to the present time. To those who 
tan jtiKlied Indian oratory and the reasoning of Indian mindshis 
ptaainj the reasons therefor are of great interest. He commenced 


by describing the geography of the country inhabited by \ 
tribes in order from east, passing by the south to west,, ai 
by the north again to east. After describing all of this 
the mountains and valleys and rivers — he called attenti 
fact that the rivers now known as the Savannah, the Alta 
Appalachicola, the Alabama, the Tombigbee, the Tenn 
the Cumberland all head near one another in the moui 
occupied by the Cherokees ; that the Cherokees, therefi 
first of the waters of all the rivers, and that the rivers tl 
from the land of the Cherokees into the lands of the othe 
be used by them, and that, therefore, mother earth had 
their precedence to all the other tribes. He therefore 
that the Cherokees should be the father tribe, and that tl 
other tribes should take rank as sons in the order in whi< 
rose upon their lands — the tribe farthest to the east to b 
son or elder brother, the second tribe the second son, ai 
This geographical argument was at once recognized by all 
as being invincible, and the plan was immediately adopte 

Now this tradition serves us a double purpose. First, 
the methods by which one tribe has called another, now 
there, by terms of kinship, and that these terms of kins 
signify that the people have traditions of formerly bel 
the same tribe, but that they give evidence of allianc 
been formed by such tribes. The second point of int 
that which bears upon the communication of Prof. 1 
this : That the traditions of all of these tribes place the ' 
in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, about the soul 
rivers from the Savannah around to the Cumberland, thii 
very territory which Prof. Thomas claims to have be 
the Cherokees from historical evidence and evidence obtl 
the mounds. 

Mr. Holmes exhibited and commented upon some d| 
of the human figure in copper and on shell gorgets foj 
mounds of Tennessee, remarking that the designs werej 
l)ean but resembled the art of Yucatan, and if manuij 
Spain were made from designs furnished by those who hi 
Yucatan, and if they were of European manufacture] 
of no great value except to prove the intrusion of Eurc^ 

Col. Seely remarked that the opinion that was gaiflfl 
among American students, and particularly among tfa 

AirmaoPOLOOioAt. sooikty. 


ibiiSocieiy, as to the coinparativety recent period in which mouiid- 
inKing was iiracticed, did not seem to be shared in Europe. He 
lud jut rrceived (rom the Marquis de Nadaillac, one of our hon- 
uoi}' mraiben, and perhaps among Europeans the oue person who 
l*I>« httn»cir best informed on all the developments of American ar- 
tiaology, the proof-sheeis of an article in the Revae d' Anthropo- 
id, in which he presented to European readers a rimmi of Mr. 
Car's tcccDl work. While admitting the force of the facts set forth, 
tbcMitquisdisscnied from the conclusions, his particular reason for 
ivtsA being that the reversion to barbarism of tribes advanced in 
oriliuiiun was a thing unknown. He said a tribe or people par- 
tiilly civtlixut might be conquered by one more barbarous, and 
night t)ccoine merged -in it ; but it had never been known that such 
iproplc, after once having fixed homes, agriculture, and arts of 
liaiiK^tK life, had lost all these and fallen back to the barbarous 
(OoditioD of their conquerors. On Uie conirar>', experience shows 
Ibl trie effect of such a mixture of races is to elcvate-the conquerors 
l<j imparting lo them the arts and habits of the conquered people. 
Col. Seelv read brief extracts from M. de Nadaillac's article, 
kkIi concluded with very com[>limenlary mention of the work of 
AiKrican explorer* and an expression of belief that they would 
Wot long lead to a solution of the m>'stery of the mound-builders. 
Uijor PowEiX said ; The criticism which Colonel Seely has read 
for B ia inlcTcsting in ^'arious respects, but it fails to be valid by reason 
of 1 cunoiB error. It is a great mistake to suppose that the Indians 
of Ngtlh America were nomads. All of our Indian tribes had fixed 
katxiations. It 13 true they moved their villages from time lo time, 
btciiuc of ibctr superstitions and for other reasons, but to all intents 
ind purpotcs Ihcy were sedcnt-ary, living in fixed habiiatiotis from 
jwt to year, though from generation to generation they might 
change the sites of their towns. But of many of our Indian tribes 
beraevr furily nomadic shortly after the advent of the white man, 
1 rlicy obtained horses and fire-arms. With horses they 
uovc from |»i»t to point, and with fire-arms they could 
■ i_KJ share of their sustentation by hunting than they 
-\\ done, and many tribes gave up agriculture on this 
::.'.:ead of living in houses of wood and stone and earth 
. live more or leK in skin tents. 
■* •! jiitmpt to mark off the progress of mankind in culture 
IBIOttages, that which I iholl call savagery is, in a general way, 


well dioferentiated from higher stages. In this stage the \ 
ganized by kinship. Tribes are kinship bodies. In the 
scent is in the female line — that is, mother-right prevails 
era], too, these people are in the stone age. They hv 
learned to use bronze ; nor have they developed hierogi} 
ing. People in this stage of cnltnre are called savag<e^ 
snch tribes have changed their social stmctnre so that £ 
pre^'ails. then the patriarchy is established. At about 
period of culture animals are domesticated, and doubtk 
mesiication of animals and the necessity for nomadic lift 
s::lis therefrom is one of the most important agencies ii 
zip moiher-right and establishing father-right; and wl 
righ: is established the patriarchy speedily follows. So 
we call ^jr^jn\\ and the stage of caltnre in which they li 
ism. Barbaric people may be nomads; savage people 
nomadic. Some English anthropologists whose branch 
gation is confined chiefly to insritntions, or, as we call 
o!oz^-." have traced Ixick the historv of Arvan civilia 
they have discovered the Tvarrlarchy, until they find the 
pies from whom the present civilized States have desoc 
state of r.om2d:>m — patriarchies wiih their great trih 
about them, tozreiher with their docks and herds, all roa 
one district of country to another in search of pasturage i 
.\nd they are accustomed to assume that this patriarchal 
this nomadism, is the primitive form of societ}-. Sir He 
is one of the leading men o: this 5chcy:>l. and we are great! 
to his researches for the tiuterials with which to trace tli 
men: cf yatriarchjLl institutions into national instituti 
there is abundant evidence to shew that there are institui 
primitive than those of barbarism. The tribes of Austn 
tribes of North America and of South America are dis 
be in a state of cultun? lower and more primitive in stn 
the peoples of early An an hl>tor>\ Herben Spencer 1 
sime manner confounded tr.bal society, or 'savagervv 
barism. and has entirtrly failed to understand the struct 
hundn!>is of tribil St:ites of North America and of m 
elsewhere throu*:hout the world : and to him may be laq 
ured the erroneous ha^it of calling the rribes of Norti 
nomads. It should be dist.nctly understood that the Ndj 
cans aie not nom.\d>, that they h.a\-e not the pnl 



of ^onmmrot, and that ihey have not domesticaled animals, 
Ftam thtt statement I must except certain tribes of Mexico and 
CriIh] America, whose exact stiite of culture lias not yet been 
tlnrlf discovered. The criticism of the eminent author from whom 
roSecretary has read therefore falls lo ihe ground. 

Ut. WARDsaid he had looked up Ihe exact meaning of nomadism 
lada the iraprcsaion that the lerm implied the state given by Major 
PnwdL He had seen it lUied In the sense of a headless race, with 
»c form of government, no arts, no domestic animals, therefore 
tipmetiting the lowest form of culture. The term was used in this 
by Mr. Herbert Spencer. There was some justification for the 
wtfff the term in this sense by European el lino legists. The mean- 
Hi of the word docs not involve domestic animals; it simply means 
a wander. 

Prof. M*50S said that the Ciierokees might have been mound- 
buiUcrs, but the mound -builders were not all Cherokees. We can- 
jct allirm that the ancestors of our modern Indians were the 
imm]>builders of the Mississippi valley. He called attention to 
tlic Curt ihat Dr. Brinton states that the mound-builders of the Mis- 
tffa valley were Choclatvs. Me also spoke of the delicate and 
■■aik^ forms of objects in stone found in Ohio mounds and in 
itmiKiUK stone graves compared with forms of articles made by 
■wdcm Indians. There are many types of these mound-objects 
fnnhich we have no names, because modern savages use nothing 

Mjjof PowKLL said there is no whil of evidence lo show that the 
noBnds were built by a pre-Indian people. For a long time it has 
tnoiMumed that a great race of people inhabited the valley of the 
IGawippi anterior lo its occupation by the tribes of Indians dis- 
caitrtd by early European explorers, and it was claimed that these 
|ea|ile h>d erected great earthworks of such magnitude that they 
tmU not be atiribulcd to the Indian tribes, but that they must have 
ten the work of people more highly organized. This error arose 
60a the (icl (hat early writers had no adequate conception of the 
cbUBctcr of tribal organization, and thai kinship society is as 
Uufooghly bound together, and perhaps more thoroughly, than 
tkn based upon any other plan. They also assumed that the works 
"Tin (ooimI in these mounds, or associated therewith, gave evidence 
•rfmfKtioTart. A careful examination of this theory has proved 
ItaUbcjr. On Ihe other hand, it has been discovered that the 



' a 

::-i 1 

T3S I 


The Secretary of the Council announced that the President had 
dsigDated the Vice-Presidents to their several sections, as follows : 

Dr. Fletcher, Section of Somatology; Mr. Ward, Section of 
Sociology; Col Mallery, Philology, Philosophy, and Psychology; 
ftof. Mason, Technology. 

Mr. Ward then read a paper entitled **Mind as a Social 


It was maintained that, notwithstanding the general disposition 
to exalt and deify the mind, still this had thus far amounted to little 
Bore than lip-service, and that the real power of human intellect as 
the lever of civilization was not merely ignored but practically 
denied. Touching lightly upon the metaphysical school of philos- 
ophy, of which this had always been true, he directed his main 
trgument against the now far more powerful influence in the same 
direction which the most advanced scientific thinkers are exerting. 
The tendency of the evolutionists to contemplate man solely from 
the biological standpoint, and to treat society as a simple continua- 
tion of the series of results accomplished by evolution in the lower 
departments of being, was strongly condemned. Himself a con- 
sistent evolutionist, and firm believer in the doctrine of man's descent 
from humbler forms of existence, Mr. Ward still cogently main- 
tained that in studying development an entirely new set of canons 
must be adopted the moment the phenomena of the human intellect 
present themselves for consideration. Hegceforth a new factor, 
I'holly different from any before employed, enters into the problem, 
and correspondingly new and distinct methods of research must be 
adopted. Just as the biologist finds in the advent of life on the 
gbbe a new and enormous factor such as compels him to investigate 
*^t organic world with an entirely new set of principles and methods 
tVoni those that are applicable to physics, chemistry, etc., so, Mr. 
Wird maintained, when the developed psychic faculty appeared a 
secor.d change of base in science, equally thorough and complete, 
•as imperatively demanded. The failure of modern philosophers, 
kaded by Mr. Herbert Spencer, to recognize this patent truth had 
Jfld to the let-alone doctrine, which possesses a certain fascination 

in fall in "Mind" (London) for October, 1884, pp. 563-573. 

32 TE-l55ACn053 OF THE 

and jiarfes izdl-s'^zul ir^raziiLreoesit. and hence is ma 
inrChids ;- : o ±e picclir Lihi: of rhocxiit- This laissizfi 
ophy, w'nich Mr. Wjrd ciLincterlred as the *• gospel of 
La, in his «;p:-::-, ci^dzcrlr -e,:ariTed br tne most advano 
is conrnry :o ibe Terr Lit ct erol:irioc- and its legitmaft 
almost j-jst::V Carlyle i* denorincizz zhe whole philosophy 
as the " g-j«spel cf cirt." 

-Vs against aXich so re id "eaciiings Mr. Ward held: Tl 
apotheosizing the mind, wi±o-: denying its humble origi 
development, i: is srlll the greatest tact in the aniverse, 
the grandest resulQ achieved on the globe, and in an 
makes man the supreme arbiter of his ovn destiny, the 
dependent agency of the world and master of the planet. 


Prof. Thom.\s remarked that for a clear comprehensi 
problem presented in Mr. Ward's paper a de6nition c 
meant bv mind was necessarv. He cited illustrations to 
animals and even insects have memory and reasoning p 
short, mind. What then, he asked, is the homan as dis) 
from the brute mind? 

Prof. Ward, in reply, said that so far as the purpoi 
present paf>er were concerned the only definition of mind 
was the one given in the course of the paper, viz., that i 
inventive faculty of man. 

Mr. W ELM NO expressed his general concurrence in so 
Mr. Ward's paper as might be said to convey the positi\*e 
mativc prop<jsitions of the writer, but intimated the opinic 
a deeper analysis and closer inspection it would be foun4 
dissidenre Ix^tween Mr. Ward and the scientific exposit 
naturalistic school was not so great as might be inferred 
term-, of his neprative criticism. That dissidence was perht 
rather than real, Ix^ing, as between him and his opponentSyi 
of nomenclature rather than of substance — or, to speak i 
nitely, a question as to the precise point in the evolutions 
where the logic and nomenclature of the naturalistic school 
Ijeld to apply to the facts of psychic activity in the figure^ 
so^ iety. In so far as mind might be said to have a phyd 
Mr. Welling said that he saw no reason why the humafll 
should l)e exempted from the law of a physical natuimll 


arvival, but at the same time it was very clear that we were not to 
look to man's physical organism for the highest expressions of 
tiut natural selection which was peculiar to him in the animal world. 
Kegarded apart from all disputes as to their genesis, and considered 
Amply in their functions, it might be said that a plant is a machine 
for coordinating a certain number of natural forces, and thereby 
lifting them above the realm of the inorganic nature which is below 
it; that the animal organism is a machine for coordinating another 
handle of natural forces and thereby lifting them above the level of 
the plant world, and that man is an organism in which the vegeta- 
hle and animal constitution simply lays the basis of a higher series 
of activities, in proportion as the natural forces below him are 
coordinated and transmuted by that which in him is highest — his 
«rW. It is, therefore, in the creations of the human mind that we 
would naturally look for the natural selections and survivals which 
are most distinctive of man and most descriptive of his place in 
nature. If the place of man in nature and the place of mind in 
nan be so regarded, it does not seem necessary to assume that there 
is any reversal of the logic of evolution when we come to study the 
phenomena of human society. It is not a reversal of this logic and 
nomenclature, as Mr. Ward seems to think, but a transference of 
ihit logic and nomenclature to a higher sphere of action — the ac- 
tion of man in society under the forces of an expanding science and 
a growing morality. It is in these — that is, in the rational and moral 
forces, which are dynamic in society — that we must look for the natu- 
nl selections which are relatively the fittest to survive at any given 
stage of human history. And in properly coordinating the rational 
and moral forces by which he is lifted above the brutes of the field, 
It b just as important that man should act with the forces of nature 
below him and in him as that he should in a measure act above 
those lower forces by virtue of his mind — his **faculty of execution,'* 
as Mr. Ward calls it. And in making the purely artificial regula- 
tions which belong to him as ** a political animal" he is perpetually 
c dinger of making civil, political, and economical adjustments 
which sin against the laws of nature and against the natural rights of 
sun. Against all adjustments which unduly restrict the natural 
6cedom of man in his mind, his body, or his labor, we may there- 
ive justly hurl the doctrine oi laissez faire, 
Mr. Welling then proceeded to illustrate this point of view by 
lSBt% die phenomena of political economy as presented to us in 



France during the reign of Louis IX, when every branch of i 
in the kingdom was put under governmental regulation and 
tion. These regulations and restrictions were imposed in th 
of a state-craft which assumed to be wise above the laws of- 
production. They were the expressions of an artificial % 
working against the natural selections of supply and demand 
figure of political economy, and it was in opposition to the \ 
ties of this system that the school of political economists ks 
France as the physiocrats rose at the close of the i8th ca 
make their indignant protest in the name of iaissezfaire. ■ 
subsequent times as well as in other lands there had been al 
room to challenge the tariff regulations of any given epoch 
name of the same watchword. 

Shall we say, then, that the maxim of laissez fairc is 
political economy? By no means. It is final as against \ 
tension that man, by legislative artifice, however ingenia 
vised, can make any industry profitable to the commonwealth 
the forces of natural production. But in so far as man hai 
ends in society than the creation of wealth the maxim is 4 
If there be those who, in the name of a naturistic philosoph] 
plead for the right to grind up the bodies and souls of mei 
natural pursuit of wealth, it is easy to see that such a false i 
sided adjustment of economical relations would but call ft 
evolution of public intelligence and public morality, as sec 
preventive justice which should be devised in order to gu 
community from such excesses of the laissez f aire doctrio 
neither the public intelligence nor the public morality cai 
full field for the exercise of their natural prerogatives in tb 
of public economy until laissez faire has allowed the forces ol 
production to exhibit the full measure of their strength, wil 
or hindrance, save such as may be neeeded to guard interest 
than the material wealth of a nation. 

Major Powell: The paper by Prof. Ward has been 
interest to me, as well as the discussion which it has elicil 
the progress of institutions it often becomes necessary that 
should be torn down in order that the new may be erect« 
same ground ; and in every great civilized land there are tl 
devote themselves to destruction, while others engage in c 
tion. The tlieory of the destructionist has of late yeaxt j 
much vantage-ground from the doctrines of evolution^aan 


itioniation of this evening very clearly sets forth the improper use 
of the established doctrines of evolution by a class of philosophers 
who (ail to appreciate fully the necessity for construction pari passu 
^th destruction and who have lost faith in human institutions and 
neglect the teachings of all human history. 

The Laroarckian doctrine of evolution was that of adaptation by 
exercise. The hypothesis did not obtain wide acceptation until it 
was expanded more fully by Darwin and his contemporaries into 
the ftirther doctrine of the survival of the fittest in the struggle for 
existence through competition in enormously overcrowded popula- 
tion. By this latter philosopher it was shown that competition 
perfonned an important part in evolution, and that the Lamarckian 
method gained its efficiency through the law established by Darwin. 
Among the lower animals species compete with species, and indi- 
Tidoals of the same species compete with one another, and as the 
ooDber of individuals produced is greatly in excess of those which 
on obtain sustentation some must necessarily succumb, and in the 
fnnd average it is the unfit that yield their places to those better 
feed to the conditions. With mankind this competition does not 
pcrforai the same office that it does with the lower animals, and 
this by reason of the organization of society and of other human 
activities, whereby men, to a greater or less extent, become inter- 
dependent, so that the survival -of one depends upon the survival 
of others, and the welfare of one upon the welfare of many. But 
competition still pla}'s an important part in the life history of 
the human race. Man in his competition* with the lower animals 
has so outstripped them in skill and power that he utilizes them for 
bis wants. He destroys some, and others he domesticates for his 
[wrposcs. It cannot properly be said that he longer competes with 
the lower animals — in fact, he utilizes them. 

But nun competes with man, and this competition is expressed 
in warfare — public and private. In public warfare state competes 
w:!h >iate, and the question arises, does this competition, this war- 
iiTtr, ultimately result, in the average, in human progress? So far 

12* it is a competition between states do the higher and better 
people survive, and the lower people succumb ? He would be a 
iM man, indeed, who would assert that the victor is always the 
i^Krior man in culture, and who would divide and relegate the 
of the world to the good and the bad, the wise and the 
the just and the unjust. It is a task too delicate for any- 



thing but omniscience. But we may look upon it in anoth| 
In the grand average the individuals who engage in wai^ 
those who are ph}'sically strong, and, as judged by the sfl 
obtaining among their own peoples, they are the patriotic I 
noble, and it has usually happened that the flower of the ij 
been absorbed in its armies. This is less true in modem war^ 
is more true as we go farther backward in the history of Q 
The strong, the brave, and the patriotic have fallen in bat| 
weak, the cowardly, and the selfish have survived ; and tf 
fare has been a constant drain upon the best of all lands*; 
may be confidently asserted that human competition by wai 
in this manner failed to be an agency for human progress, 
warfare has been the means of overthrowing unjust and unwj 
tutions, and in this manner warfare has ofttimes resulted io; 
human progress. On the other hand the period of war| 
time in which peoples are engaged in warfare, is usuall] 
when the institutions of a people lapse from a higher to 
condition. The necessities of war ofttimes furnish the ew 
justification for the establishment of institutions, or for modi 
unjust and tyrannical in character. In the main war pel 
times in which public morals lapse toward barbarism. 

If we turn to consider the effect of private warfare on the 
of mankind we again fail to discover an efficient agency it 
culture. He would indeed be a bold man who should asses 
results in the survival of the fittest, and who would relegf 
derers to the class called the best, and the mujrdered to f 
called the worst. 

But mankind engage in another form of comp>etition 
compete for welfare or happiness; and in so far as it is t 
l^etition, as distinguished from honorable rivalry — that is, 
as one man succeeds at the expense of another — in just so 
justice done ; for, by the establishment of interdependenc 
men, the welfare of one properly depends upon the welfare < 
and the essential characteristic of justice, for which all 
have striven, is this: that no man sliall reap advantage U 
jury of his neighbor. Competition for welfare, in the 
which the term is here used, is the prosecution of injustice 
the extent that justice is established competition is avoidei 

There is yet competition of a third class. Arts o 
arts, and in the average the best are selected, and 



^Jcudc by men themselves. Men do not choose the best men but 
tk best artSy and indirectly choose the men as best because they 
^tprcscnt the best arts. So, institutions compete with institutions, 
^d the best are chosen in the average. So, languages and methods 
of expressing thought compete with languages and methods of ex- 
pressing thought, and in the average the best are chosen. In like 
mumer opinions compete with opinions, and in the grand average 
the best and the true are chosen. Now, arts, institutions, languages, 
tod opinions are human inventions, and in every department of 
human activity, as thus represented, inventions compete with in- 
TCQtioDs, and as in the grand average the fittest are chosen, so those 
who represent the best, the fittest, achieve success as compared with 
others who represent inventions of less worth. In this field there 
ii legitimate competition, and it is by this competition that man 
progresses in civilization ; but it is the objective invention or activ- 
tty diat survives, not the subject man. Now that class of sociolo- 
gists who appeal to the established facts of science relating to com- 
petition, and use the laws of competition as they are exhibited in 
the lower animals, as if they properly applied to man, use them for 
destructive purposes, to destroy institutions, and they use them 
iilr^timately, for human progress is not made by competing for 
obtcncc, or by directly competing for welfare, but only by in- 
directly competing for welfare through the direct competition of 
its, institutions, languages, and opinions ; and in order that this 
indirect competition may be efficient all such competition must be 
m conformity with the principles of justice. Therefore, institutions 
designed to establish justice among mankind cannot properly be 
pdged by the canons derived from the laws of competition, but 
only by the canons derived from the principles of justice, for the 
eficiency of competition itself in human progress depends primarily 
oa pre-established justice. 

The destruction ists who thus illegitimately use the doctrines of 
Cfolution in their warfare against all human institutions to a large 
cxrcnt deny the efficiency of altruistic motives. They do not clearly 
jee that wise egoism is wise altruism, because they do not clearly 
nderstand the interdependence of mankind; and in denying the 
t and efficiency of altruism they neglect the best side of human 
Man inherited altruism from the beast. The she bear 
cobs, the lioness her whelps, and the cagless her eaglets, 
bird, and insect alike exhibit altruistic motives. Among 


the lower animals the group is very small indeed between l| 
viduals of which such sentiments prevail ; but steadily in tl 
gress from savagery to the highest stage of civilization m 
enlarged the group, as the small kinship group has expand 
larger, the clan into the tribe, the tribe into the confeded 
confederacies and confederated tribes intonations ; and altft 
expanded from smaller group to larger group, from famil] 
patriotism, and from patriotism to humanity ; and in the 
the past we may safely prophesy of the future that this altnil 
improve in quality and expand in scope until every in 
recognize in every other a brother in whose welfiire he has an 
as deep as in his own, and when the doctrine oikussez fain 
known no more forever. 

Seventy-Ninth Regular Meeting, March i, i8ft 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The President announced the resignation of David Hutc 
General Secretary of the Society, and the election by the 
of S. V. Proud fit to fill the vacancy. 

Ensign Albert Niblack, U. S. N., read the followio 
on "The Smithson'l\x Anthropological Collections fo 

With the exception of the year 1876, when the material 
ceived from the Centenial Exposition, the accessions for 
ceed those of any other year both in number and value, 
annual appropriations are only made by the Govemmen 
preservation of the collections in the National Museum, it 
to refer most of the collections to the Smithsonian Institutii 
Museum is under the control of the latter. The souro 
year's receipts were as follows : 

Donations j exchanges ; collections by Government exj 
required by law to be turned over to the Museum; purchal 
Fisheries Exhibition from a fund specially appropriated, 
chases from a fund of $3,000 or more, which the Secrel 
able to save from various sources for this purpose. The 
has been so judiciously applied and combined with 
ment work as to have enabled the Museum to acqv' 
collections, of which this sum spent represents bill 


P value. Various branches of the Government have contributed 
w result by allowing iheir employes in the field to make collec- 
tiOD) forlhe Institution in connection with their regular work. It is to 
khopcd that the valuable results attained with such asmalladdltional 
«il»y will induce Congress to make some of the annual appropri- 
ation for the Museum also available for the "increase" as well as 
Hx" preservation" of the collections. In fact, the Museum cannot 
grow in proportion to the demands of the public from tlie sources 
il now has to rely on. Those considerations which call for the ex- 
istence of the Museum at all also call for a liberal fund willi which 
to tend out collectors and purchase valuable material. 

The collections here considered are those entered in the catalogue 
daring 1883. Some of the collections were actually made io pre- 
Tinu ycare, but they have been stored and are now heard from for 
the lint time. 

In the organitation of the National Museum, as outlined in the 
"Proceedings " for i88r, it is contemplated classifying the anthro- 
(wlogical material under three departments: I, Anliquities; U, 
RAia^Mm; and III, Arts and Indtulrits. The Assistant Director 
B Cunlor of the la.<it named and Dr. Rau of the first \ but other- 
*iseihc work embraced under the second department, "Races of 
Men," is really carried on under Arts and Industries under the 
{Cnenl supervision of the Assistant Director. 

The general routine work is as follows ; 

Calleclions, on receipt at the Museum, are acknowledged and 
|iwa in accetision number by the Registrar, who files under this 
Wraberall manuscript accompanying the various collections. Each 
collection il clarified or divided up and the proper portions sent 
to Ihc variowi departments or sections, where each specimen or lot 
Annular sp«:uneriH is entered in the ethnological catalogue and 
prai a MuKum number, which is painted on the specimen for its 
*WjTr ulTntification. The entry in this catalogue is briefly made 
'!uwing hends: 

vi^mbcr; Collector's Number; Name; Locality; When 

\ iturc of Object ; Accession Number; Measurements; 

' Il or Collected by ; Cost; When Entered ; Number of 


..piivc cards to be printed to accompany each specimen 

-i aiui ivriiten, access being had to the manuscript in the hands 

Mihe Registrar to get full data, and the collection is arranged and 

Km Io the preparatoiB for installation in the Museum. 



Five thousand three hundred and thirty-nine specimens 1 
ceived, making a total now on hand of 40,491. Three tb 
five hundred and fourteen different specimens were placed 
bition, making a total display of 24,731. The purely ethnc 
material is being gradually taken over to the Museum buildu 
soon the entire main hall of the Smithsonian building will be^ 
entirely to antiquities. The great bulk of the collections 
department are in storage, and of this the material on ha 
exchange is very large. 

The greater part of the receipts this year are miscellaneo 
lections from all over the world (France, India, Alaska, < 
America, and Mexico), but principally from our own count 
presented by patrons of the Institution. 

The principal foreign collections are as follows : 

Two hundred specimens from Ometepec Island, Lake Nia 
by C. C. Nutting, who was sent out by the Institution. It en 
remains from graves, such as clay vessels, arrow- heads, an 
stone carvings. The collector only got these incidentally, 
principal collection was the birds of that region. 

A collection from Los Novillos, Costa Rica, by M. C. Kei 
bracing about 15 rude stone images or carvings of human 
These are now mounted in the National Museum. A colle< 
casts from the paper moulds received from the Trocadero M 
Paris, made by M. Charnay and presented by Mr. Lorillard 
National Museum. The collection is too familar to all to n< 
comment at my hands. There are about 82 reproductions of i 
tions, carvings, temples, altars, door-posts, etc., from Pi 
Mexico, Merida^XwicdXdSiy Oiichemiza, Lorillard Qty, and ot 
important places. 

A small collection of about 15 specimens from Alask 
lected by McKay just before his death, which will be alli 
later. The collection embraces only a few Eskimo stone 
ments and carvings. 

So far this year (1884) a collection has been received fro 
McLean, of the Signal Service, from the shell heaps of Cap 
docino, Cal„ besides the usual number of miscellaneous 
donated to the Institution. J 

In the Department of Arts and Industries the various M 


^ot as yet all been put in operation. The well-organized special 
^^ctioDs are at present only two, materia Medica and Foods and Tex- 
^^ Fabrics. The fisheries section is well-organized as a sub-section, 
^ to speak, but it will be some time yet before hunting can be taken 
^ in connection with it. 

Dr. FuNT has the materia medica collection well in hand. In a 
geoeral way it is intended to illustrate the medicines in use in 
ikigfaly civilized countries at the present day, as well as the collec- 
tioDs peculiar to certain countries. Of the latter the Museum has a 
small collection from Corea, one from China, and quite a complete 
ooe from India. (This India collection of course represents only 
MtiTc medicines. ) To the collection in 1 883 were added over i ,000 
spedmens, the addition to the general collections being supplemental 
-H. r., intended to fill out the present exhibit of the medicines of civ- 
iliied nations obtained from wholesale drug houses in this country. 
Quite a unique collection of mineral waters from all parts of the 
vorid b included in the latter. The additions to the special col- 
lections in 1883 ^^^7 ^ summed up as follows : 

1. About 275 specimens from the Kurrachee Museum, India. 

2. Fifty specimens or more fVom the Madras Museum. 

3. Ten specimens of Cinchona bark of different kinds from 
Ceylon, presented from the Government of India. 

4. Seventeen specimens presented by the Corean Embassy. 

5. no accessions from the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew. 
The Section of Foods and Textile Fabrics embraces more* than 

tbe name implies — i, e., food-stuffs, narcotics, distillations, drinks, 
fcnand leathers, fibres, cordage, textile fabrics, needle-work, bas- 
ket-work, paper, etc. Mr. Hitchcock has been in charge only since 
November, last. The collection of textiles now on exhibition is 
not a very large one, and consists mainly of the raw materials used, 
5Qch as wood, silk, cottony Jute, maniltaj hemp, dark, grasses, etc . 
In mats, cloths, etc., little has been as yet installed. The reserve 
collection is a large and valuable one. The Zufiians, Navajos, 
Indians of northwest coast, (particularly the Nootkas and Haidahs,) 
the South Sea Islanders, and the natives of the Phillipines, West 
Indies, Central America, and elsewhere are well represented, and 
vbcn this collection is finally installed it will be a valuable addi- 
tion to the collections on exhibition. Little attempt ha", as yet been 
■Kic to illi^trate the fabrics of civilized nations, but these are easily 
^hiincd when desired by purchase in this and other countries. 


The collection of North American Indian foods, embnM 
250 specimens, is classified and on exhibition. The dl 
cards are in the hands of the printer. There are small 
collections of foods from China, India, and other coun 
the miscellaneous collection has not as yet been classified, 
resenting the foods of civilized nations, specimens can be 
very readily when desired. At present the principal coD 
such foods is one prepared for the Fisheries Exhibition 
form a part of that exhibit in the Museum, as only a few n 
tive specimens will be kept out to go with the food 1 

The large collections of the Bureau of Ethnology from ! 
the Moquis and New Mexican pueblos were, last Novemb 
over to the National Museum for installation. On the pi 
of notes by the Bureau, and on the return of Mr. Cusli 
Zufii, these collections will be written up. Not enough is 
the ceremonial material to attempt such a thing at presc 
collection of pottery is simply exhaustive. It is now in i 
of Mr. Holmes, as is the entire pottery collection of North 
Incidentally, it may be mentioned here that a fine collect! 
tery was also received from Chiriqui, and b now installec 
North American pottery. 

The general Zufii and Moqui collections comprise 6,3 
for 1883, but as three or four specimens are sometimes entc 
one number, this does not approximate to its real size. Il 
basket ware, pottery, gourds, grinding stones or mortars, 
and ceremonial, household, agricultural, and industrial ia 

A large portion of the archaeological collections of t 
of Ethnology from the mounds of the United States was a 
over to the Department of Antiquities some months s 
mention of these specimens was made under that hea 
Cyrus Thomas has worked up these collections, and the 
published under the Bureau of Ethnology. Collections 
made under the Bureau, throughout all the important loca 
Dakota Territory to Florida, and from Nevada to the 
land States. These collections of aboriginal remains embi 
bones, celts, fragments of pottery, and walls of dwellil 
copper and iron implements, flints, flakes, pipes, arroM 
forated tablets, stone discs, ceremonial stoneSi etc 

The entries for 1883 comprise 3,544 numbeis 


Hon ihe accessions of the Dqjartmcnt of Antiquities itself, when 
«rco[i«idcr that several of specimens are entered sometimes under 
tae number. Four specimens of quartz celts from near Madras, 
tsda, are among tlie accessions from the Bureau. 

Among the most important collections made by employfa of the 
Coveniincnt, in connection with their regular work under other 
branches, and which were paid lor out of the fund previously alluded 
to, may be mentioned : 

AtoIlectionfromVVra. J. Fisher, the Coast Survey tidal observer on 
Kidiak UUnd, Alaska, who made several trips on the peninsula and 
nuinland. ll embraces about loo specimens, the most interesting 
IxiBgsome heavy elaborate bead-work head-dresses, some of them 
nighinj; as much as 2}^ pounds. 

The collections made by the United States Signal Service observers 
in u follows : 

1. One, by C. L. McKay, from in and around Bristol Bay, north 
of the Alaska peninsula, from (he Nushagag-mut and Ogulmut 
Elkimos of that region, about 45 specimens in all, including a full 
«tfit for a Beluga whale-himier. which was exhibited in London 
Im jfear. This outfit includes harpoons, lines, buoys, extra heads, 
kilhng lances, etc. A second collection of about 50 or 60 speci- 
BKtu, consisting of household utensils and articles of personal adorn- 
■nil.wcre received after the death of McKay. He was drowned in 
Apn!, 1883, while out in a fyai in Nushagak river in bad weather. 
1. One, by J. J. McLean, from around Sitka, which had been 
pwty well worked up by other coUectore. Besides the usual lot of 
*WdeQ carvings, kanlags, or wooden dishes, etc., there are some 
fat specimens of native wicker and basket work in the collection 
(lade from a sjiecies of plant, /rii tenax). 

J. A kyak. with complete fittings, from Greenland, deposited by 
iW chief signal officer of the army. (It was exhibited in London,) 
* The Point Barrow collection, which was brought down when 
*teipcdition returned recently. The collection is a good one, 
•lid etDbru-es over 700 spctimens. Mr. Murdock is now working 
4 the collection, and I will not anticipate his report. Part of the 
oriier collection which came down on the " Corwin " went to 
London to the Fisheries Exhibit. 

J. Ui. Slcjncgcr. of the Signal Service, made a small collection 
fam tbe Aleuts on Behring Island, Commander group (off the coast 


of Kamschatka). There are some interesting models of ; 
bear traps and boats, some seal-skin costumes worn in thd 
dances, besides some accessories of costumes peculiar to th€ 

6. A collection coming more properly under 1884 was ) 
several weeks since from L. M. Turner, of the Signal Servi 
the Eskimos of Ungava Bay, North Labrador. It is a fine 
embraces over 450 specimens. The articles have not the oi 
look that most Eskimo implements have, which indicates th 
collectors have been among them recently, although a gra 
specimens are models of traps, snow-shoes, tobogans, and 
and are necessarily new. There are some large tobogans an 
shoes of a peculiar pattern that will be alluded to below. 1 
tumes are peculiarly handsome, and show the effects of 
with civilization. 

A second collection from Fisher, made in the Aleutian 
pelago and Alaska Peninsula, has just been received. It 
of about 120 specimens of costumes, peculiar Aleutian hati 
hold utensils, accessories of costume, etc. 

Among the small purchased collections may be men tie 
Zufti sacred blanket, one hundred Peruvian water-bottles 01 
and some shoes, hats, dishes, baskets, etc., (from the L 
Indians of South California,) woven of mescal fibre and pain 

1. Among the principal donations are 40 musical insti 
supplemental to the set of American musical instruments, 
sented by M. J. Howard Foote, of 31 Maiden Lane, New! 

2. The original Catlin collection of Indian portraits, etc., 
by him during his eight years amongst the 48 tribes, of whi( 
handed down to us these most valuable ethnological records, 
are alxnit 500 in the collection which Mrs, Harrison, of 1 
phia, hxs so generously presented to the Institution. One I 
and fifty have Ikxmi selectoii and placed on exhibition in thi 
room of the National Museum, and arrangements are beii 
to incrciso the exhibit. The selection now exhibited is o 
each small trilx\ two or more tVom the important tribes, f 
illustrating hunting scenes, ceremonial dances, etc. 

3. At the i Ivxso of the Boston Exhibition recently some 5i 
instruments, nmncrous clay figures, and varioos olher fl 
were prescMitc\l to the Institution by Sorilldro liollini TMl 
of one of the provinces of India and pwiHtem of^MJl^H 
school. The collection of musical 



and the Museum is talcing steps to obtain a siipp1en;ieDtal 
ion to complete the series, Tliis collection was installed a 
1)1 since and is now on exhibition, 
ig ihc principal exthange collections are : 
Some miscellaneous weapons from Polynesia and South 
obtained at the Fisheries Exhibition, 
me i6 musical instruments and accessories from Tiflis, 
ocasus, obtained through Mr. Engleman, of St. Louis, 
jt About 40 specimens from the Leipzig Museum, consisting 
«f knives, bows, arrow-s, baskets, mats, etc., from Africa, particii- 
\B\f the Loango Coast and Gaboon river, on the west coast. The 
admitsbic native steel implements are well illustrated. This col- 
iKtion, combined with a few stray or miscellaneous articles and 3 
■nuU collection by Rev. Dr. Gurley, constitutes but a meagre 
Africsn ethnological exhibit. 

TTw Museum has just sent to the Trocadero, at Paris, an ethno- 
logiul collection selected from the material in its possession, and 
doobilm their exchange will embrace some additions to the above. 
Mr. J. G. Swan, in addition to the regular collection which he 
Mfidiin from time to time, made last summer a special trip for the 
Smittttonian Institution to the Queen Charlotte Islands, B. C, 
ikI the results have just been received. 

In die early jiart of the year he sent in some photographs and 
iboQi 100 »|)ecimena supplemental to his series of collections illus- 
tnting ihc n«heri« of the Indians in and around Cape Flattery, 
W, \. (The complete collections went to London.) 

Ifce trip referred to above he started from Masset Sound (N. 
Island) and coasted around the west side, then through 
Channel to the southeast coast ; then home to Victoria, 
he has partially carried out his long-cherished desire, it 
hoped thai his forthcoming notes will prove as valuable as 
previously published. A better knowledge of the Haidah 
totemic carvings is desired. The collection is rich in 
xl •carvings, ladles, ancient stone implements, ropes, 
an's wands, ceremonial bows, whistles, rattles, fishing 
bot particularly so in the slate carvings, of which he sends 
iishn, boxes, and models of totem posts. There 
1/ on Itand a sufScient number of specimens to illustrate 
carvings and working in silver, but the additions 
igs have made it appear desirable to install the 


latter as a monographic collection illastrating this art, wfai 
places the Heddaks at the head of the Indians of the i 

A comparison and study of all the earrings firom the Ji 
to be made, as it is difficult for the uninitiated to make on 
tinguish between the conventional representation of anima 
Haidak totemism and mythology offer a most promising 

Mr. Swan is anxious to make another trip, during the 
season, a attend to great celebration to be held in the fi 
Director has the matter now under consideration. 

The Fisheries Exhibit, having returned from London 
turned over to the Museum, and will form a monographic oc 
The Makah Exhibit, collected by Swan, and the Eskimi 
seal, and walrus hunting outfits are peculiarly interesting t 

In the matter of exchange, the Museum has recently sen 
Trocadero, at Paris, a small collection of models of ruins i 
dwellings, ethnological material from Zuniy Maqmiy and our 
Indians. The Museum has available for exchange a grea) 
material from the collections of the Bureau of Elthnology 
northwest coast and Alaska collections. 

In the matter of collecting every year increases the value' 
logical material. When Congress shall wake up to the n 
of making more liberal appropriations it will be found th 
been false economy to delay in the matter. A few thousan 
now will represent a much greater outlay in future years. 

The outlook for anthropological collections for 1884 
encouraging. Fisher. McLean, and Swan will be the mail 
No one hx'^ yet taken McKay's place, and Nelson has per 
withdrawn. Grocly's ixirty must have abandoned their a 
North, and the present relief expedition can hardly a< 
much. Foulk and Bcmadon may be heard from in Cora 

.\s stated originally the year 1SS3 ^^^ he^n a prosperoq 
the Smithsonian and National Museum. ■ 



As a nile the earlier collcv tions have lost WHlfl^H 
both from the want of care in preserving d 


ffld from tbc absolute neglect of the collectors to forward any. A 
litlc preliminary experience of collectors in the Museum, before 
joinginto the field, would impress it forcibly on the minds of such 
tbt the descriptive cards should be practically written by the col- 
lectors in the field. Nelson and Swan have shown the best realira- 
tkm of this principle. The general form of the descriptive card 
adapted to the Museum, to accompany each specimen exhibited, is 
IS follows : 

Object, (local or native name). ..^Materials of which made ; 

brief description; use. Tride or person by which used. 

Dimensions, length, ^, breadth, ^, etc. 

Exact locality, 18 — , (date of collection). Museum number. 

How and through whom acquired. 

Fuller and more special notes in smaller type are appended as to 
origin, special variation in form and use in various localities, notes 
I OB the general series of which the specimen is a representative. 

Each object or general series of objects is to be accompanied by 
nch a label or card further supplemented by pictures or photographs 
'hen necessary to more clearly illustrate how the object is used or 
»om, or to show pattern where the object is folded or obscured. 
Fhc cards are printed on herbarium board. Those on white paper 
irc to send to other museums, preserve as records, and for use in 
cakmg up the catalogues which will eventually be published. 

(Ed. : Specimens were here exhibited of cards and photographs 
akcn from specimens already on exhibition in the Museum.) 

Cards are now being attached to the specimens already out, and 
I plan is under way to collect all the ethnological material not yet 
Bslailcd in one large store-room, where it is to be systematically 
dassificd. The incoming collections can be distributed according 
iD the plan adopted, and duplicates can be selected before this tem- 
|Pnrj storage. This plan will greatly facilitate the routine work. 
L Cfcater progress has not been made in installing and describing 
Bifecillieiis and collections for many reasons, but principally on 
HM||.«C the various exhibits prepared at the Museum, which have 

'•nrtof the force from the regular work, and besides 
letng made as to cases and styles of mounting 


general and special exhibits. Moreover the force emplo 
very large, but when the Fish Exhibit is permanently insfc 
will be more men available for the routine work. 

Recently published criticisms on the classification apd 
arrangement now provisionally adopted in the Museum h 
to a certain extent that there is a misunderstanding as t 
far the Museum is committed to any definite plan. Tb 
unit box, in which specimens from the same locality an 
for exhibition, enables a provisional classification to b( 
The boxes slide in and out of the cases, and the whole d 
the present arrangement can be altered and radically chi 
day. By putting only a few specimens in each box, re 
for future collections supplemental to those now installed 

Classification and method of installation depend up( 
considerations. The material on hand determines the fo 
experiment and trial the latter. Without going at all inl 
ject of Museum classifications in general, or into the /utur 
ment of the National Museum, it seems that every imme 
sideration demands something like the present one, howi 
it may be understood or misunderstood from the publishec 
to that effect. 

The broad aim of the present plan is a teleologic clai 
one by usr rather than by morphology. The comparatii 
has boon adopted in preference to the ethnographic b« 
demanded by the nature of the material on hand, and tc 
extent iK^ttor suited to the American mental habit of an 
comjurison. I will try and illustrate these points by s 

For a few tribes and regions an ethnographical an 
would answer admirably, viz., the Eskimos, Zufiians, Ma 
tiahs, Maka/'is, and our U'est<rrn and Alaska Indians, b 
general plan wv>uld l>o absurd and but show up the mea 
our i\>lloi tions tVom every other region. Picture Corea 
snull trays <yi stuff that ean but be vaguely referred to 
with three, and South Ameriea with onlv several cases! 
Japanese, rhinese. aiul Indian eollections would hardly 
sui h an arran^^euK'nt. Should Congress become suddei 
and plaee a luuil at the diNposition of the Museum to eflj 
senvi out intelligent ev^lleetors well informed as to the ^'-^ 
it would doubtless oeeui in the course of time tlv 



iniogciDHit would be demanded as the only natural one (supple- 
wnrtd of course by occasional and separate comparative coitec- 
liom.) With the miscellaneous collections that arc likely to come 
it, however, unless Congress does make special appropriations, the 
pnscni arrangement is likely to be found the best one, A thorough 
oi exhaustive ethnographic collection would show each product of 
icountry's clvilizatiun in the different stages of its evolution and 
dmiopmcnt, but with a miscellaneous and scattered collection we 
tai draw on various countries Co illustrate this development. 

A recent article on museum classification says " The comparative 
aabod ncccssanly cuts across the natural order of things in their 
ttluioDS to lime; and this is an obvious defect, which, when ap- 
plied to anthropological collections, is destructive of all natural 
rwceptioDS as to the way in which modiHcations and changes really 
arecor flow out of pre-existing, localiied, or racial conditions." 
U scans to me, as far as 1 may express any opinion on the subject, 
ikai the question tends to settle itself thus. 

Wiih exhaustive collections from representative tribes and with 
lAuent funds to hll out or supplement the collections the ethno- 
{nphic plan is the most desirable one. 

With «:altCTed and miscellaneous collections the comparative 
method makes the bctt use of the material. 

The Museum plan b an Improvement on each of the above, as it 
coBtbn the advantages of both. The classification provisionally 
tdopled » a Ideologic one, subject to spwcial modifications to suit 
To illustrate this: 
ibe Museum there is a collection of pipes from all parts of the 
Tlic Haidah carved black slaie pipe stands out as unique, 
ini((bt MHrm that the fault in this comparative method of ar- 
it a that it does not form a fair comparison of the intelli- 
artistic toatci and abilities of the various tribes represented, 
be argued that possibly the pipe was the only thing they 
or do carve. An ethnographic collection from this 
wwld show that they carve equally surprisingly in wood, 
r,, and have a deal of artistic taste. The Museum, 
iog this, make* a sejarate monographic collection and ex- 
of Haidah carvings, so we have one or two Haidah pipes 
IHpc collection, and, besides this, one or tivo in a mono- 
cgUection of Haidah catlings. 
lined in all cases where such arrangement may seem to be 




desired to thus draw off certain small ethnographic and 
collections to call attention to any instructive peculiaril 
tribe or race. It also happens at times that large obj< 
be left out of a comparative collection. In fact, any 
must be based on compromise and must yield to exceptii 

As an illustration of how we may show the developi 
lution of any object with a widely scattered collection 
the snow-shoe collection in the Museum. It is mounted 
in the comparative style. If we had exhaustive colU 
any one stock of Indians, say, we might show this develo] 
by step (by the ethnographic method) from the time the] 
or originated the idea up to its highest development. 
With the material at the Museum this evolution can oi 
gested, as the steps are very wide, and intermediate ones 
hand. We must in this adopt Mr. Spencer's plan of 
primitive man by our present savage tribe. 


Prof. Mason called attention to the advantages deri 
systematic classification and arrangement of the materi 
collections like that of the Smithsonian Institution, 
that an organized effort should be made looking toward «{ 
zation of the many resources afforded by the various depai 
the Government for information valuable to the studcj 
thropology, and that the attention of the scientific world] 
directed to the scope and character of these resources. 

Mr. Flint spoke of the manner in which aboriginal i 
been followed up and finally developed, illustrating his it 
showing how a study of the possibilities of the arrow as a 
had resulted in its use for throwing explosives under a 
pressure, for which^-several patents have already issued. 

Eightieth Regular Meeting, March 15, 1884 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 
The Secretary of the Council reported the election off 
ing-named gentlemen as corresponding members of the J 

Charles C. Abbott, Trenton, N. J. ■" 

Hknrv B. Adams, Baltimore, Md. 


Kn. Jo&Kni Anderson, Waterbury, Conn. 

Mr, H. H. BANtROrr, San Francisco, Cal. 

Ml. Ad. F. Baniielieb, San Francisco, Ca!. 

Dr. DakielG. Brinton, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hi. Loqek Carr, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. John Collstt, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

lb. A. J. CoNAKT, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. GioxcE J. Enggluann, St. Louis, Mo. 

Prof. Basii. GiLDERSLEEVE, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. HoRA-no Hale, Clinton, Ontario, Canada. 

ftoT. G. Staklkv Hall, Baltimore, Md. 

Col. H. H. HiLDER. St. Louis, Mo. 

Eh. C. C. Jones, Augusta, Ga. 

Rev. GEORnE A. Leakin, Baltimore, Md. 

hof. E. S. Morse, Salem, Mass. 

hot Ratbael pLTitPELLY, Newport, R. I. 

Plot F. W. Putmam, Cambridge, Mass. 

CoL Charles WmrrLEsEV, Cleveland, O. 

Dr. Daniei. Wilson, Toronto, Canada. 

Ml !I. H. Bates read a paper entitled "Discontinuities in 
UiTCRt's Mkthods," of which the following is a synopsis: 

11* ingrnious analogy drawn by Mr. Babbage, in the ninth 
ftriljCTrater treatise, from the operations of his calculating machine, 
M esforce an argament in favor of the conceivability of miracle, 
^ Winging It under Ihc domain of law, was cited as illustrating some 
tfllie discontinuities of evolution, confessedly the result of simi- 
lu nmipirxiiies of natural law. 
The great distontinuity involved in the passage from inorganic 
c life, which wc infer to have taken place under law, but 
XitaderMand, was adverted to. .\lso such apparent dtscon- 
s u the passage from invertebrate to vertebrate life, or (he 
kdiKiion or mammalian life, from lower forms, with the obser- 
B thai wherever nature setms to have carried specialization to 
1 extent and to have cxiiausled the possibilities of structure 
■e difTerenlialioo nHc is found to have laid the foundation for 
^differentiation, and a new specialization, with higher possi- 
I, from a different slem low down in the scale, constituting an 
It ducontinuity, on account of ihe obscurity and feebleness 
Ihalability o( the Am unspectalizcd departures, by which they 


were either unobserved or early obliterated throogh the 
of competition. 

Passing over the wide domain of biology, which affords 
instances of this complexity of natural action, illustrati 
same law were sought in the domain of anthropology, 
vent of man, and his means of progress, affords such 
The de\-elopment of the inventive faculty, as the distingu 
acteristic of mind, caused a modification of the old plan 
gress by natural selection. Instead of being himself m^ 
nature, as hitherto, man began to act upon nature, both 
and inorganic, and to modify it to his needs, as Mr. Wij 
pointed out. Henceforth natural selection affected onlj 
and ethnic qualities, through modification of nervous si 
Phi-sical modincation ceased to any important extent. In| 
developing weapons, man constructed e.xtrareous ones fori 
With these he conquered competition and removed thl 
most cognate to himself. Militarism ensued, and resulted] 

Differentiation, however, soon reaches its highest resultf 
direction, and obstructs further progress. An apparent, 
tinuitv occurred in the rise of indusnialism out of the hutnl 
ments of society, through the germination of inventions, be; 
with the ^ediscover^• of Cvinrowder, which was the coB 
ment of the downfall of milirarism. The tool-making at 
using faculty cinie in:o prv'^aiirker.ce. Pe^iceful arts began toi 
man s condition Nx ameliontec. and a new progress supf 
The new dirxvtion of ovo' development was adv« 
Man. haxin*: vx\i>c\: tv^ c\vl\e rv vhvj:c:il selection. e\oh'e 
traiKVus organs, \Vc\;ivr> .ind tools were the beginning c ho h.i> ,\I>o ro\\ cror.r.ous'.y ce\-eloped his means i 
\\\kK\<>v.^ as well .In h:>> of special sense and ex| 
HtN c\o \N roinforvN\l In the to'.escor^ .ir.d niicroscope and 
tuM; vicxuv h.o nv\\l> : ".< c,;r b\ the telephone. The pit 
.trttxtK" uutiiNtrx titT:v,Nh hn\ w;th r.*<*ar.s for unlimited graf 
of the ,v^;hc:v t,u -,:*.:% :n Ovxvr,itior. The cniiiiaiyait 
hux^ tu^ra sv'^nu* of thv* ^•^:H•o•*> of digestKMl and 
tAngx* ot uutT-.uvr.t \'* ;*vv;* o\traneo;i$ WKtm 
\\it:v.!v ttwii I he vvvi *.o^ o'. v*.xn-v\o:\aeiit of Aft 


Mo:aI and othuAl vloxvtoi^'.vi^t *^a^v' tsx flV 


mice the dawn of history, on account of the lack hitherto of any 
dKOvery in that field commensurate with, the important dis- 
(Owrits which modified his intellectual progress. Such a discovery 
•wtlJaiTord, by its results, an instance of a Inie and beneficent 
diiajDliniiity. The necessity has always been recognized, and 
tniay theories broached which accomplished great temporary re- 
elts but failed of permanent fruit for want of confirmation. 

The operation of discontinuities in the complex law of evolution 
i» not always or necessarily beneficent. Nature is not optimistic, 
iod diicontinulies are known to have occurred which were disastrous 
aid rarograde, js geological history evinces. Dissolution is in- 
Tolreil in evolution. 

itt. Lestkr F. Ward said that he welcomed the term "discon- 
hamty " in this new sense a.s supplying a need in biology. Its old 
latto denote actual breaks in the series and the special creation 
tnd fixity of species was no longer believed to express a scientific 
truth. But a special terra was needed to designate certain apparent 
hrub which occur at_ irregular intervals both in the development 
pf Wc and of society. Among these he enumerated the origin of 
life through the introduction of the substance protoplasm, the com- 
paniively abrupt appearance of vertebrated animals which seem to 
hart Wen developed from one of the lowest forms of invertebrate 
Bfe, Ibe equally radical change which resulted in the mammalian 
(^,u>d ihe remarkable "short cut" by which man was reached 
iboDgh the lemurian and simian stem, leaving the other great 
braaches, the tarmjwra, ungu/ata, etc, entirely out of his path. He 
ial. in a fiaper read at a jirevious meeting, laid special stress upon the 
Men introduction of the developed brain of man, with 
- consequences, as the first and greatest of this series 
,md sociologic strides to which Mr. Bates' paper was 

reply lo remarks by Dr. Welling and Prof. Thomas inquiring 

Diit kind of discontinuity was to be distinguished from the 

bitBtks postulated by the old school of biologists, Mr. Ward 

It ihc reconciliation was effected through a recognition of 

vcU-tsiftb limbed law of the ephemeral character of Iransi- 

The variations of structure which are destined to re- 

dCMninant type lake place at a jxiint low down in the 



scale. The first modified forms are few and feeble and 
permanent record of their existence. The modifications 
to give them a firm foothold take place with rapidity and t1 
mediate gradations are lost. The first evidence the investij 
that a new departure has taken place is the appearance of tl 
or less completely modified type, and it seems as though tl 
been a fresh act of creation, or saltus. 

President Welling said he would like to have Mr. Ba| 
plain the precise sense in which he used the term " discontS 
before conceding its necessity as an addition to scientific ii 
clature. Without such explanation it would perhaps be li 
many that the facts and principles recited in the essay were« 
ently covered by that law of succession, differentiation, anl 
gration which the reflective mind of man had spelled out fn 
ongoings of nature. In these ongoings there had been oc 
discontinuations as well of processes as of products, but no 
tinuitx. If anv actual discontinuitv must be admitted th 
whole doctrine of evolution, as commonlv conceived, must 
the ground, for that doctrine proceeds on the assumption < 
petual continuity amid perpetual discontinuations in natun 
cesses. These perpetual discontinuations do but mark out the 
continuity along which nature hxs worked in the normal ma 
and projection \>\ her processes and products. Discontinuati 
matters o\ fact, but the principle which colligates them is ^^4 
not iiiscc *Ui*iuit\ . 

In illustration of this point of view Mr. Welling then cit 
latest and niv^st stupendous evolution of man in society, ko 
international law. This law was built on the perpetual diso 
ation of customs, practices, ar.d institutions dating from th 
primitive lorms ot* so. ial organization down to the presen 
but none the les> had it Kxmi b;:il: without the slightest 1< 
eontinniiy in the ]^rovess ot' its evolution, for each successive 
entiation in Mvial ar.d national R-laiions had only paved I 
lor a new intocration in thor.izht and action. 

Prot". Thomas s,Uv1 tliat he agreed with Mr. Bates and Pro( 
in l>elie\in,c the term •* diM^-^ntinuity" was properly; 
in s|x\ikinp iM' some ot' the proeessos of nature. In folloi 
the line of proi:n^N in the v;evelv>pment of animal life WM 
branches shovMin^; out on either hand. For illiatnli|HH 
iVoni the higher Annuloida. Hn\loy*s S< 


lioe, the Annulosa, to the Arthropoda, culminating in the higher in- 
ects. Here this branch appears to cease and is wholly separated 
ran any of the higher forms of animal life. Here Prof. Thomas 
eliered was a true discontinuity. 

On the other hand, starting near the same p>oint, was another 
ranch embracing the mollusca. 

The great vertebrate line, instead of originating from any of the 
igher forms of either of these branches, was supposed to arise di- 
xtly or through a few transitional forms out of the Tunicata, the 
bcidian form. 

There arc many diverging branches, and as it appeared to be a 
iw that no diverging line ever returned to the main stem or co- 
leseed with another there must be discontinuities. No evolutionist 
in admit that there are any absolute gaps or breaks in the line of 
evclopment, as this would be fatal to his theory. The line must 
e continous or the theory must fall to the ground. 

Mr. Mason said that phenomena might be associated in such 
roaps as to be habitually observed together. Now, the mind be- 
ig lamed for a while toward one part of a group, returns to find a 
rcat change. There* has been a discontinuity. Let us further 
!'>iratc. If we were studying Indian pottery, we should want to 
'\eNtigate the material, the implements, the agent, the process, the 
Hhhed product, and the design, or final cause. Here are six sets 
I entirely different observations, the discontinuance of any one of 
r.u.h would produce an apparent discontinuity in the final result, 
rai material might give out ; it might be replaced by other material ; 
'?w tools might be invented or imparted. The change of social 
■'Cer might throw the industry into other hands, as for instance, 
i>xtcrs might become men instead of women The introduction of processes, the multiplication of functions by the increase of 
»ints would bring about the same result. Tlie disconnections are 
*P?arent therefore, they are not real. In short, discontinuity any- 
"^ cither in natural or social phenomena is impossible. 

Eighty-First Regular Meeting, April i, 1884. 

Fletcher, Vice-President, In the Chair. 
of the Council announced the election of the fol- 


Prince Roland Bonaparte, St. Cloud, France; Prof. A. 
lovsky. Sec. Imperial Russian Archaeol. Soc, St. Petersbuq 
Enrico Giglioli, V.-Pres., Anthropological Soc., Florence,. 
Prof. Johannes Ranke, Editor Correspondenz-Blatt, Germi 
thropological Soc, and Sec. Anthropological Soc., Munich. 

A paper entitled *' Recent Indian Graves in Kansas,! 
pared by Dr. Alton H. Thompson, of Topeka, Kansas, wi 
by Colonel Seely. 


The writer in 1879 ^issisted in the examination of four gn 
an old burial ground connected with the mission to the 
wotomies, six miles west of Topeka. The ground appears I 
been the site of a former Indian village, believed by some I 
l)een occupied by Crows. Careful inquiry, however, mal 
identity of these people with that tribe very doubtful. Tl 
the graves were accurately oriented, the fourth being much in 
as if made when the sun was at its northern limit. Besk 
bones the first grave yielded quite a number of metal omi 
consisting of disks of rolled silver with stamped perforatic 
incised ornamentation, small silver buckles, and pieces of 
like cheap br^s watch-chains, all evidently of white manul 
The traders say that it was formerly common to receive 
from the Indians, from which ornaments were made and fu 
to those who had ordered them. Sometimes they also pi 
sheets of brass and silver, which they worked according t 
fancy. Silver coins, particularly the old Spanish dollars, wei 
beaten out by the Indians into disks, and ornamented. 

The condition of the remains in the first grave indicated i 
much more ancient than the others. No trace of clothing oi 
enclosure for the body appeared. In the second, a fractun 
skull showed that the person had probably met death by vi 

The body had been enclosed in a hollow log or in bark, 
and in the third and fourth graves, leather leggins, blankets < 
manufacture, and a silk handkerchief were found, all much 

The skulls were all of true Indian type. The writer proj 
continue his researches in this interesting locality. 



iVof. THOiussaid that the paper was valuable as tending to throw 
ligb 00 the sabject of intrusive burial and mentioned in connection 
dbnrith some recent finds in Wisconsin. 

Kr. Proudfct said that he had obtained from an Indian grave 
in Soathwestern Iowa silver disks similar to those mentioned by 
Or. Thompson. 

Dr. Fletcher, referring to the flattening noticed in certain skulls 
ahomed by Dr. Thompson, expressed the belief that such condition 
vas probably not due to pressure in burial. 

Cobnel Seely said that from what we now know it is evident that 
the avage was far more than a straggler in the wilderness. The 
remains of various ritualistic s)rstems suggests a more elaborate con- 
<xpdoo in such matters than is consistent with notions previously 
atertiined concerning the savage state. As illustrating this line 
of inquiry Col. Seely read an extract from the Gippsland Mercury, 
br January, 1884, giving an account of certain aboriginal ceremonies 
vitnesKd by A. W. Howitt on the occasion of admission of the 
ywiths of the Kumai tribe to the dignity of manhood. 

Eighty-Second Regular Meeting, April 15, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Curator reported the following gift: Final report of the 
.Anthropometric Committee of the British Association. 
A Yote of thanks was passed to the donors. 

Dr. J. M. Gregory read a paper on the *' Elements of Modern 


Cirilization is the supreme fact in sociology. It is the compre- 

boiflve name of all that marks progress and well-being in society 

i&d states. It is also the highest criterion by which to test the 

wloe of social institutions. Whatever promotes civilization we 

proQoance good and useful ; whatever abases or destroys it is bad. 

What is civilization ? What are the essential elements of which 
k B composed, and by which it may be described ? These are ques- 
mm which confront the student of sociology at the outset of his 


To answer these questions properly drives as to a deeper m 
it raises the profounder question. Is civilization external or il 
Is it in the man, or in his surroundings? In the general wi^ 
of us will admit that it is in the man — in man and in sociel 

Settling down then upon the clear truth that civilization i 
tially internal, that it is of the mental man, though work! 
wardly into necessary forms and movements, another questH 
up to confront us. This question is as to the proper metb 
direction of our search. Shall we call to our aid our own cc 
experience, and look to find what there is in man that imp 
to outward action ; or shall we neglect the mental forces an 
our study tp external facts to ascertain their character, clam 
connections ? 

If we decide to confine our quest to the material and vid 
of social life, shall it be to the present or the past ; shall i 
among the fo^il remains of a paleozoic sociology, or shall 
to analzye the phenomena of a living sociology? 

No science can dispense with the study of the past, and 
students must acknowledge the usefulness as well as the cia 
terest which attaches to the discoveries of the archaeologist i 
ontologist, but Herbert Spencer sa>*s " it is hopeless to tn 
the external factors of social phenomena to anything like t 

We may without debate accept the doctrine of an evol 
civilization. All history implies development, or evolutioi 
term is preferred. It exhibits the emergence of the new oi 
old. the complex from the simple, the tribe from the fan 
nation from the tribe, the civilized from the savage. But 
lution of society is not, as some represent it, a mere ph; 
bioric evolution. It is anthropic, and more, it is spirif 
volitional. Human passions, intellections, and volitions 
admitted as evolvinij forces. 

The under estimate of the value of consciousness as a 9 
dennite knowledge, and the over estimate of the value of tb 
and savage social lorms are lK»th serious mistakes of social 

History rises out of the ph)*sical and the mechanical, and 
human only by the intrcKluction of the human intellij 
its causes and forces : and to refuse the aid of coi 
s:::dy and interpretation of history is to place it 


sdaces of geology and astronomy, or at best to rank it with the 
biok^cal studies of botany and geology. Some have already taken 
tliis ground, driven, as they affirm, by the stem logic of observed 
bets. Sentient being appears to them as one of the phases of evo- 
iotioo of ph3rsical nature, and subject to the same laws as other 
physical phenomena. Such a theory may seem delightfully simple, 
but it is fearfully suicidal, since it hopelessly invalidates all the acts 
of thought and intelligence by which this or any other truth can 
Doubtless sociology and civilization have their laws of evolution 
' IS potential if not also as clear as those of the physical sciences ; 
lad these laws may be studied in the savage and archaic stages of 
society as well as in the more recent and more complex. Some- 
times t law will be seen even more clearly in the earlier and 
ampler stages of evolution ; but the higher evolution ordinarily in- 
Tohrcs forms and functions wholly unknown to the lower; and the 
complex modem civilization exhibits classes of phenomena of which 
ibe savage gives no hint or promise, or gives it only in so rudi- 
ncntal a form as to be unrecognizable, except in the light of fuller 

If now, we accept the conclusions that civilization is essentially 

internal, that its external phenomena are the necessary outcome of 

t^c nature of man and of society ; if we further agree that our study 

<"'t civilization must begin with it as it exists, here and now ; if we 

i-ceptas a guiding truth that there is nothing in the essential 

nature and attributes of man which does not find its expression in 

hbtor}', and that there is nothing essential in history which does not 

f*3d Its root and explanation in the nature of man, then our search 

Jo: the elements of civilization narrows its field to a study of those 

a^rnmon and universal principles, or instinctive activities, in the 

hcTian being which work outwardly into the facts and usages of 

Kcicty, meeting and modified as they must be by environment ; or, 

to state the same thing objectively, it is to select, classify, and study 

iQ common universal social phenomena in the light of our conscious 

itttiiicts, needs, and activities. In physics we ascend from effects 

f^amts; from phenomena to forces; in sociology the cause is a 

■pdocB one and we may safely descend from force to phenomena. 

Ijkraethod being explained and defended, we march to results. 




The commonest fact of human consciousness is the e: 
the vital wants, hunger, thirst, and the desire of proper 
These act as a steady force compelling men to the efforts 
their gratification. Out of these powerful and persistent 
spring through the slow round of the ages, what we call 
arts, the food-producing, the cloth or clothes-making and dj 
ing arts ; and ancillary to these, the arts of the tool-mal 
machinist, and of those who collect, prepare or transport ti 
for the others. As the satisfaction of these wants is the ▼! 
dition of human existence, so these arts are the broadest 
mental element of external civilization. They uphold and 
all the others ; and their advancement at once measures f 


motes the social progress of which they are most prominent 
The vital wants of mankind are at first merely animal, i 
as simple as they are sa\'age ; but they steadily multiply, d 
and refine with ever)- advance in man's intellectual and sd 
velopment, till they mingle and interlock with all the highe 
and artistic tastes of civilized men. Keeping pace with tl 
rude efforts, scarcely to be called arts, which supply the lo 
of the wild roan, divide and differentiate into all the innii 
industries of the highest sociologic condition. Thus the a 
a present hunger which drives the savage to the chase wii 
into the prudent care for all future hungers, and the food-pi 
arts grow with the variations of soil and climate into thee 
reach of agricultural industries and the hundred commercia 
facturing, chemic, and cooking arts till farms, forests, c 
gardens, and breeding >;«*aters, with mills, and manufactorii 
the continents with their costly array to satisfy the needs of 

So also the shivering desire for shelter and i:lothing w 
savage s;\tistios with the tanned skin of his game, and with ) 
hut, wigwam or tent, grog's into that broad economy wil 
houses, lulaces. and cities, and evoh-es the great fomily of 
arts which (.hh iipy and enrich so many thoisands of mank 
lUit however vast and v.iried these usefoi juts they all li 
to the vital wants as their source and spring; and 
are jvrsiNtent, anil pr^*ss alwa}'^ with 
phenomena must constitute a univcnal and 



Ken (he vital wants, as asociologic force, may be couiiied the 
poDp of social inatincls. The sexual appetite which perpetuates 
thence and furnish^ (he basis of die family, the most natural and 
DOd pcnisicni form of social organiistion, stands foremost of these, 
hi it does not stand alone. Working with it is the love of off- 
^ing, »nd next to this comes that desire of companionship which 
•t oujr cAlt (be social instinct proper. 

Ta the ntndent of modem civilization it matters little by what 
kog cTolalions these instincts gathered their present form and force ; 
iW mipcl men to live in communities and support the complex 
Sncturc of society. Acting among men in the savage state, they 
p&a tiicm into tribes with scarcely more of organization than the 
anle ihal feed in herds or the birds that fly in flocks. But develop- 
ing muh Uic advance of mankind in intelligence, by a process simi- 
tolo thai noticed in the useful arts, they finally produce highly organ- 
Utd lociety and states, with all their array of social and political 
oumauiii institutions, 
TV «vial inMinct is strengthened as men find that society afl'ords 
' if't)' against enemies and widens the field of their arts 
iiii.ins. Self-interest acts in the same direction as the 
^ .ind doubles its effects; but we may doubt whether 
advantages of safety and profit sufficiently account for 
bEraicienic and power of the social instinct. 
I hiie ftroa)>ed together the three facts of the sexual, the paren- 
Ihc proper social desires; but each of these gives also its 
itiar remits in our civilization. Out of the sexual desire 
invriage institutions, and as the human species seem natur- 
anoda(c in pairs, all abnormal institutions, like polygamy 
lyandrya, must result not from natural instinct but from some 
itics of savage society. The strong feeling in favor of the 
IDS family shows that the native disposition of mankind 
pairs and not towards herds. 

ml instinct would give simply a married pair; the off- 
iistinci bmlds the permanent family. The love of offspring 
hi tort of cilcnsion of self-love — the widening and perpetuation 
« and of personal power and possessions. It thus tends to 
Uioo of aristocracies and dynasties, 
social instinct added causes the family to become persistent 


and widens it out into the patriarchate and tribe — the earli 
simplest forms of political society. 

Victor Cousin puts the sense of justice as the foundation p 
of the state ; but justice is simply regulative, and serves I 
the organization and maintenance of a society already exist 
builds a government to protect those whom the social instill 
drawn together. 


Next to the vital wants, proceeding in the natural order, 
come, perhaps, the a&sthetic tastes — the love of the beautifa 
whatever inspires the higher emotions. The universality ol 
thetic feeling is proved by the fact that it is found in early cl 
and among savages as well as among the mature and the c 
Out of these tastes come the fine and decorative arts, sculptur 
ing, architecture, landscape gardening, music and poetry, 
the ornamentation of dress or abode, with the graceful fo 
bright coloring which men give to the commonest implei 
life. Public amusements, in nearly all their forms, are bu 
peal to some aesthetic principle, and what are known as thi 
ments of civilization are but applications of the same princi] 
an element of civilization it is constant and often comit 
giving its chief coloring to some of the most noted civilis 
the world. 


Advancing another step in our search we find in man, as 
instinct, the love of knowledge or love of truth. It is the 
tual appetite. It is shown in the tireless curiosity of childb 
savages, and in the universal tendency of mankind to i 
causes of phenomena. 

Out of this intellectual appetite springs another group ol 
civilization — such as science, philosophy, literature, educat 
language itself. 

Whatever may have been the genesis of this power of th< 
the steps in its evolution, it is one of the largest forces in civ 
and it rises by a natural gravitation to the summit and d 
and directs all others. It is by the aid of his intelligence } 
emerges from savagery, and achieves civilization. Withj 

of science, all arts, useful and fine, and all institutio 

political, take on new forms and rise to higher powc 



There remains in man another power or instinct which works out 
historical results, and is one of the elementary forces in civilization. 
It ii the religious nature or faculty — that power within which pushes 
Bia CO a recognition and worship of the divine. Efforts have been 
oude to find the origin of this feeling in man in the reverence for 
gresu men, or in the superstitious fear of the powers of nature ; but 
oar inquiry is not with the origin of the faculty. We find it in its 
foil grown state, and gathered around it we find the various institu- 
tions of religion, the schemes of faith and of morals, and coming 
froo these, the most important and influential body of usages and 
opinioaf known to civilization. Whatever philosophers and men 
of fcieoce may think of this element in civilization, few have the au- 
dicity to propose its overthrow without an effort to replace it with 
me sobstitute which may give to society the moral suppK}rt and 
tcfiilation that religion affords. 

This enumeration of the elements of modern civilization is ex- 
koBtive. Under one or another of these five fundamental facts 
ill constant phenomena of civilization may be classed. In no civ- 
iiiucion are they absent, though they enter into different civilizations 
nr)t only in different forms but also in different degrees of strength 
in<! domination. 

>oroe of the results of these five primal factors become in time 
prominent forces or factors in civilization. Thus the wealth which 
«-Ofttes from the arts becomes in turn a great economic power ; and 
thr governments which arise out of the social needs end by becom- 
ing iocizl forces of enormous strength. So to the external influences 
vaich press upon social growths — the physical environments and the 
political distributions and organizations to which they give rise, may 
f^y be taken for new and independent factors, they are at most 
onir secondary and modifying forces and not true original elements, 
it least in the restricted study of civilization as it presents itself in 
tooric time. 


i Mr. Ward remarked that he had long ago felt the need of a fresh 

tftodiod for the study of social science. The current method 

nrit with the facts objectively considered, whereas a truly scientific 

hod must discover and recognize the forces by which social 


phenomena are operated, just as all tnie physical science cc 
itself with physical forces. Perceiving this, he had recogni 
the physical desires of the human body the true social foro 
he had formulated the distinction between the true scientific! 
and that which is commonly pursued as the distinction hetvn 
study of society from the standpoint of feeling and its stud 
the standpoint of function. The current method of studyinj 
science was to study the acts themselves which the desires ; 
and their functional consequences ; whereas the new and truei 
would study only the desires themselves as social forces and 
rect results accomplished by the individuals thus actuated 
attainment of their satisfaction. The distinction is fundam 
the former method being properly designated as the static 
latter as the dynamic method. 

Mr. Ward had drawn up a system of classification of th 
forces according to the dynamic method which he presente 
suitable explanatory remarks, to the Anthropological Sectioi 
American Association for the Advancement of Science at its 
meeting in 1880, only a brief abstract of which was then pub! 
The system thus sketched was more fully elaborated and 
form was presented to this Society in a paper read on May 
May 16, 1882, and illustrated by charts prepared by Dr. 
Baker.f As it was then about to be published in permane 
it was not thought advisable to repeat it in the transactions 
Society. J 

Mr. Ward placed on the blackboard the outline of his 
cation of the social forces and showed that it coincided, wil 
slight exceptions, entirely with that which Prof. Gregory I 
sen ted. 

Eighty-Third Regular Meeting, May 6, 1884. 
Dr. Robert Fletcher, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

* Feeling and Function as Factors in Human Development. " BostC 
tiser," Sept. i. 1880, p. i ; The same more in detail with table of clas 
"Science," Oct. 23, 1880, p. 210. 

f Transactions of the Anthropological Society of Washington, VoL I 

X See * Dynamic Sociology," New York, 1883. chapters VII and Vfl 


Rev. J. Owen Dorsey read a paper entitled, '* Migrations of 
TM SiouAN Tribes." * 


Mr. Dorsey gave a classification of the Siouan tribes, including 
be Sioux proper, Assiniboin, Ponka, Omaha, Osages, Kansas, 
Iotas, Otos, Missouris, Winnebagoes, Mandans, Minntarees, Crows, 
«nd Tutelos. The general impression seems to have been that this 
stod moved from the northwest. Mr. Dorsey took an opposing 
view and traced the tribes from the southeast, up the streams, and 
from the region of the lakes westward. 


Major Powell said that investigations like that of Mr. Dorsey 
tre Ytry valuable — serving to dispel popular myths as to the great 
Dnmber of tribes, and locating ancient villages so that the archaeo- 
logical material could be saved. 

Prof. KIason said that he had commenced to work out a synonymy 
of all the tribes of North America, four years ago, under the patron- 
age of Major Powell. Since then many others had participated m 
the work, and the whole body of American literature had been ran- 
vi( ked. It was quite possible that many tribal names and references 
Have been overlooked. The members of the society, therefore, 
»oul<J confer a great favor by calling attention to such things 
•xcurring in out of the way places. 

Dr.E. M.GALLAUDETread a paper on ** International Ethics." 

There were in existence in Europe several societies whose object 

i> to discuss the subject of international relations. The speaker 

•»k the ground that the proix,'r basis of these relations should be 

rthial rather than legal. The law term for jus gentium was ob- 

;tr<.ttr(J to and the phrase international rights or international ethics 

^ij^ested. While nations would not listen to absolute commands 

>:' Liw. they have ever shown some willingness to listen to ethical 

armaments on the justification of their foulest acts by appealing to 

the verdict of humanity as to the justice of their cause. If publicists 

diouid insist that no act of nations should be justified that are noi 

V^t between individuals, the subject of international law would be 

* Printed in American Nalurali>t. Vol. xix. 


settled on a firm basis, and Mirabeau's words, ** Le droit csl 
verain du monde," would become a fact. The substitutioa 
tration for war would advance the reign of right, relieve i 
dens of taxation, make commerce free, and establish a broti 
of nations. 


Major Powell referred to the origin of the term '^/us ge 
and pointed out the fact that it meant the law found an 
nations, rather then international law. While law and ri| 
nearly synonymous, the history of law developes the d 
attending the determination of what is right. When that is a 
by the majority it then finds expression in law. As the peo 
nation find it difficult to ascertain what is justice, so tl 
obstacle is met in determining international rights. Refe 
certain publicists who sought to control the disposition off 
pending wars, he said that it was apparent that manki 
becoming more bclli^'erent, and that wars were more destrv 
life and property than formerly, 

The result, however, of all this was to lessen the nui 
nations, and with fewer nations, organization with a view 
manent peace became more probable. 

Mr. Otis Bigelow called attention to an extract taki 
'*Hebcr's Travels in India," (vol. 2, p. 28,) as follows: 

** The Braijarrees, or carriers of grain, a singular wander 
who pass their whole time in transporting grain from one 
India to the other — seldom on their own account but as aj 
more wealthy dealers. They move about in large bodies w 
wives and children, dogs and loaded bullocks. The mei 
armed as a protection against petty thieves. From the sn 
and armies of Hindustan they have no apprehensions. El 
tending armies allow them to pass and repass safely, nevei 
their goods without purchase or even preventing them if the 
from victualling their enemy's camp. Both sides wisely 
respect and encourage a branch of industry; the intemi] 
which might be attended with fatal consequence to either." 



Dr. Robert Fletcher, Vice-President, ii; the Chair. 

The Curator acknowledged the receipt of a series of photographs 

from Prince Roland Bonaparte, for which the thanks of the Society 
»trc voted. 

Dr. Swan M. Burnetf read a paper on '* Comparative Fre- 
^isa OF Certain Eye Diseases in the White /nd the Colored 
lUaiNTHE United States." 


Dr. Burnett related briefly the history of the manner in which 
decolored race was suddenly transported from its old to its new 
' tovironment. Now, physicians have been earnest in the inquiry 
bo* much this race has been affected by cont. ct with the superior 
race. Dr. Burnett himself has made extensive researches on this 
<}QCttion at the eye and ear dispensary, and his -^ddress was a repe- 
fitiun of his experience, 2,341 cases having been examined — 1,530 
•olorcd, I, Si I white. The statistics covered inquiries concerning 
<on->tituli<>nal diseases of the eye, as well as defects in the optical 
J"N!njmenl it>clt'. 'I'he most marked race difference is in the en- 
•irr a!)sen<:c of grarmlar lids in the blacks, wliile it forms quite a 
tifgc \tcT ( cnt. of eye disease among the whites. In healing power 
^bc riLcs are alike. 

r>r. Elmer Kevnolds read a paper on a '* Collection of 
AxnvriTiEs from Vendome, Senlis, and the Cave-Dwellings 
or France." 

Dr. Reynolds exhibited a beautiful collection of stone imple- 
Oer.:^ '=<rnt to him by correspondents in France, and his paper was 
I tarration of his story, reaching through the archaeolithic, the 
leoliihw, and the bronze age. The objects were sent by the Count 
k Miricourt and his brother, the Baron de Maricourt, as types of 
I tbe characteristic stone implements in France. Dr. Reynolds 
the collection in the light of his own experiences, and 
the method of manufacture and the uses of each. 






Spanish times, lie just outside of the inclosure of the station, and 
tbe road has been cut through these leveled works, and through the 
iccumulated refuse of a small suburban village, now represented by 
a dilapidated church and a few adobe hovels. 

The section exp>osed by the railway cuttings exhibits a curious 
i^iomeration of the deposits of all past human periods. The re- 
ttains of previous times and peoples — pottery, stone, and skeletons — 
hnt recently been redistributed by the greatest of all innovators, 
the spade of the Yankee. To those, therefore, who halt only to 
examine the deposits along the immediate line of the railway there 
iioothing visible but utter confusion, although a glance is sufficient 
to show that, in every spadeful, there is evidence of many widely 
teporated stages of art. 

Jost west of the line, however, and apparently outside of the old 
line of circumvallation is an area — an acre, more or less— on which 
an atensive manufactory of adobe bricks has been established. 
Here excavations have been made exposing the heretofore undis- 
turbed accumulations of past ages to the * depth often of eight or 
ten feet. 

The general surface of this area is p)erhaps from three to four feet 
below the broad masses of ancient ramparts, and is, at the same 
time, perceptibly elevated above the level of the lacustrine plain 
about it. It has been stated by a recent writer, that there is proba- 
bly no spot remaining about the city of Mexico that shows a trace 
of prc-Spanish structures, but I am convinced that here we have 
SQch a spot. The surface is humpy and uneven, the result probably 
W* comparatively recent ditch-digging or house-building ; but there 
15 a gentle arching of the whole area which, taken in connection 
with the fact that the entire mass is composed very greatly of rem- 
liants of aboriginal art, seems to warrant my conclusion. Across 
one side of this area the old Spanish walls were built and the adobe 
(iiggcrs are now encroaching upon the other. So full is the soil of 
fflics, chiefly of pottery, that the workmen are greatly embarrassed 
in their labors, even to the depth of many feet, and by the side of 
«ach pit is a great heap, composed of fragments too large to be 
•orked into the brick. In one place a section is exposed in a con- 
tiimous vertical wall nearly a hundred feet long and more than 
^^bt feet deep. The upper part bears evidence of more or less 
'tefaamce, but the greater part of the exposed deposits have re- 
ined absolutely undisturbed since the day of their deposition. 


TiLAy:ii' :■?:■:■ 5s of ihi 

'.■joni sure or Less SM 

T::;m in niaiiit i,;f,arjr-T 'lo Tie 7 

fii;, ir.ii brstsr. r-i.-ji. 

T: _i ■■iiSr.-:!: -i id/ :". ^i^: iirem :be gnrinistrioa » xji 

U:;on, The £ir.: :;--ir :!--; ^iase jr" :he exposed secri-ja u a 
fo;: lower :/^ri :!-.i; jr^scn: i;:rV.e of ie take, aisgrests the | 
r.vl;:y :ha: it-i wi:;r! i^:: :i:> iriiori :he »iila 01 the ancient 1 
n^er.:. The iev*i 'jf ;>.e U*e has, ^ :ri2j aistoric times, oiida 
vv.'7. 'i.-itnt chir.i-'Si T>.^ i; -tanr.';: c«; airmiseii whii was its e 
lion a: ar.y;:;:ar wrioi of :he rera-jts post. 

The arsrjtnt'ar.Tir.^ ler.tion. [ij-;ri i. ii:iiou!;ii reprewntiBg 
imi'.l part of the ry,r.2or.:al exp-0ST;re, sioiri ill the iicportaa 
t-jri«i ir. t^eir proper reLitiocs i-j cine another. I: is the resnl 
r.urritjer 'jf vuiiLi to the spot, m-jst 01 whkh were nude witi 
purp'^ise of i^:-\Tir,2 mjielf of :he accirac* oi preceding obi 
tions. The depo^i'-i of fra^mcnriry potter*" reach to the hasei 

wo pencil of occupation. 

section, and are so arrangt-d as to show beyond a doubt, that 
ar.r.iirnrilatccl with the wil and art- not subsequent intniMons. 
is apiorcnt, not only from their deposiiion in more or less co 
nous horizontal [aytr^, as shrjwn in the section, but from the id i.hara' tcr of fragments occurring at corresfx>nding depths. ^ 

The- pri-'vailing tvfjc of ware, throughout the lower part oj 
SCI tion, is vtry art haic and is to all ap|)earences quite distinct] 
the handsome jMjttery chararteristic of the upi)er halfof the seq 

It was sini[ik- in form and rude in finish and little superior il 
resiier t to the riide>t prodtitts of the wild Indians of North Ami 
At the the fragments arc small and much decayed; hi^ 


vc larger and better preserved, although I was unable to secure a 
complete, unbroken vessel. 
The only form that came to my notice, although thousands of 
pKCts were examined, is a kind of deep cup or bowl, not unlike 
oar common flower pot, and having a flattish bottom and an cx- 
Dtmely uneven and ragged rim. In all cases the exterior surface 
iicovered with impressions of coarse woven fabrics, the single indi- 
oiion of advance toward better finish being a slight polishing of 
lb iDterior surface, which was accomplished with a smooth imple- 
BHii, such as a pebble or shell. Where well preserved, the paste 
isgrneially hard and fine grained, but shows in all cases a rather 
mgh granular fracture. The character of the tempering material 
cunoi be made out, but, in a number of cases, the texture Indicates 
iIk former presence of fibrous particles like finely pulverized grass, 
lares, or straw. The surface is of a pate, yellowish red or terra 
I mtu color, the result of the baking, while the interior of the mass is 
icoenlly a dark gray. 

In Fig. a, I present an example of this pottery which is restored 
ftm ftigmenta. These did not come from the wall of the section, 
Im Enm a pit, a short distance away, where the pieces were larger 

FlO. a. — Vessel of the most primilive slyle. 

"^ better preserved. In this example the rim is (hick and slightly 
f^-iuged as if squeezed over the edge of a basket used as a mold. In 
IKJM casts no attempt has been made to render the edge even or 
"'wtli, and the finger marks and the irregular partings of the mar- 
p>t"hichcame from squeezing the clay into or over molds and 
"f i irfin g the edges to secure greater size, are all visible. 
It ii difficult to find a well preserved and clearly defined impres- 


sion of the fabric employed in the manufacture of these ¥■ 
The clay was probably not of a character to take a clear imprt 
and the cloth was apparently of a ragged, irregular kind, 
mesh was open and the thread coarse and slightly twisted, 
finer specimens show about eight intersections to the inch am 
coarser probably six. In some cases one series of threads sei 
have been large and the other small. These fabrics were appli 
the entire exterior surface of the vessel, but not with much 
larity. They may have served to facilitate the handling of th€ 
while in a plastic state. 

This pottery is distributed in horizontal layers throughout i 
tical series more than six feet in thickness, and represents an 
epoch of the art of Anahuac. 

In the upper f)ortion of the lower group of beds we enco 
two other varieties of ware. These may have been developed 
the rude form in the natural course of progress but there ar 
indications of this growth here. They are much more nearly 
to the later than to the earlier stages of the art of the section. 
transition is very abrupt. 

As a matter of course I can only present this order of occui 
as characteristic of this locality and of this section. There n 
very different combinations in other places, but the order of seq 
here indicated is, in the light of history, very suggestive. 
Aztecs, as tradition has it, were the first to settle on this mar 
the swampy shore of the lake, then this cord-marked ware 
product of their earliest or savage period, and the finer wares 
ing at first so sparingly indicate trade with the more adv 
peoples of neighboring settlements. 

The variety of ware second to appear in the ascending 9 
represented by fragments of large, round-bodied, symmetria 
or casks, with gently constricted necks and thick rounded rea 
rims. The paste is generally reddish upon the surface and g 
the mass, and there is a large percentage of silicious tern; 
material. The surface, exterior and interior, is painted t 
brownish red and has been evenly polished. Average spec 
have been, perhaps, ten inches in diameter and a foot or m 
height. The walls are always very thick. Fig. 3, is drawc 
fragments sufficiently large to indicate the whole shai)e c 

Pottery like this is found imbedded in the adobe bricks of th< 




toTCliolala, and is common in the aocient graves of Costa Rica 
[NtvGnDada. Large vases retenily brought from the province 
ifCbiriqiii ue identical with these in every respect. 

FlO. ]. — Eulhem ve»el (ram ibc lowei lerUi ofdepoilU. 

■ith this ware aiid beginning apparently s little higher 

• ifeicciioD, vc find the remains a( the third vAriely. The ves- 

^iR moftljr cup-thaped. Iliey are well made, are simple in 

saUnKBi, and exhibit a fair degree off^ymmetry. The prevailing 

aiiriiiliehi yellowish tcrra-cotia lending toward orange. The 

nfuaare mcxlcratcly well polished bnl rarely show attempts at 

nniiiKcuiioii. The forms are repeated in the more elaborate 

' '«d it. Tliis ware is identical in most respects with 

loitnd in the adobe of the pyramids of San Juan 

< . rexcoco, and Cholula, and upon the slopes of the hill 

■zi: It », apparently, the forerunner of some of the 

■ watn of the surface deposits of the section. In 

i!! t»f the lower Krics of deposits this ware predoni- 

; . o»« both the heavy ware and the archaic pottery 

:iti(^. By reference to the section it will be seen 

! L i>f llif lower series of beds has been much dis- 

I rni occujants of the site at the beginning of 

■:rjivatit«i!( have been made and afterwards 

iy nccumalating refuse, so that a series of im- 

iJc['Osit5 has been spread over all, at first following 

ic disturbed surface. There is, however, no very 


well defined line of separation between the older and newer i 
tions. The distinction is rendered much clearer by the col 
of the soil. There are occasional layers of stone and adobe ij 
representing the foundations of houses, as seen in the 94 
There are great quantities of fragmentary pottery, among nj 
find many of the artistic shapes and rich decorations characti 
of the surface deposits of Anahuac. Included I find also frag 
of the two varieties last described. There are occasional stot 
plements and great quantities of obsidian knives, hundreds of' 
are as perfect as when first struck from the core. These art 
acteristic of the later Aztec period. Near the surface thei 
fragments of glazed ware indicating Spanish influence. It 
unusual to see in the shallow ditches of the suburban villages, 
ments of vessels of aboriginal form and decoration, covered 
Spanish glaze. Indeed such vessels can be seen in use by the Ii 
of to-day and are exposed for sale in the modem markets. 

The pottery of the upper division of the section presents 
variety of form and ornamentation, but in material and treatn 
is extremely uniform. The paste is compact and heavy, and 
moderately even, finely granular fracture. In rare cases the fn 
is smooth or conchoidal. The more common wares are lightc 
more porous than those of finer finish. The whole mass is of 
a pale brick-red color, the baking having been thorough ; but 
frequently the interior is of a dark blue gray, indicating imp 
firing. The paste is generally hard and the ware has in many 
a sonorous or metallic ring. The walls vary in thickness wil 
individual vessel. The tempering when distinguishable is a 

The method of finishing the surface is quite uniform altl 
carried to very diflferent degrees of perfection. Occasional 
find a piece without polish ; and figurines and elaborately mo 
forms are generally quite plain. As a rule the vessels have 
very carefully polished. In many examples the markings c 
polishing implement are distinctly visible ; indeed this is t 
the unimportant parts of the majority of vessels of the most p 
finish. The polish of the finer examples is so perfect that it ia 
cult to believe it the result of purely mechanical processes. Th 
ishing has generally been done after the application of the 
and color-designs, but sometimes before. Unpolished surfiiottj 
impressions of the potter's fingers. J 



e IM indiouions of the use of a whcfl. Hie vessels are 

otniely tnic in outline, but in a general way are remark- 

nnetry and grace. Tlic colors employed in finishing und 

TWiiiiigarr pleasing nnd oricn extremely rich. Tlie reds predom- 

* '^~ "^ '- ::;iriatc of the simple forms being frctiuenily finished 

this ihc dfsigiis arc painted iu black, white, and 

i«l. In ihf mote Loinmon utensils ihe figures are 

. •.atclewl)', ujion Ihc pUiri utUinted surface. The brush 

d with freedom and iht^ designs ,irc often iguite ebibo- 

iotwlly we find tnrii^cd figures -ind sUmjied patterns. 

I *lui|Kt of vcwcU obtained M this locality may he 

liBEtil nodCT a few heads. 

Tat, there arc many dijjs and bonis ranging from a few inches 
tin diintctcr, and generally quite shallow. The bottoms 
It and ilie uralU expand nrgubrly lo the rim. Two 
rying frutn (he mlc are given in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 

Kir.. 4— V.'.cl liiirii llK upi'ti ilrpoiils. 

igblly ijolished, un|tain[ed pan of dark, ochreous lint, 

^t tides and fht Ixiltom. The base, outside, is slightly 

I tbc circiimierence and concave at the tenter. It is 

Fie. 5. — Vead Imat tlie upper .!c|K)iii*. 
■ IB dianeier. Fig. 5 illustrates a deep cup of similar 
hiak; ft painted design con>isting of |)aral!el encircling 



lines occupies the exterior surface of the rim. The form is | 
usual one in Mexico. 

Most of the vessels obtained from the upper stratum are ; 
finished and tastefully decorated. Some are polished like a 1 
over the entire surface, exterior and interior. A favorite 1 
that of a shallow flat-bottomed cup of moderate size. Fig. 6, 
designs are greatly varied and are painted in black or in bin 
white. The white pigment has been applied subsequently 

Fig. 6. — Vessel with figures in whit« upon a red ground, in U. S. I 

polishing of the surface and can be removed with ease. Vo 
this and similar forms are often furnished with tripod so 
One example of the latter variety is given in Fig. 7. Thi 
are often very shallow. The designs are simple and occupy 

Fig. 7.— Tripod di 


terior surface. A curious device is shown in Fig. 8. The ■ 
surface of the bottom is scoriated with deeply incised reti 
lines, a device probably intended for the grating of food or spi 
one still employed by the present inhabitants. A few exao 
this general class of ware sliow stamped decoration. lo its 
facture molds were probably used in which intaglio teU 


Some fragments of ciips exhibit figures formed of 
U bcnilpbencAl nodes. They are further embellished by the 

Fm. 8.— Tiipud iluh with ncariitcd bottom 

•iilioDofduip conical nudet about the rim. A remarkable feature 

-I'-l-w mps is the occurrence of groups of triangular perforations, 

li.irp tool, and »o arrangi-tj as lo resemble a Maltese 

' perforations arc pbred so low on the body as to 

■-»cl unfit for containing liquids. In the museum of 

iluiLu ihcic arc a few example* extensively perforated, leaving 

itac tbc middle »tmc of Ihe body only a sort of lattice work of the 

agpul walU. Tius same Myle of work is elaborately practiced by 

OtntaJ peoples. 

Ok htgc chat of vc-aeh rcucmble an hotir<glass in shape, Tbcr 
1 tallf double caps, one end being usually ttmaller tlian the other 
■d mring «s a fool, htU both cups are etiually well finished. The 
oatiu nriace is highly pcflinhed and colored a deep red, and 
IMtidmiJt de«igiM in blark unci whitt. The fragments arc large 
adftiy numciiiuit. Fig. 9 illustrjic^ the pn-viiiling form. The 

N*tion»l MuKum. 



diameter ranges from three to six inches or more. Some 
most beautiful vessels in the Museum are of this general shap 
It is but rarely that one comes upon fragments of the 
colored and hiplily finished wares characteristictic of the regi 
Cholula and of the South. I was fortunate in securing a (n 
pieces. Two of these are shown in Figs. lo and ir. Their 

— Meanilci design painted 

makes it probable that they came to this spot by trade. Th 
shows a fine strong treatment of the fret and the other of the i 

inled in rich colore. 

These forms are cliaraclcristic of the best period of art in 
North and Somh America. The chief charm of this ware is it 
color — an orange ;,'round with figures in red and black, the 1 
surface ln-ing polished Jilte glass, 

I found no specimen exhibiting delicate green and pink dt 
tiona such as may l>c seen at San Juan Teotiahuacan, and- 
as arc seen on some of the most beautiful vases in the M4 

In the upper scries of deposits indicated in the section, 
a fragment of a very remarkable form of vase. It is repre 
a number of examples in the Mexican Muiieum, one of i 

the M4 

ion, I J 


KniFi{. II. It hsi been called a brasier and 
II lu hare Ixrcn employed in religiou!i 

censer, and 

ics, but lis 

ll'IO. ts- — Crtceioitul vue. iu Mciicsii Nili'ilial Museum. 

k probably unknown. Tiie »ha|N: is, huwcver, suggestive 

lepecbl cctMncinul office. It rescmliles.i short, upright 

lendrcb^d »atilw:iy iiy a gniovc. There are tw» massive, 

tU]r-loo|)ed bandlci ntlaiihud to the sidn a lilllc below (lie 

f The bowl t* latiicr shailuw. The lower third of the vessel 

f ft hoUow r»oi TOcmbling ihc bowl above, but open at 

^benctilh the Iiundle^ The confurmntion is such that a 

dcoalct be f-aued through the handler and actoss the 

s fool fur !(Ux{>ension as a swinging censer. 'I'hc ex- 

I an tntuUy highly [Kili!>hed and ihe colors embrace 

f rich tonei of red. 

dbc noted that no trace* were found of the dark, highly 

MMry so often seen in modem times and so freriuenlly 

ny by louiuts. This ware may have a legilimatt: jilace 

Km, but does not occur among the ancient productions in 

jvisiied by me. It is absolutely certain that allthespeci- 

] In ihc shops of Mexico and offered for sale by hawlc 

( Mrccto and at Ihe Maiions — especially at San Juan— arc 

They are, however, wonderfully well executed, 

e of Mtiqaity given them is truly remarkable. 

80 traksactions of the ■ 

I have, from the pits zt the railway station, a number of 
laneous articles in clay, bits of images of men and animals, v 
sp indie- whorb, and the like. A portion uf a curious head t 
duplicated in a pipe preserved in the Museum and repreae 

Fig. ij. The whistles are generally of a very simple kind, 
spin die- whorls are not different from those of other parts of Aj 

In conclusion, I may recall in a very few words some of tl 
striking features of this section, calling attention to the c 
events suggested by them. 

It may be affirmed with certainty that the site of the 
Mexico was at one time occupied by a people in a very pt 
stage of art, theremainsof which art, so far as found, include 
but fragments of an extremely rude pottery There are no I 
tools and no indications of houses. This period of occupant 
very long one, as it permitted the accumulation in nearly ho 
layers of at least eight feet of finely comminuted refuse. 

It is further seen that far along in this period of occupai 
forms of art appeared thai do not look like the work of the 
occupants of the site produced by gradual improvement, bi 
like intntsivc products acquired by exchange or otherwii 
more culiurcd tribes, -'^gain, at the end of this first period 
a horizon, pretty wcH marked, above which primitive fomi 
do not appear. 

Near the base of the deposits of the second period foui 
of liouses are discovered in which rubble, squared stones, aa 
bricks have been used. In this part of the section we fia 
implements and ceramic products of a very high order <3i 
With these, and especially near the surface, there is a layer i 
ing in obsidian implements. This marks the last and cull 
stage of Aztec art, ending in the historic perioii proper. I 


Speculation upon the period of time represented by this section 
imild be useless, and an attempt to correlate the events recorded 
vith those shadowed forth in tradition would be equally vain. The 
earliest period is probably beyond the ken of tradition, and the last 
ttrb the historic period of Aztec occupation. 

SPEaAL Session, October ii, 1884. 

In accordance with a call of the Council, the Society met in special 
session at Columbian University Hall, for the purpose of listening 
to an address from Prof. E. B. Tvlor, of Oxford University, Eng- 

Through invitation extended by order of the council there were 
>lso present members of the Philosophical and Biological Societies, 
of the Cosmos Club, as well as officers, professors and students of 
Colombian University. 

The Society was called to order by President Powell, who in a 
fe» words introduced the speaker, who delivered the following ad- 
dress on — 


I have seldom, ladies and gentlemen, felt myself in a more diffi- 

^tjcsition than I do at this moment. Yesterday morning, when 

*f rttumed from an expedition out into the far west — an expedition 

»hich your President was to have joined, but which, to our, great 

^^^Znt, he was obliged to give up — I heard that at this meeting of 

^■^Anthro[)ologicaI Society of Washington I should be called upon 

to make, not merely a five-minutes' speech, but a subtantial address; 

and iinre that time my mind has been almost entirely full of the 

■e» thing^^^Jiat I have been seeing and hearing in the domain of 

inthropology in this city. I have been seeing the working of that 

■cxampled institution, the Bureau of Ethnology, and studying the 

CBflections which, in connection with the Smithsonian In<;titution, 

been brought in from the most distant quarters of the conti- 

; and, after that, in odd moments, I have turned it over in my 

JitifWbat can I possibly say to the Anthropological Society when 




I am called upon to face them at thirtr-six hours* notice? 
not apK)Iogize ; I will do the best I can. 

I quite understand that Major Powell, who is a man who 
ally has a good reason for e\-erything that he docs, had^ 
reason for desiring that an anthropologist from England sha 
something as to the present state of the new and growing i 
in England as compared with its condition in America — for 
ing that some communication would be acceptable between I 
o^untry and the new upon a subject where the inhabitants i 
have so much interest in common, and can render to one I 
so much ser\'ice in the direction of their work. And thes 
take it that I am to say before you this evening, without di 
oratory and without eren careful langaige, how the proU 
American anthropology present themselves to the English ■ 

Now, one of the thir.^ that has struck me most in Americ 
the anthropological j^vir.t of view, is a certain element 
fis'ii^r^-evir-ess. I mear. old- fash ionedr.ess in the strictest fl 
the wore — ^ir. •.'d-rhfhio-ecr.ess which a:>es back to thetimi 
ccl:".L:a::?r o*" An:er:ji Since the Stuart time, though A 
cr. the wr::";. rjL- :o::nie :l c.-u-tr^- of most rapid prQ| 
ce V e' : r cr.t r. : . i> c ' nv \ire\i ^: :h o :her d L>:rlc ts of the work 
h JLS 7 -^ V 1 i ■ -: •! : r: c t r. a . r. -^^i r:> : r" i : .i c : r iervatism. of even an 
chjLnrter. It. i:^:r- ::>::' :.:e .".itr S:j.te>. away from the 
:f rcyulj:::". :"~.r^> t'^.-: .:r:e :'i-:i?h:o:ied to modem 
h^ve h-^;.i :-.:r :*'. .v.ih .*. :rr.j.:::v ^ocnewhat sarprisiog 
e vv; r ?-: •: : =: e ; • < s.'<"k:'i : : .\ - y i :: r. : ~ ^i - * "^.ee I . an art icie of i 
r:v s:i.r:x: •- K-^i-J. I ..:" hiri.y p:: ji specimen betti 

: * ?in - >'• ■ V I-- 1. -.v ' . - . \ c"--L:-c*i.''-i .-•: tier's >Dinin:j-wl 

->••.- — <i-l ■^. ■--■.".•-- ■" :''v: !u": rtir-r-:*: 22. perhaps ii 
-. -r". • .: : ' ■ > :;. •• .:-r;-:r:: — :::e2er than in an 

'^ t 

v .: M- -.'.-v: :r?ei! to me fti 
I '. .> ' — :^'^: _:;'» jmor^ the Qn 

* - • • 

-v.- j:.^*-* ':r 


••• -: '.c ■ ^ • >;_v.-: :^ :"*e •.Quaker mi 

" •"'•.' > '. ^ - *-■-..> :"«:?-^ "".a-^ recend 

- * "i ■ -^; ^* . ". ' - y-c'-is themschreii 

.> - ■.!.•. ':.^ ;;\i<tence MM 




btdiood of 1600, by spontaneous generation, in an outburst of 
^tRlnal (Icvelupcncni in England. It lias now been sliown, espec»- 
•Dj-bjnheiesearchcsof Rol>er( Barclay (not ihe old controversialist, 
baamodcra bisiorian,) that the Quakers were by no means the 
•tKliitclr iiidqicndent creation that ihey and others had supposed 
Uieaitobe: ihat they were derived from earlier existing denomina- 
Ijonibf a |>rocets which is strictly that of development. Their 
eptriil ancrUor^, so to speak, vrere a division of the early Dutch 
Md kaottfi as Mennonites. The Friends have undergone much 
ttodifiratiot) as to theological diKtrine ; but some of their most pro- 
BoBDcwi characteristics, such as the objection to war an oaths, and 
ntn details of cosiiime, and the silent grace before meals, remain 
II [Boot of M en noniie derivation. To find the Mennonites least 
1 from their original condition is now less easy in their old 
kin Europe than in their adopted homes in the United States 
, whither they have migrated from time to time up till 
feRccntly in iirdet to avoid being compelled to serve as soldiers. 
■ tuvc long l>eei> a large and prosperous body back in Pennsyl- 
1 went to see them; and they are a very striking instance 
lency of institutions, where an institution or a state of 
n iiei into prosperous conditions in a secluded place, cut 
n ea»jr access of the world. Among them are Ihost who dis- 
B modern alteration and changes by a fixed and unalterable 
It ilui they will not wear buttons, but will [asten their coats 
ooki and eyes, as their forefathers did. Atid in this way 
r with what tenacity custom holds when it has become 
jrof KTUirple and religious sanction. Others have conformed 
pind mare to the world ; and most of these whom I have seen 
tiuMy ronformtng 10 their dress and habits, and showing 
IS of melting into the general population. But, in the mean 
B Atnerka does oBcr the spectacle of a phase of religious life, 
%l)io«igb dwmdling away in the old world region where it 
kBtjuite well preserved in this newer country, for the edifica- 
if Mudenu fif culture. These people, who show such plain 
fcoTcnDitcction with the historical Anabaptists that they may 
H their living representatives, still commemorate in their 
[ir ttanyn who fell in Switzerland for the Anabaptist faith, 
> given me only a few days ago a copy of an old, scarce 
A, anterior to 1600, but still in use, in which is a hymn 
Hire of the martyr Haslibach, beheaded for refusing to 


conform to the state religion, whose head laughed when it was^ 

Now, to find thus, in a secluded district, an old state of i 
resisting for a time the modifying influences which have a 
changed the world around, is no exceptional state of thiQ| 
shows the very processes of resisted but eventually prevailing) 
tion which anthropologists have to study over larger regi 
space and time in the general development of the world. Ii 
ing my Mennonite friends in Pennsylvania, I sometimes a 
that while they thought it nothing strange that I should a 
study them and their history, yet when I was asked where 
going next, and confessed with some modesty that I was goii 
Major Powell to the far west to see the Zufiis, this confession 
part was received with a look of amazement, not quite una 
with kindly reproof; it seemed so strange to my friends th 
person travelling about of his own will should deliberately 
look at Indians. I found it hard to refrain from pointing oi 
after all, there is a community of purpose between studies 
course of civilization whether carried out among the cold 
Pennsylvania or among the Indians of New Mexico. Invest 
of the lower races is made more obscure and difficult thron 
absence of the guidance of written history, but the principli 

A glance at the tribes whom Professor Mosely and I have 
the far west during the last few weeks has shown one or twc 
which may be worth stating; and one, merely parenthc 
think I must take leave to mention, though it lies outside tl 
current of my subject. 

Our look at North American Indians, of whom it has b 
lot to write a good deal upon second-hand evidence, ha< 
glad to say, a very encouraging effect ; because it showed 
the whole much of the writings of old travelers and miss 
have to be criticised, yet if, when carefully compared, they* 
a statement, personal inspection will generally verify thatsta 
One result of our visit has been, not a diminution, but an ; 
of the confidence with which both of us in future will rec< 
statements of travelers among the Indians, allowing for the 
being based upon superficial observation. So long as we 
ourselves to things which the traveler says he saw and he 
are, I believe, upon very solid ground. 

To turn to our actual experiences. The things thaft.i 


anong the Indian tribes who have not become so "white ' as the 
Algonkinsand the Iroquois, but who present a more genuine picture 
of old American life, do often, and in the most vivid way, present 
traces of the same phenomena with which one is so familiar in old- 
torld life. Imagine us sitting in a house just inside California, 
engaged in what appeared to be a fruitless endeavor on the part 
of Professor Mosely to obtain a lock of hair of a Mojave to add 
to his collection. The man objected utterly. He shook his head. 
When pressed, he gesticulated and talked. No ; if he gave up that 
bit of hair, he would become deaf, dumb, grow mad ; and, when the 
medicine man came to drive away the malady, it would be of no 
«c, he would have to die. Now, all this represents a perfectly old- 
world group of ideas. If you tried to get a lock of hair in Italy 
or Spain, you might be met with precisely the same resistance; and 
JOQ would find that the reason would be absolutely the same as that 
which the Mojave expressed, — that by means of that lock of hair 
ooean be bewitched, the consequence being disease. And within 
the civilized world the old philosophy which accounts for disease in 
geoeral as the intrusion of a malignant spirit still largely remains ; 
lod the exorcising such a demon is practised by white men as a re- 
lijfious rite, even including the act of exsufflating it, or blowing it 
iway, which our Mojave Indian illustrated by the gesture of blow- 
ing away an imaginary spirit, and which is well known as forming 
apart of the religious rites of both the Greek and Roman church. 
How is it that such correspondence with old-world ceremonies 
should be found among a tribe like the Mojaves, apparently Mongo- 
bn people, though separated geographically from the Mongolians 
of Asia? Why does the civilization, the general sfate of culture, of 
i^ world, present throughout the whole range, in time and space, 
I^Hcnomena so wonderfully similar and uniform ? This question is 
^y to ask; but it is the question which, in a few words, presents 
ihc problem which, to all anthropologists who occupy themselves 
»iih the history of culture, is a problem full of the most extreme 
<iifficulty, ui>on which they will have for years to work, collect- 
or and classifying facts, in the hope that at some time the lucky 
tOQch will be made which will disclose the answer. At present 
ti»trcis none of an absolute character. There is no day in my life 
•ken I am able to occupy myself with anthropological work, in 
~4idi my mind does not swing like a pendulum between the two 
>BR possible answers to this question. Have the descendants of a 


small group of mankind gone on teaching their children the 
set of ideas, carrying them on from generation to generation, 
age to age, so that when they are found in distant regions, a) 
tribes which have become different even in bodily formatioOi 
represent the long-inherited traditions of a common ancestry! 
is it that all over the world, man, being substantially similar in i 
has again and again, under similar circumstances of life, deve 
similar groups of ideas and customs? I cannot, I think, us 
opportunity of standing at this table more profitably then I 
sisting, in the strongest manner whicn I can find words to ex 
on the fundamental importance of directing attention to this 
problem, the solution of which will alone bring the study of < 
zation into its full development as a science. 

Let me put before you two or three cases, from examples ' 
have been brought under my notice within the last few da 
illustrating the ways in which this problem comes before us 
its difficulty. 

This morning, being in the museum with Major Powell, Pre 
Mosely, and Mr. Holmes, looking at the products of Indian '. 
the far west, my attention was called to certain curious instm 
hanging together in a case in which musical instruments an 
tained. These consisted simply of flat, oblong, or oval pie 
wood, fastened at the end to a thong, so as to be whirled roun 
round, causing a whirring or roaring noise. The instrume 
question came, one from the Ute Indians, and one from the i 
Now, if an Australian, finding himself inspecting the National 
um, happened to stand in front of the case in question, he 
stop with feelings not only of surprise, but probably of horro 
this is an instrument which to him represents, more intensel; 
anything else, a sense of mystery attached to his own most imp 
religious ceremonies, especially those of the initiation of yoi 
the privileges of manhood, where an instrument quite sim 
nature is used for the purpose of warning off women and chi 
If this Australian was from the south, near Bass Strait, his nati 
is, that, if any woman sees these instruments, she ought immec 
to be put to death; and the illustration which he would j 
that, in old times, Tasmania and Australia formed one con! 
but that one unlucky day it so happened that certain boys fod 
of these instruments hidden in the bush, and showed it ™ 
mothers, whereupon the sea burst up through the land ilf 



which never entirely subsided, but still remains to separate Van 
Dieraan's Land from Astralia. And, even if a Caffre from South 
Africa were to visit the collection, his attention would be drawn to 
the same instruments, and he would be able to tell that in this 
country they were used for the purpose of making loud sounds, and 
warning the women from the ceremonies attending the initiation of 
boys. How different the races and languages of Australia and 
Africa ! yet we have the same use cropping out in connection with 
the same instrument ; and to complete its history, it must be added 
that there are passages of Greek literature which show pretty plainly 
that an instrument quite similar was used in the mysteries of Bacchus. 
The last point is, that it is a toy well known to country-people, both 
bGcraiany and in England. Its English name is the '"bull-roarer;" 
and, when the children play with it in the country villages, it is 
hardly possible (as I know by experience) to distinguish its sound 
{rom the bellowing of an angry bull. 

In endeavoring to ascertain whether the occurrence of the ** bull- 
roarer," in so many regions is to be explained by historical con- 
nection, or by independent development, we have to take into con- 
sideration, first, that it is an apparatus so simple as possibly to have 
l<cn found out many times ; next, that its power of emitting a 
sound audible at a great distance would suggest to Australians and 
Caffres alike its usefulness at religious ceremonies from which it was 
desired to exclude certain persons. Then we are led to another argu- 
ment, into which I will not enter now, as to the question why women 
wcexcluded in the most rigid manner from certain ceremonies. But 
in any event, if we work it out as a mere question of probabilities, 
ihc hypothesis of repeated reinvention under like circumstances can 
hold its own against the hypothesis of historical connection ; but 
*hich explanation is the true one, or whether both are partly true, 
I have no sufficient means to decide. Such questions as these being 
4n)and us in every direction, there are only two or three ways 
known to me- in which at preeent students can attack them with 
iny reasonable prospect of success. May I briefly try to state, 
Dot so much by precept as by example, what the working of those 
n^thods is by which it is possible, at any rate, to make some en- 
c^wchments upon the great unsolved problem of anthropology. 

One of the ways in which it is possible to deal with such a group 
•^ ftcts may be called the argument from outlandishness. When 
t aiannstance is so uncommon as to excite surprise, and to lead 


one to think with wonder why it should have come into exista 
and when that thing appears in two different districts, we have I 
ground for saying that there is a certain historical connectioi 
tween the two cases of its appearance than in the comparison 
more commonplace matters. Only this morning a case in g 
was brought rather strongly under my notice ; not that the facts 1 
unknown, for we have been seeing them for days past at 2 
The Indians of the north, and especially the Iroquois, were, a 
know, apt to express their ideas by picture-writings, in the detl 
study of which Col. Mallery is now engaged. One sign t» 
habitually occurs is the picture of an animal in which a li 
drawn from the throat, through the picture of the animal, te 
nating in the* heart. Now, the North American Indians of the 
district have a distinct meaning attached to this peculiar heart* 
which does not attach to ordinary pictures of animals ; they i 
some animal which is living, and whose life is affected in some 
by a charm of some kind. 

It is expressly stated by Schoolcraft that a picture he gives 
wolf with such a heart-line means a wolf with a charmed heart 
is very remarkable to find, among the Zufiis, representations of 
and other animals drawn in the same manner; and the natural i 
ence is, that the magic of the Iroquois and the Zufiis is conne 
and of more or less common origin. I verified this suppositic 
asking Mr. Gushing, our authority on Zufii language and ideas, 
idea was generally attached to this well-known symbol ; an' 
answer was, that it indicated a living animal on which magical 
ence was being exerted. May we not, then, consider — leavin 
of the question the point whether the Pueblo p>eople invente 
heart-line as a piece of their magic and the nomad tribes of the : 
picked it up from them, or whether it came down from the nor 
tribes and was adopted by the southern, or whether both had it 
a common source — that, at any rate, there is some ground, upc 
score of mere outlandishness, for supposing that such an idea 
not occur without there being some educational connection bel 
the two groups of tribes possessing it, and who could hardly 
taken it by independent development. 

To mention an instance of the opposite kind ; I bought i 
days ago, amonge the Mojaves, a singular article of dress,— 
tive woman's girdle, with its long fringe of twisted bark.* T| 
rather two of these put on so as to form one complete ski 

asthbopoloqical society. SU 

sr only gannent ; and it is still worn from old custom, but now 
d by a petticoat of cotton, generally made of several pocket- 
^Kodkcrchiefs in the piece, bought from the iraders. Under these 

IimsiaDccs, it has become useteas as a garment, only serving as 
tluncicrstandiscalledin the civilized world "adress-improver;" 
(ffwtof whicii, indeed, the Mojavc women )>erfectly undetsland, 
•vail lliemselves of in the most comic manner. Suppose, now, 
ve had no reirord of how this fantastic fashion came into use 
Dg ihcm : It has only to be compared tvitli the actual wearing 
Bik gannents in Further .\sia and the Pacific Islands in order 
dl its own hblory, — that it is a remnant of the phase of culture 
'^Axn bark is the ordinary material for clothing. But the anlhropo- 
Ufirt could not be justified in arguing from this hark -wearing that 
ttcuicutots of the Mojaves had learned it from Asiatics. Inde- 
iwidem development, acting not only where men's minds, but their 
, tiKuiiiAiinres, are similar, must be credited with much of the simi- 
tf of customs, [t is curious that the best illustrations of this 
e from customs which are alike in detail in two places. 
Bio may be accounterl for, like the last example, by emigration 
pone place to another, We find it much easier to deal with 
t similar enough to show corresponding workings of the 
nininc), but al-io different enough to show separate formation. 
is morning I met with an excellent instance of this. Dr. 
', your authority on the subject of funeral rites, described to 
pcnstom of Ihe Utes of disposing of the bodies of men [hey 
dand hated liy putting them under water in streams. After 
ii inquiry, he found that the intention of this proceeding was to 
ptient their coming back to molest the survivors. Now, there is 
in an old writer on West Africa where it is related, that, 
sn died, his widow would have herself ducked in the rivei 
o liei rid of his ghost, which would be hanging about her, 
1 Wp tmllf if she were one of his most loved wives. Having thus 
d him of, she was free to marry again. Here, then, is the 
piku water i* impaaiabte to spirits, worked out in different ways 
a and Anier)r.a, but showing in both the same principle; 
■ iDdrcd, is manifested by so many peoples in the idea of 
B for the dead to pass real or imaginary streams, from the 
b arctched across brooks in Burmah for the souls of friends 
Kby, (oCallin's slippery pine-log for the Choctaw dead to 
^■hednadful river. In such correspondences of principle we 


trace, more clearly than in mere repetition of a custom oi 
the community of human intellect. 

But I must not turn these remarks into what, under ordii 
cumstances, would be a lecture. I have been compelled to^ 
myself, not so much to the statement in broad terms of 
principles, as to points of detail of this kind, because it 
impossible, in the present state of anthropology, to work by; 
terms ; and the best way of elucidating a working-princi] 
discuss some actual case. There are now two or three 
points on which I may be allowed to say a few words. 

The principle of development in civilization, which 
one side of the great problem I have been speaking of, is 
ginning to receive especial cultivation in England. Whil 
museums have been at work, simply collecting objects an< 
ments, the museum of Gen. Pitt-Rivers, now about to be 
from London to Oxford, is entirely devoted to the workinj 
the development theory on a scale hardly attempted hith< 
this museum are collected specimens of weapons and impi 
so as to ascertain by what steps they may be considered 
arisen among mankind, and to arrange them in consecuti^ 
Development, however, is not always progress, but may w< 
out into lines of degeneration. There are certain states of' 
in which the going-down of arts and sciences is as inevitabl 
of things as progress is in the more fortunate regions in 
live. Anthropologists will watch with the greatest intei 
effect this museum of development will have upon their 
Gen. Pitt-Rivers was led into the formation of the remarl 
lection in question in an interesting manner. He did no^ 
life either as an evolutionist or as an anthropologist. Hi 
soldier. His business, at a particular time of his life, was I 
on a committee on small-arms, appointed to reform the armal 
the British army, which at that time was to a great extent oij 
vided with the most untrustworthy of percussion-muskets. I 
found that a rifle was an instrument of gradual growth; fori 
rifles which it was his duty to inspect had not come into e^ 
at once and independently. When he came to look careful 
the history of his subject, it appeared that some one had ii^ 
the lock, then some one the rifling, and then others had n 
ther improvements ; and this process had gone on until ^ 
came into existence a gun, which, thus perfected, 



>tso«rn in n permanent form. He collected ihe intermediate slagt-s 

thftKigli which ft Kood rifle arose out of a bad one ; and ihe idea 

l>e)[*n 10 cross his mind that ihe course of change which happened 

Kcanfles was very much what ordinarily happens with other things. 

So he set about collccling, and filled his house from the cellar lo 

tiKUtic, hanging on his walU series of all kinds of weapons and 

othn instruments which seemed lo him to form links in a great 

chuD o( devclopmenl. The principle thai thus became visible to 

bim in weapon -development is not less trvie through the whole range 

ofciviliution ; and we shall soon be able to show lo every anihro- 

S»l(^i*t who visits Oxford the results of thai attempt. And when 

the development theory is seen in that way, explaining the nature 

and origin of our actual arts and customs and ideas, and their 

t*iual growth from ruder and earlier states of culture, then an- 

limpology will come before the public mind as a new means of 

pnctical instruction in life. 

Speaking of this aspect of anthropology leads me to say a word 
Wt mother hardly less important. On my first visit to this country, 
wrty thirty years ago, I made a journey in Mexico with the late 
Henry Christy, a man who impressed his personality very deeply 
On lie science of man. He was led into this subject by his con- 
ittiion with Dr. Hodgkin ; the two being at first interested, from 
lie (liuknihropist'K point of view, in the preservation of the less 
famint races of man, and taking part in a society for this purpose 
fa»0"nM the Aborigines' protection society. The observation of 
■be ind^etious tribes for philanthropic reasons brought the fact into 
™* Km Hich peoples of low culture were in themselves of the bigh- 
siuiUmt as illustrating the whole problem of stages of civilization; 
«d tin broaghi about the establishment of the Ethnological So- 
"H in Kngbnd, Henry Christy's connection with which origin- 
»il -Hi plan of forming an ethnological museum. The foundations 
»tifi*nuiv relebraied Christy collection were laid on our Mexican 
; ami I was witnes.s to his extraordinary |Kiwer of knowing, 
^t, what it was the business of an anthropologist to collect, 
pilut lo leave uncollected : how very useless for anthropologic 
'iosilies are, and how priceless are every-day things. 
■In priiMriplcs which tend most to the successful work of an- 
—the systematic collection of the products of each stage 
hilisstioti, and the arrangement of their sequence in develop- 
c ibos the leading motives of our two great anthropological 



To my mind, one of the most remarkable things I have 
this country is the working of the bureau of ethnology as 
general working of the Government department to which it 
It is not for me, on this occasion, to describe the workii 
Smithsonian Institution, with its research and publications*^ 
ing almost through the whole realm of science; nor to s| 
services of that eminent investigator and organizer, Prof. 
F. Baird. It is the department occupied with the scient 
of which I have experience ; and I do not think that an; 
in the world such an official body of skilled anthropologii 
knowing his own special work, and devoted to it, can be 
The bureau of ethnology is at present devoting itself es| 
the working-up of the United States, and to the Americ 
nent in general, but not neglecting other parts of the worl 
I must sav that I have seen with the utmost interest the 
which the central organism of the bureau of ethnology is 
ing the functions of an amasser and collector of all that 
knowing ; how Major Powell is not only a great explorer ai 
himself, but has the art of infusing his energy and enthusii 
through the branches of an institution which stands all 
Innng. on the one hand, an institution doing the workof a4| 
soiMoty, and. on iho other hand, an institution doing that «^ 
the |x>wer and leverage of a government department. If ii 
of working a government institution in England for the pro 
anthroix^logy in the way in which it is being done here weal 
met with — silence, or a civil answer, but with no practical 
and ,iny one venturing to make the suggestion might run ■ 
of Iving classed with iliat large body described here as "I 
Die onh way in which the question can be settled, how fii 
einmeni mav take up sv ientitic research as a part of its k 
tiinciiv^nN, is bv practical exjvriment: and somehow or otb 
piCNident In cnjjagcvi in getting that experiment tried, 
i^h> uMi> su* I e>'i, AX Inch mav have a great effect. If in future 
v^Ninon it^ ask Ivm uumo gvnernment aid for anthropology ist 
r.'.c rcph xhAX ^\w\\ ivica^ a:e fanatical, and that such schc 
p;i\iuco nv^ gvVHl icnuUs. >\e l\ue a very good rejoinder j 
!ri::on Die cncrj;\ >\:;>. which the Bureau of Ethnoloi 
'.'.Koti^^x^^'t IN i:*.N:a!\: : a nr. neat ions has been a matter ofl 
tcu'Ni It IN sxMuc:'.v.:\c like what ooe used to hear "* 
tuMi vM the K*N; their cd 


Paiicc, whence directions were scnl out which there was some agent 
l» miy country town ready to carry out with skill and zeal. For 
uuunce, it was interesting at Zufii lo follow the way in which Colonel 
»nil Mrs. Stevenson were working the pueblo, trading for speci- 
mtjii, and bringing together all that was most valuable and inter- 
oting ia tracing the history of that remarkable people. Both man- 
a^n! lo klentify themselves with the Indian life. .\nd one thing 1 
[MitiiruUfly noticed was this, that to get at the confidence of a 
InU, the man of the house, though he can do a great deal, cannot 
dgill. If his wife sympathizes with his work, and is able to do it, 
rtallj half of the work of investigation seems to me lo fall to her, 
ki much is to be learned through the women of the tribe which the 
readily disclose. The experience seemed to me a 
a to anihro[xilogists not to sound the "bull-roarer," and warn 
idia off from their proceedings, but rather to avail themselves 

liilljr of their help. 
bjr one word more, and I will close. Years ago, when I first 
bUk poulion occupied by anthropology, this position was far 
~ IT to that which it now holds. It was deemed, indeed, curious 
; and travelers had even, in an informal way, shown 
D nature as displayed among out-of-the-way tribes to be an 
BClivc study. But one of the last things thought of in the early 
feof anthropology was that it should be of any practical use. 
eci of a few years' work all over the world shows that it is 
nly to be an interesting theoretical science, but that it is to be 
a altering the actual state of arts and belief and institu- 
n the world. For instance : look at the arguments on com- 
n in the tenure of land in the hands of a writer who thinks 
>GOud )t would be if every man always had his share of the land. 
xiduiB and mental workings of such a philosopher are quite dif- 
knci from [hose of an anthropologist, who knows land -communism 
a nld and still existing institution of the world, and can see 
Clly bow, after the experience of ages, its disadvantages have 
kfotmd to outweigh its advantages, so that it tends to fall out 
In any new legislation on land, the information thus to be 
■ by anthropology must take its place as an important factor. 
b: when long ago I began to collect materials about old 
I. nothing was farther from my thoughts than the idea that 
^VDuld be useful. By and by it did become visible, that to 
p Uttt 1 custom or institution which belonged to an early stale 


of civilization had lasted on bv mere conservatism into a l 
civilization, to which it is unsuited, would somehow affect thi 
lie mind as to the question whether this custom or institution! 
be kept up, or done away with. Nothing has for months past 
me more unfeigned delight than when I saw in the Times nem 
the corporation of the city of London spoken of as a " sunri 
You have institutions even here which have outlived their oi 
place and purpose ; and indeed it is e\'ident, that when the coi 
civilization is thoroughly worked out from beginning to en 
description of it from beginning to end will ha^-e a very pn 
effect upon the domain of practical politics. Politicians hatv 
true. little idea of this as yet. But it already imposes upon 1 
like this Anthropological Society a burden of responsibility 
was not at tii^t thought of. We may hope, however, that 
such leader? as we have here, the science of anthropolc^y l 
worked purely for its own sike ; for, the moment that anthn 
gists lake to cultivating their science as a party-weapon in p 
and religion, this will viriate their reasonings and argnment 
spoil the scientinc character oi their work. I have seen in Ef 
bad re<ul:s to'/.^w from a premamre attempt to work anthro| 
on such controversial lines, and can say that such an attempt 
only in :he lon^i-r-n ham^rV. :o :he effect of anthropology ; 
worlvi. bu: diNisrro'js :? i:> immediate pxxsition. My recoma 
lion to students :> to ^.^ rl*:ht forward, like a horse in bli 
neither '.c-okm^ to the richt hand nor to the left. Let us \ 
w r. vr rk w i : > a si n: y *. e i n te n t i .-^ n to find out what the prii 
.;nd courses of events h.ive bex?n in the world, to collect all thi 
to ncr'v cut .u" the :n:erenc^. tr redus.^ the whole into a sc 
.ir.d then 'ct : ".-.fe take it and niake the best it can of 
t ": i< w.i \ : ' ; e >v . e '. .* e .^ f : uAn . u j ce r t ed as an arbiter, not by i 
o".*\. l\:: V\ t'u- ! :V'-.c * :d intent, will have soonest and mo 
cnt!\ ::n vi,:,^ er\ct .^n the hah its and laws and thoog 

I « « ft •■« 

d 3-rll. under such short and d 
n'-.:h you hive done me th^ 

*.e here. I liave tried. 

\\o,:\'. :.:-:•, ^ " \s: \»-.iv hefoie jtMi 

\\ ,; \ vovx 1 \' \ " ; * , .' /•:;.■'.: \ voa 



M thf close of the address a vote of thanks was moved by Judge 
Anhuf McAnhiir, of the Supreme bench of the District of Columbia, 
ifld posed unanimously. 

The Pretident announced that by direction of the Council there 
■ould be no regular meeting of the Society until the third Tuesday 
in November. 

Ewiirv-FtrrM Regular Meeting, November i8, 1884. 

Hii&rJ. W. Powell, President, in Ihe Chair. 

TKe President stated that by action of the Council a place for the 
BHoKmcciiDgB of the Society had been secured at the Columbian 

Tie Secretary of the Council announced the election of Mr. M. 
D- Sm, of the U. S. Geological Survey, as an active member of 
lie Society. 

A [apcr entitled "Australian Group Relations," by Alfred 
W Hturiii of Gippsland, Australia, was then read by Col. Seely.* 

EmHTV -Sixth Regular Meeting, December 3, 1884. 

MajorJ. W. Powell, Presideni, in the Chair. 
Tl* Swrctary of the Council announced the election as active 
•™*ti» of Messrs. Victor Mindclcff, Cosmos Mindeleff, Wm. M. 
ftw>djwcr, aud Wm. H. Babcock. 
Dt. FuNzBOASreadaiiaperon "The Eskimo of Baffin Land." 
Alilunigli the sliores of Baffin Land have beer visited by whalers 
*^t'':^ lung time, there was still little known about the Eskimo 
:i<n>,' this trnct of land. 

.\ -Mcrnmost region, the land about King's Cape, is 
iniiinn Sicosuibr, /. f., a land which has no fixed ice 
winter. It is inhabited by the Sicosuilarmiut, who 
^ in Ihe low land farther north. They have inter- 
,■, naltvrs of the north shore of Labrador, the Iglu- 

• FtiauA In tbe ScDiibsoniin Report For 18S3. 


miut, /. e., the inhabitants of the other side, crossing Hudson^ 
from King's Cape to Cape Wolstenholme. 

The middle region of the north shore of Hudson Strait is i 
ited by the Akudlianniut who go deer hunting to the large lalt 
makdgua, where they meet with the Nugumiut, the inhabit! 
the peninsula between Frobisher Bay and Cumberland Sound, 
shore of Davis Strait is divided into three parts : — Oko, Akuj 
and Aggo, /. e,, the lee side, the centre, and the weathei 
Oko, the land of the Cumberland Sound, is inhabited by the Ok 
who in olden times were divided into the Tellirpingmiut < 
west shore of Cumberland Sound ; the Kinguamiut, at the 
of it ; the Kignaitmiut on the high Cumberland peninsufa 
finally the Saumingmiut on Davis Strait, as far as Exete 
and Cape Dier. As the number of the Okomiut has been | 
diminished there scarcely exists any difference between these 

The inhabitants of Padli are nearer to the Akudnirmiut t 
the Okomiut. The Aggomiut consist of two tribes : The 1 
mirmiut of Pond's Bay, and the Tudnunirossirmiut of Adil 
Inlet. Besides there are the Iglulingmiut of Fury and Hecla 
with whom we have been made acquainted by Parry and Hal 

I have visited the different tribes of Cumberland Soun 
Davis Strait as far as Akudnirn, and no settlement in this c 
escaped my notice. As there are quite a number of natives of 
ent tribes settled among these I was able to gather a good < 
information about all the Eskimos from Sicosuilar to Tudi 

The most interesting tribe are the Tellirpingmiut, the 
itants of the west shore of Cumberland Sound, more parti 
speaking, of Nettilling fiord. This is one of the fewEskim< 
living inland. From former reports we only learned that \\ 
nepatu, the Eskimo of Chesterfield Inlet, on the west si 
Hudson Bay, live nearly all the year round on deer and rausl 
which they hunt on the plains between Back River and Ches 
Inlet, only coming down to the seaside during the winter. 

At the present time the Tellirpingmiut have the same c 
In the month of May they leave their winter settlement anc 
with their dogs and sledges inland to the large lake Nel 
(Lake Kennedy, of the old charts) and get to the place i 
settlement, Tikcrakdjuak, on the south shore of the lak 
before the ice breaks up. They take with them one or ni 
of blubber for their lamps; but sometimes they do QOt 


is much, as they are able to cook with the heather found in abun- 
dance on the vast plains of the lake, and burn deer marrow in their 

Xow and then they secure a seal in the lake, but they cannot rely 
00 their hunt as these animals are too few in number. In the west- 
ern part of the lake they seem to be more plentiful ; but in the east- 
ern portion their number has been greatly diminished. I suppose 
that this is principally the reason why the Tellirpingmiut do not 
any longer stay all the year round on the shores of the lake as many 
of them formerly did. They seem to have spent there the greater 
portion of their lives, occasionally visiting the seaside to provide 
theinselves with skins of the young and old seals. It very seldom 
happens now that any men winter inland, as the number of seals 
is too small. In the spring of the year they live on deer and the 
mnomerable birds which are caught while molting. The Eskimos 
retnm to the entrance of Neltilling fiord about the beginning of 
December, when the ice in the fiords is strong and well covered with 

The other Okomiut, who are settled in four places on the west 
i^re, two on the east shore, and one between Cape Mercy and 
Cape Micklesham, never leave the coast for any length of time. 
Only a few go in their boats also to Lake Nettilling, as this is the 
^ place for deer hunting. They leave after the breaking up of 
^^ke in July and return during the first days of October. 

By far the most of them spend the summer at the head of the fiords 
*Hcncc they start deer hunting inland, returning after a few days* 
absence. The old men and the women meanwhile live on salmon 
*hich are caught in abundance in the small rivers emptying into 
'he fiords. In winter they settle on the islands nearest to the open 
^- Throughout the cold months until the sun rises higher they 
so filing with the harpoon, watching the seal at its breathing hole. 
In March, while the seal brings forth its young, all the natives are 
f^er tg se( ure as large a number as possible of young seal skins, 
•hi(.h are highly valued for the under jackets and winter pants for 
Joen and women. 

In the fall the inhabitants of Saumia and Padli secure a great 

J^wnber of walruses which supply them with food and blubber until 

■te in the winter. They only go sealing in order to enjoy them- 

^iSs they generally have sufficient walrus meat to last them the 




Sometimes even there is some left in summer. In spring 
go bear hunting. The skins of these animals are exchange 
guns and ammunition, when the whalers visit the coast retii 
from their hunting grounds off Lancaster Sound. 

The Tudnunirmiut hunt the white whale and the narwhal ' 
ivory is highly valued. 

Though the Eskimos shift their habitations according to tk 
sons from one place to another we must not consider them a | 
without stationary abodes, for at certain seasons they are t 
found at the same places. 

ITiere are some doubts about the origin of the old stone ft 
tions met with in every part of Arctic America, even in ecu 
not any longer inhabited by Eskimos, as the Parry Archipel4| 
the northern part of East Greenland. It was believed that tli 
tral Eskimos forgot the art of building stone houses and onl] 
in snow huts. 

In Baffin Land I found a great number of stone, turf, at 
foundations, apparently of very ancient origin. If the Eskimo 
to a place where they know that stone houses exist they buili 
up into a comfortable home, covering the old walls with a 
seal-skin roof and heather. In the settlement Anarnituni 
the head of CumUerland Sound, and at Okkiadliving, oo 
Strait, they frequently live in these houses which they cal 

I found two different styles of construction, one with a vei 
floor and a remarkably short bed-place ; the other with both 
about the same size. The former the Eskimos ascribe to the * 
or as they are often called, Tudnikjuak, a people playing 
part in their tales and traditions. The latter are ascribed 
own ancestors, the ancient Eskimos. 

Indeed they do not build any stone houses now, as thej 
find in the places of their winter settlements the old structure 
are fully sufficient for the number of men inhabiting the count 
which is very small as compared with that of former times. 
different reports I conclude that Cumberland Sound about fil 
ago was inhabited by 2,500 Eskimos who are now reduced I 
300 souls. 

In winter time they moiitly build snow houses consistiiyyj 
dome with a few smaller vaults attached, used v -*«'^'^" 
keep. the cold air out of the main room. The 



'Urmml cover the inside of the same with seal-skins; while liic 
• rtagumiut aai Akudlinnim leave the walls bare. They cut the 
pitta of mow much ihjrkerand bury the whole house in loose snow 

(:Ji Ilicy stamp down with their feet, 
uammcrthey live in tents made of seal-skin. The back part 
■Ded by six poles, arranged in a semicircle and lashed together 
Br converging points. Two poles run froni this junction to the 
mte, which is also formed of two poles. The Okomiut build 
luck pan of the tents much less steep than the Akudnirmiut. 
Tit Agg;omiut use a tent with only one pole In the center, and 
OK far the cntfance. 

■ have been informed that three dilTcrent styles of clothing are 

otdin boifin Land, two of which I have seen myself. TheSicosu- 

ilumiui are said to use jackets with a broad tail and a hood, which 

tutn is not pointed. The Nugumiui and Okomiut are very well 

.ebd. having their garments neatly trimmed with skins of different 

uuitl adorned with skin straps. Their hoodsare long pointed, 

^e tatb of the women's jackets very narrow. The jackets of 

n have either no tail whatever, or one that is very short. 

s p4nts consist of two parts, the leggins being fastened 

ittring to the short breechlets. 

TW Akudnirmiut and Aggomiut use very large hooded jackets 

Atmall point at the top. Their clothing is much inferior to 

1 of the Okumiiit. I have seen scarcely any attempt to adorn 

I Nlotii]' way. The women wear very large boots which reach up 

■ hkft. In Pond's Bay ihey are sometimes kept up by wliale 

i ibcyare in the habit of carrying the young children in 

Ic end only very slight differences in the dialects from Akud- 
bPiond's Bay, and those I found refer only to the vocabulary, 
r, in ihe most common phrases, the way of greeting, etc., 
fribe bas its own style. Nor could I fmd any differences with 
clo their traditiona. It is possible that a number of the 
1 are unknown in Tudnunirn, and tii'irf versa, but I am 
tntly acquainted with the Tudnunirmiut to positively 
fc Ibe qnotion. 

•re wtne di(Terentes between the Okomiut and the Akud- 
n I be arrangement of feostii, which are repeated every fall, 
I vbidi some natives make their appearance disguised and 
d urepccscnnrivcs of a fabulous tribe. 




All the Eskimos of Baffin Land are fond of music and J 
They sing the old songs of their people, and spend the loni 
nights telling traditions and singing the old monotonous! 
their songs or composing new ones. I made the acquain| 
a few poets whose songs were known in every place I visit 

All their tales and the themes of the old songs are cl 
nected with their religious ideas. Though there is a stro 
blance between manv of their own traditions and those of t 
landens I found quite a number of new tales and religi 
hitherto unknown. Thev are familiar with the Erkili 


Green landers, whom thev mostlvcall Adlet. and the Tud 
however, do not inhabit the interior but are said to 
fonnerly with the Eskimos on the same shores and in 
settlements According to their tradition, which is only 
in i^rMi in Greenland, the Adlet, Kodlunam, (white men) 
arv the children of one mother and her husband, a red 
)i\\\l .u Igluling. in Fur}* and Hecla Strait. From thi 
I'.itYcTxMU tr;lx^ of Innuit are said to have ^read over the 
lunv ^v\*v.picvi by them. » 

I: :s uorth r.orioing that the Labrador Eskimos know Q 
,;r.^'. :>.o lV.dr.ik uv*. Ir. Erdnur.n*s Worterbuch dcs t 
\\.\\c\i<. Av;',,;; i> ev,^'a:r.ev: .i> Indian of the Interior; Tu^ 
Grocr.Ia-.v^cr. I *x*".:cx^\ \c*mv\-er. :ha: these meanings wf 
tv^ :>.v-so vkvrv:> ^\ :ho r.::>j>u>narie<. while in reality they s!| 
^;r.v A< .r. Ritr.v I .\r.d ar.d GT«^r.l3Lr.d. To learn whcd 
.;"x ::-,;Ki ■.;:*"::> ri'l*::?.*: :c :h? Acla: or Erkillek woi 

V *.• V^n'v..*;-,'^ .-: Ririr. Lir.i hivie lio knowledge of the 
)v. .c 1\ • \*:«:v,;'k, u>.'r.i :>;; G:^fiKi'*irsd«s once consida 
V. ;v: ..*■ :.^ «.. :>i* ",.-.".vro:> 'v-wi? sccrit? c^liec the Torg 
."^v"^' . V V .'.-,- ,; j:*-.-.-,; r.*j:r>, b::: :he :3C&: prominent 
.V,' V v>. .V ." ,. XM*. i r.-iLT.. or a wosun. inhab 

..i"\v N'., , s- V i» - , ^ /.-;: r,-. re :r cr^ct: nanbeTS scattered 

Vx^* V.-. ^ ,:. : .> Ci ' ."■■" .xrrt.:: iivccec xnen who 
.. ■, ;\\ \v. , *,\.: ^— .\--^ 7x'* :.:* iSi? ::" care dieai 
\\ . ,^'"\ -.N^ ." *. ••* ;.."vv. .«.'K ." r ur.::n<:. £nd iber visit 1 

/'% Vvv \^ » - ,:^.:.' Tx.- ,r :be Ti5«ln. 


rtiion why they are afraid to touch the corpse of the deceased, 
*Bi why they destroy every object which once belonged to a dead 

RTk soul of the dead Innung goes to the land Adlivum, beneath 
■Vlh of vhich an evil spirit, Sedna, is mistress. In olden times 
■b an Eskimo woman herself, married to a ftilmar who used 
pCTT badly. She escaped in the boat of her father who flung 
'overboard to save his own life from the wralh of the bird, after 
bring detected the loss of his wife. While Sedna clung to the 
dge of the boat ilie lather cut off her fingers which were changed 
iuu teals and whales. To revenge herself she caused two dogs to 
I pan off hct Gilhcr's feet and hands. Then the earth opened and 
they went down to the land Adlivum, As the Eskimos kill the seals 
«iil whales thai have risen from Sedna's fingers she hates and pur- 
iw them. Only those who come to an unnatural death escape her 
mmJ ascend to Heaven to the land Kudlivum where innumerable 
teiire found, and where they are never troubled by either ice or 

Srttia is feared by the Eskimos even more than the Tupilat and 
Die Diditions about her have the greatest influence on their habits, 
Buuftuing itself mostly in laws about food and interdiction of 
hkn on certain days. 

Tn compare the habits and traditions of the Eskimos of Baffin 

land with those of the Smith Sound and Greenland will be of much 

■Mtiot.a'itliesctribesconnect lite central with the eastern Eskimos. 

Tfiic* which may easily be studied, and whose customs are of 

pine importance are the Sicosuilarmiut and Iglumiut, and their 

(WMciiiins with the Labrador natives. It is a matter of regret 

hitlc is known of the inhabitants of Southampton Island and 

shore of Hudson's Bay, although Hall spent five winters 

rrgion^. The researches of Mr. Turner in Ungava will 

gip in our knowledge of the central tribes. 

let iTJlie of great importance are the inhabitants of Admi- 

iln, who seem to be very numerous up to the present time. 

it i« pouiblc to trace the connection between the tribes 

''Kiny Willinm'i Lund to Smith Sound and Labrador. The 

not of Hoot hia h'elix, whoare now mixed with the Ugjulir- 

Ktng William's Land and Adelaide Peninsula most probably 

.ijr pan of Ihc old country of the Ukusiksalingmiut of Bat-k 

Vift: These lutives, who live principally upon musk osen. cross 


the land in visiting the shores of Wager River. The 
Eskimos travel through the land of the Sinimiut of Pellj 
Eivillik (Repulse Kay). The Eivillinmiut frequently hai 
course with the Igluling tribe, who formerly visited the Cui 
Sound Eskimos by the way of Majoraridjen, the country 
Lake Nettilling (Lake Kennedy). Three roads are used ii 
ing from Igluling to the west shore of Baffin Bay and to Ljl 
Sound, the most western through the fiord Tessiujang, ned 
Kater, to Admiralty Inlet; the other to Ikalualuin (Arctic- 
in Ecli])se Bay and the third one to Anaulereelling (Di 
Bav\ The Tudnunirossirmiut sometimes cross Lancaster' 
and were found on the western jnrt of North Devon, whi 
call Tudjan. They cross this land and Jones Sound on sled 
have intercourse with a tribe on Ellesmere Land, which tl 
Umingmamnuna. From Bessels' researches we know tb 
(TOSS Smith Sound, for he found amongst the Ita-EIskiiiio 
who had lived in former years amongst the Akudnimiut on 
coast of Baffin L;ind. I myself found a native near Cape 
north of Home Bay, who had lived somewhere near Cape 
at the entrance of Smith Sound for several years. 

The questions which may be settled by a more thorougb 
edge o( the habits and traditions of all these and the more 
irilK*s which have scarcelv l^een seen bv anv white men, mi 
of prime imjK^rtance for the solution of the question relatio 
origin and migrations of this jieople. 

Mr. John Murdoch road the following paper on " Seal 
INC. Ar Point Bvrrow.'* 

The capture of seals is one of the most important of 
among the Eskimos of the two villages at Point Barrow. . 
of the seal harvest would Iv as disastrous to them as the J 
the potato rrop to the Irish, or the rice crop in India. 
lioc'* the lK*>h of the seal form the great staple of food, b 
iirniNlic^ thorn wi;h oil to light and warm their winter h 
^k] tlioir wator-]^rooi" Kx-^is and haqxwn lines, and to keep! 
. .: .»! tb.oir >k;n boats. The skin ser\'es to make their wa 
.\r.i\ iOi;c'.:\cs. the solos of their winter boots, canl 
o\ :hc k.ii.iks. or small skin canoes, and, rardy, dj 
:!.."., : 1 ::; ' :hoi>.;;s i: furnishes a scrvkeahlr ~ 
a:u: har]x>on lines And cnqil' 

•• , 

— - . . -.--,» 'I 


[ pcrposcs for which we use cord. In former times and occasionally 
at present, the skin served to cover the summer tent, or iu pek, 
.Vopart of the animal is wasted. Even the entrails are saved, and 
dressed, and made into water-proof frocks to wear over the fur cloth- 
iog in rainy and snowy weather. If their were no seals at Point 
Birrow there could be no Eskimos, barren as the country is of fish 
lod reindeer. 

The following species are pursued : First, and most important, the 
Ringed Seal or Ndtyi {Phocafoetidd), This is the seal par excellence, 
and the only one taken in any considerable numbers, by all the 
nethods which will be described hereafter. Next in importance is 
the great Bearded Seal, ug'ru {Erignathtis barbatus). This is com- 
puatively rare, though a good many are taken much in the same 
manoer as the walrus with the heavy harpoon and rifle from the 
oniak. The skins are especially valued for covering the large skin 
boats, and for making heavy harpoon lines. The other two species 
ire of extrenaely rare occurrence. The Harbor Seal, kasigia, 
{Phoca vUuiind) is occasionally caught in summer in the nets at 
Ebon Bay, and the rare and beautiful Ribbon Seal {Histriophoca 
Usiiata), the kaix6lifi, is now and then taken in the early winter. 

When the ice-pack comes in iti the autumn, and the sea is begin- 
ning to close, it may be about the middle of October, the natives 
»bo are now all back from their summer wanderings and settled 
for the winter, begin the pursuit of the ne't^tyO. At this season 
ibfre are many open holes in the pack to which the seals resort. 
Here they are taken by shooting them with the rifle as they show 
tiicir heads above water, and securing them with the retrieving har- 
poon or naiiligfi. The line and harpoon-head belonging to this 
i.*c generally carried attached to the gun-case which is slung across 
the Moulders, and the shaft serves as a staff for walking and climb- 
ing about the rough ice. A hunter is lucky if he secures more 
than one or two seals in this way in a day's tramp. He generally 
dfig* hLs game home by a line looped through a hole in the under 
I ja*. Wherever ti."' sea is sheltered by grounded ice, it will freeze 
I « calm nights to the depth of three or four inches, and in these 
K aevly.fohned fields of ice are soon to be found small round holes, 
K vUch the seals have kept oi)en for fresh air. The natives resort 
Hipllieie holes, provided with a rifle, a difl'erent form ot harpoon, 
^ with a long, slender, loose-shaft, fitted for thrusting through 
i iKlle» and a little three-legged stool, nigawau'otin, just 



large enough for a man to stand upon, to keep the feet 
getting chilled by the ice. A little rod of ivory is soi 
thrust down through the hole to indicate the approach of tl 
and the hunter standing or squatting on the stool with 
and spear in readiness, waits patiently for the seal to come, 
as he comes to the surface he is shot through the head and 
is immediately thrust down through the hole to secure him. 
ivor)* icepick, tuu, ser\*es to make the hole large enough toj 
him through. Both these methods of hunting are pursued 
the whole winter whenever there are open holes or fields of 
formed ice, and natives are continually scouring the ice-field 
with rifle and nauligQ, in the hopes of finding open holes, 
greatest catch of the year known takes place after Nov. I5thy 
the sun has sunk below the horizon for his 72 da}^ absent 
the nights are long and dark, while the days are only a few 
twilight. At this season, wide cracks frequently form in the 
miles in length and a mile or two from the shore, and of coi 
a great resort for the seals. As soon as such a crack is disc< 
and scouts are continually on the i^-atch for them, the men tui 
in force and skirt along the edge of the crack till they find a 
ble place for setting their nets. A place is selected where tl 
is level and not too thick for about 100 yards from the edge 
crack, and the nets are set as follows : The net is made of | 
thong in large meshes, and is about 15 or 16 feet long by 10^ 
Two small holes are dug through the ice, about the length of tU 
apart, in a line parallel to the edge of the crack, and between! 
is cut a hole large enough to admit the passage of a seal. A* 
line with a plummet on the end is let down through one of the f 
holes and grappled and drawn up through the middle hole by a I 
slender jmIo with a hook on the end of it. This is made fast tc 
upi)er corner of the net. and a similar line drawn through the i 
small hole and made fast to the other upper corner. By haulil 
those linoN the net is drawn down through the middle hole and I 
like a i unain under the ii 0. .\ line is also attached to it by wh 
i\in again be drawn up through the middle hole. The end 
arc loosely made fast to lumps of ice and as darkness sets i 
hunter stations him-^clt" near the hole and begins rattling genlj 
ihc uc with the b:i:t of his sixMr, s<.^raping with a tool made w 
1 laws inouniod on a wooden handle, or making any gell^|^| 
nous noise. rin> oxviios the curiosity of the 



1 in the open waicr, and one will at last come swimming in 
fthe ke towards the sound. Of course he strikes against the 
f net, mns his head or flipper through it and his struggles to 
t only s«m-e to entangle him still more. The running out of 
Eotd linn informs the hunter that there is a seal in the net. He 
wails till he ihinlu that he is sufficiently entangled, and then hauls 
Idin up through the middle hole. If he is not already drowned, his 
neck, U broken by bending the head back sharply, and he is disen- 
tangled from the net which is set again. Of course, he very soon 
inttet stiff, ajid if there is enough snow on the ice, he is stuck up 
D his tail, so OS not to be covered up and lost should a drifting 
tDcnnlonn come on. One man has been known to take as many as 
ttiirtjsub in this way in a single nighl. This method of fishing 
Uoolybe practiced in the darkest nights. A bright moonlight, 
u a bright aurora seriously interferes with success. The dark 
bin December, when ihe moon is in southern declination and 
loot rise, arc generally the times of a great catch. The dead 
■e uacked up and brought in when convenient by the women 
Any small crack in the ice to which the seals resort 
idialely surrounded by a cordon of nets which are visited 
ij Uro or three days, and many seals are thus taken. About the 
lof February, when the sun is bright and the ice chick, the seals 
t formed permanent breathing- holes to which many resort. 
Sd nich a hole is found, a net is set flat underneath it, by mak- 
unrfive holes round it, drawing the net down through the 
;, and the comers out to these holes. One man, who has 
id at home from the spring deer-hunt, will generally have three 
n&elssct in this way, which he visits every few da)-s. This 
<lnf oening is kept tip during the spring till the ice begins to 
■ on the surface and the seals come out on it, where they are 
ttimesshot. Many seals are killed with title and naCiligfi from 
kMiiks when whaling or hunting walrus in the spring and sum- 
p uid they arc also caught in nets set along shore in Elson Bay. 
11 iiill one more method of taking seals seldom practiced 
^thevilUgcx, und only in the summer. This is with the tight 
^ kbkiga, from the kaiak. These darts are so arranged that the 
fcbrbed head i« dctnchable and attached to the shaft by a line 
II a bridle, which always pulls the shaft transversely through 
Three of tlicsc diirta are carried in the kaiak and darted 
pthcseal with a hand board. The resistance of all three shafts 
i> the *eal out until he can be approached and despatched. 





Mr. Dall gave a description of Norton Sound, which is a 
estuary subject to sudden changes in depth due to direction of] 
Seal fishing in winter is practiced on the edge of the ice a1 
to twenty miles from shore, but is attended with much danger < 
to the liability of the floe to break up and go to sea with a 
eastwardly wind. The best seasons are early autumn and 
In summer short nets supported by three stakes driven in tl 
in about one to two fathoms water where thereis current 
and take many seal. The upper edge of the net is taut, the 
part hangs nearly free, and about five feet in height. The 
usually drowned in the net, but if living are killed with a cli 
a seal is shot and then secured, a pin like a large nail with a I 
head is fastened in the wound to prevent loss of blood wfai 
much esteemed in the Innuit cuisine. • 

A peculiar spear or lance is used by the Nunivak people, b^ 
three-sided ivory point as large as the biggest walrus tusk will J 
straight, mounted on a heavy wooden shaft. The head aj 
eighteen inches long, is drilled in the median line of each fecc) 
center of tlie blade, and a slit is then sawed nearly the whole k 
the three slits meet in the center which is entirely excavatd 
without enlarging the slits which remain only as wide as thet 
ness of the s;i\v. Pressure from behind springs out the thin 
of the lance head which has a sharp apex^-on the removal of pt 
the walls resume their po">ition gripping firmly the tissues 
have protnided into the slips. Pulling only tightens the 
This style of lance has not as far as the speaker was await 
any where described, though the specimens w^hich he saw if 
were afterwards sent to one of the museums in Germany. 

Responding to a question, Mr. Dall said that he thouf 
were not at present in a position to adjudge whether the Elskim 
relate<.l lo the cave dwellers as advocated by Dawkins, thotigl 
mode of life presents many similarities. 

Prof. Mason sjx»ke of the richness of information now i 
command in Washington, Greenland being represented byDl 
.M.IS: CumUTband Gulf by Dr. Boas; Ungava Bay by Lacj 
r.irncr : Point Harrow by Mr. Murdock; and theWcrtemM 
by Mr. Dall. Ho also called the attention of tihe Sodjm 
^roat amount of invention wrapped up in •- '**''»*^^" 
Hitherto ^tudcnt^ had been satisfied with 


ifying the variciy; liiit Mr, Murdoch's own colleclioii con- 
d three lypcs: tances, dam, .ind harpoons. Of lances there 
ynn three kinds, the whale, the walrus, and the deer lance. Of 
«lui» there were several varieties, all carried by the throwing stick, 
imoDg them the bird or pronged dart (with or without side prongsj, 
ibe feather dart, the float dart, the bridle or martingale dart, and 
ihclurpoon dart. Of hariioon* Mr. Murdoch could exhibit several 
wittie*. The most interesting was the retriever. The Eskimo 
landing un the edge near thin ice shoots the seal in the water, and 
afiet breaking a channel with the ice-pick on one end, launches 
lilt whole implement at the animal, holding on to a line attached to 
iliclarpoon. By this means he could draw the dead body to the 
lliick ire. 

Mr. Mi'KiMX'H, ill answer to a ifuestion of Dr. Bessels, said the 
<nl-nel> appear lo have never been made from whalebone. Nets 
°[ [hit material with small me^h are used for taking whitefish, &c. 
Hioeal-nct is a comparatively modern invention. Nikawaalu, an 
iMdllgcnt middle-aged native. Ml of tradition, says " Adrani (be- 
wwl the memory of man now living) there were no nets and they 
kilWseals with the spear (dna) only." No work that requires 
^luerbg or ]>ounding on wood must be done during the whaling 
*non, and even rapping with the knuckles on wood is bad. They 
*M tBto leave off work on our block-house in the spring of 1883, 
"Jttg it would drive off the whales. The whaling was a failure 

Ht. Murdoch also stated the following myths ' 

ASelu, ihc mythical dog, was tied to a stake. He gnawed him- 
«lf loose, antl went into the house where he found an Eskimo 
'WKn, with whom he had sexual intercourse. From this woman 
^Wtg the human race. 

-^ "doctor" starting on a fishing trip in the fall gave tobacco to 
ibtdcad num at the cemetery, breaking off tiny bits and throwing 
''OJ into the air. When he arrived at the river he also gave to- 
'■nu In the same way to the demon TuSA-a, saying "Tullfia, Tii- 
*">. ! invc you tobacco I Give me plenty offish." 

' . the aurora (ki61ya) was ba:/, that there was danger of 

man in the back of the neck and killing him. Con- 
' ■ oming to and fro from the village after dark in twos 
1 never dare go alone), one tarries a drawn knife or 
: i>i at the Aurora and drive it away. Frozen dogs' 
r.>wn at the aurora will also drive it off. 


During a bright aurora the children especially sing to it, so 
times nearly all night, performing a stamping dance, with the I 
clenched. The song has many verse^, with the same refrain. ' 
first verse, as follows: 

«Ki6ly&ke! Kiblyfllkel 
A y&fi&, y&fUl, ya ! 
Hwi, hwi, hwi, hwi!" 

Eighty-Seventh Regular Meeting, Dec. i6, 1884. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Ada 
Thornton A. Jenkins, U. S. N. , Mr. John Murdock, and Mr. Lo 
M. Turner as active members of the Society. 

The Curator presented a report showing the receipt of scvc 
three gifts, comprising books, papers, and pamphlets, as follom 


From the Director. — Second Annual Report of the Bureau of 1 
nology. 1880-81. Major J. W. Powell. Washing 
1883. Pp. 487. S°, Illustrations and plates. 

From Mr. Geo. F. Black. — British Antiquities; their pre 
treatment and their real claim. By A. Henry Rh 
Edinburgh. 1885. Pp- 47- 8°- 

Notice of a collection of flint implements found in the nc 

borhood of Fordoun, Cincardineshire. Rev. James Brc 

Pp. 5. 

Oil certain beliefs and phrases of Shetland Fishermen. Ai 

Laurenson. Pp. 6. 

Did the Northmen extirpate the Celtic inhabitants of 

Hebrides in the 9th century ? Capt. F. W. L. Thomas 

N. Pp. 35. 

Notice of a collection of flint arrow-heads and bronze 

iron relics from the site of an ancient settlement, recc 
discovered in the Culbin Islands, near Findhom, Morayiri 
Hercules Linton. Pp. 4. 

Notes respecting two bronze shields recently purchased fiH 

museum of the Society, and other bronze shields. Wli 
McCullo(h. Pp. 4. 1 


From the Director. — Notes on Mediaeval "Kitchen Middens'* 
recently discovered in the monastery and nunnery on the 
Island of lona. John Alexander Smith. Pp. 14. 

— Note of a fragment of a Rune-inscribed stone from Aith's Vol. 

Cummingsburgh, Shetland. George Stephens. Pp. 6. 

— Letter to the Schoolmasters of Scotland, from the Society of 

Antiquaries. Edinburgh, i860. Pp. 13. 

— Note on a cist, with an urn, discovered at Parkhill, near 

Aberdeen, in Oct., 1881. Wm. Ferguson. Pp. 4. 

— Notes on some stone implements, &c., from Shetland. John 

Alexander Smith. Pp. 9. 

— Notice of the discovery of a massive silver chain of plain 

doable rings or links at Hardwell, Berwickshire. By the 
Hon. Lord Douglas. With notes of similar silver chains 
found in Scotland. By John Alex. Smith. Pp. 7. 

■ — Notes on the Antiquities of the Island of Tiree. J. Sand. 

Pp. 5 
■ — Notice of a sculptured stone, bearing on one side an inscrip- 
tion in runes, from Kilbar, Island of Barra. Dr. Geo. Ste- 
phens. Pp. 4. 

— Notice of a Cranium found in a short cist near Silvermoor, 

Carstairs Lanarkshire. D. R. Rankine. Pp. 3. 

"*- Notice of an underground structure recently discovered on 
the farm of Mickle Kinord, Aberdeenshire. Rev. J. G. 
Michie. Pp. 3. 

"*^ Notice of shell-mounds at Lossiemouth. E. G. Duff. Pp. 2. 

■ — • Notice of urns in the museum that have been found with 
articles of use or ornament. Joseph Anderson. Pp. 16. 

■ — • Notice of a hoard of bronze weapons and other articles found 
at Monadh-Mor, Killin. Charles Stewart. Pp. 5. 

— ^ Notice of a flint arrow-head in the shaft, found in a moss at 
Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, with notes in illustration of the manu- 
facture of arrow shafts with flint tools. Joseph Anderson. 
Pp. 6. 

— Notes on the character and contents of a large sepulchral 

cairn of the bronze age at Collessie, Fife, &c. Joseph 
.\nderson. Pp. 23. 

— ^ Notes on the contents of shell-heaps recently exposed in the 
Island of Coll. Donald Ross. Pp. 2. 

' Notice of ancient graves at Doudan, near Ballantrae, Ayrshire. 
John Carrick Moore. Pp. 3. 

^Donations to the museum. Francis Abbott. Pp. 3. 

On the presentation of national antiquities and monuments 
in Denmark. J. J. A. Worsaae. Pp. 15. 



From the Director. — Notes of some recent excavations in 
Island of Unst, Shetland, and of the collections of si 
vessels, implements, etc. Thomas Edmonston. Pp. 5. 

Note of a donation of four sculptured stones from Monifi 

Forfarshire. James Neish. Pp. 8. 

Notes of the sculptured caves near Dysart, in Fife, &c. I 

C. Maclagan. Pp. 14. 

Notice of the discovery of two sculptured stones, with syml 

at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. Miss C. Maclagan. Pp. j 

Notice of excavations in Cannis, in Strathnaver, Sutherb 

shire, &c. John Stewart. Pp. 5. 

From Prof. L. Stieda. — Anthropologische Untersuchungen 
Becken lebenderMenschen. Paul Schroter. Dorpat. il 
Pp. S3. 

From the Author. — :H. Fischer. On stone implements in A 
Worcester, Mass. 1884. 

From the Author. — Dr. H. F. C. Ten Kate. Quelques ot 
vations sur les Indiens Iroquois. Pp. 5. From Jtt 
d^ Anthrop., de Paris, 

Sur la synonymic ethnique et la Toponymie chez \t& Indl 

de TAmerique du Nord. Amsterdam. 1884. Pp. 11. 

[Reprinted from Trans. Roy. Acad. Sci. Amsterdam.] 

Variet^s. Notes sur Tethnographie des Zufii. Pp. 3. 

Quelques observations ethnographiques recueillies dan 

presqu'ile Californienne et en Sonora. Pp. 6. 

Sur Quelques Cranes de TArizona et du Nouveau Mezif 

Pp. 7. 

(Extrait de la Revue d^ Anthropoiogie,) 

Materiaux pour servir a I'Anthropologie de la presqu'ile ( 

fornienne. Paris. 1884. Pp. 19. 

[From Bull. Soc. d'Anthrop.] 

From the Author. — Alph. de Candolle. H6r6dit6 de la con 
des yeux dans Tespece humaine. Geneva. 1884. Pp« 

[Ext. Arch, des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles.] 

From the Author. — Baron Joseph De Baye. Sujets d^oratil 
Rcgne Animal dans I'industrieGauloise. Paris. 1884, P 

[Ext. Mem. Nat. Soc. of Antiquaries of France.] 

From the Author. — Adrian de Mortillet. Premier decade ] 
oethnologique. Paris. 1881. Pp. 11. 

Dciixieme decade paleoethnologique. Paris. 1883. IJH 


From the Author. — Heinrich Fisher. Le Pr^curseur de T Homme. 
1884. (L* Homme, No. 13.) 

— Evolution des espdces, Evolution des mots. (L' Homme, No. 20.) 

Further remarks on Nephrite. Verhandl. Berliner Anthrop. 
Gesellschaft. 1884. Pp« 2. Correspondenz-Blatt. June, 
1884. Containing note on a Nephrite Axe, from Brazil. 

From the Author. — Elmer R. Reynolds. Memoir on the Pre- 
Columbian shell-mounds at Newburg, Md. , and the aborigi- 
nal shell-fields of the Potomac and the Wicomico rivers. 
Copenhagen. 1884. Pp. 22. From Proc. Cong. Amer. 
Copenhagen. 1883.] 

From the Author. — Juan Ignacio de Armas. La Tabula de los 
Caribs. Elstudios American istas, I. Habana. 1884. Pp.31. 

[Read to the Soc. Anthrop. Havana.] 

From the Author. — Protass Chandra Roy. The Mahabharata. 
Calcutta. Parts 9-1 1, inclusive. 

From the Author. — A. B. Meyer. Ein Zweiter Rohnephritfund 
in Steiermark. Vienna. Pp.12. 

— Ubcr Nephrite und ahnliches Material aus Alaska. Dresden. 

1884. Pp. 21. 

" — ^Einn^er Fundort von Nephrit in Asien. Dresden. 1883. 
Pp. 10. 

— Ueber die namen Papua, Dajak und Alfuren. Wien. 1882. 

Pp. 18. 
— - Bemerkungen iiber Nephrit. Breslau. Dr. H. Traule. 
1884. Pp. I. 

From the .\uthor. — Henry Phillips. On a supposed Runic inscrip- 
tion at P'armouth, Nova Scotia. Philada. 1884. [From 
Pror. Am. Phil. Soc'y.] 

From the Author. — Heinrich Fischer. Nephritfrage und sub- 
marginale (sub cutane) Durchbohrung von Steingerathen. 
Berlin. 1884. Pp. 4. [Verhandl. Berliner Anthrop. Ges- 

From the Ai'THOR. — C. C. Jones. The Life and Services of ex- 
Governor Charles Jones Jenkins. Memorial Address. At- 
lanta. 1884. Pp. 56. 

From the .\ IT H OR. — G. A. Colini. Osservazioni etnografiche sui 
(iivan. Rome. 1883. Pp. 47. [From Royal Lincean 

From the IssrirrrE. — Transactions of Vassar Brothers* Institute 
and its S( ientific Section. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 1883-84. 
Vol. 2. Pp. 166. 

'ittn the Commission. — Bulletino della Commissione Archajologica 
Comunale di Roma. Rome. 1884. Pp. 138. 



r ' 



, while ours is in the light of the very present. The pnnci- 

iDvolved in this native art are applicable to all times and to all 

of art, as they are based upon the laws of nature. 

Ceramic art presents two classes of phenomena of importance in 

study of the evolution of aesthetic culture. These relate, first, 

bnn, and, second, to ornamentation. 

Form in clay vessels embraces useful shapes, which may or may 

be omamefttal, and aesthetic shapes, which are ornamental and 

be useful ; also grotesque and fanciful shapes, that may or may 

be either useful or ornamental. The shapes first assumed by 

in clay depend upon the shape of the vessels employed at the 

of the introduction of the art, and ornament is subject to similar 

Fonn may have three origins : First, adventition or accident ; 

IKood, imitation of natural and artificial models; third, invention. 

;li the early stages of art the suggestions of accident are often 
ilopted by men, and are thus fruitful sources of improvements and 
liogress. By such means the use of clay was discovered and the 

l^nmic art came into existence. The accidental indentation of a 
■wofclay l>y the foot or hand, or by a fruit or stone, while serv- 
ttg as an auxiliary in some simple art, may have suggested the 
iKans of making a cup, the simplest form of a vessel. 

In time the potter learned to copy both natural and artificial 
■odcb with facility. The range of models is at first, however, very 
faiitcd. The primitive artist does not proceed by methods identi- 
cal with our own. He does not deliberately and freely examine 
*fl departments of nature or art and select for models those things 
*05t suitable to convenience or agreeable to fancy; neither does 
^fttperiment with the view of inventing new forms. What he at- 
tenpts depends almost absolutely upon what happens to be sug- 
fcsted by preceding forms, and so narrow and so natural are the 
Processes of his mind that, knowing his resources, it would be easy 
*<> closely predict his results. 

The elements of ornamentation are derived chiefly from two 
•'irces — from the suggestions of incidents attending manufacture, 
,*d from objects, natural and artificial, associated with the arts. 

■*« first articles used by men in their simple arts have had in 

Ipiy cases decorative suggestions. Shells are exquisitely embel- 
^with ribs, spines, nodes, and colors. The same is true to a 
Srhtt limited extent of the hard cases of fruit, seeds, &c. These 



decorative features, though not essential to the vessel, are I 
thclcss an inseparable part of it, and are cast or automatically o 
by a very primitive people when similar articles are artificial!) 
duccd. In this way a vessel acquires ornamental characteifl 
before the workman learns to take pleasure in such details ol 
ceives a desire beyond that of simple utility. 

Artificial utensils have a still more decided influence upon ce 
decoration. The constructional features of textile i'essels ia 
themselves upon the plastic clay in manufacture, and in tin 
repeated and copied for the pleasure they give. The simple 
of embellishment thus acquired are constantly subject to mo 
tion. A single radical gives rise to a multitude of forms. 
rauses that tend to bringabout these results are worthy of the < 
study. They nuy be sought in the material, the form, and 
all the constructional characters of the object decorated. 

Prof. Mason followed Mr. Holmes with a short risM 
Prot*. Hartt*s theory of the rationale of ornament, publist 
the Popular Science Monthly, for January, 1884. Prof. 
nuintains that the explanation of the shap)e and color of be 
objects is to bo found m the eye itself. We are pleased withe 
lines bocauNO ihoy bring the muscles of the eye into easy and 1 
ful pl.iy. 

Prot". Mason s.iid that there was in his mind no conflict bi 
the meihod> pi:rsued in Mr. Holmes* paper and Hartt's thi 
a little v!'.i"iVre:i:l\ >:atod and expanded. Mr. Holmes trac 
oatlino of :'.m: !Ui rural ir.ovement which aboriginal potte 
to 1 i o v\ e J. . \\.\::: >o \: ^ ; :: : o > I: j w : h e subi ec t i ve side and how 
tl'.a: :!^e '^v.-.'.v.r-.xo a::>: "'.-.d vhose" some forms and rejected 1 
1 :' \\ o w I ! ; V \ .-. :: \ . r. v : ; : ^ ^ '\ : : >. .: :t J. \v r i : : 11 ^ we sh al 1 fm d t hat tb 
two >v' ■. N •::.;.:>;;:. ^v " : : • ^' :r. s^- ". ves. On i he one hand w 
lvo*N-. ■ . -v:^. V . ::v^' , •\" ^ . :n-bcs?ks. and man v other C 
.-. ^. \\ •:•...•.;-. \ V : v :V :.^ >* .:: t' ye>. On the other hand I 
■\ '\^. -^ >.'.-. .:*.: < "CAS. v.v.'.led the hand, with it 
. .;.">, ■. N-.>.>vS. :-.:\ , '.:::^. so compounded i 
: -V- • .' .-. :./. -J. .•...:' ■•.:::<.:. A man's hand wri 
•:^; . V ., ;\.-:s in the lines of least 
. -v.-.-x • :>,e enort to confonn 

■>■ >"".;;. Is. homs* gopn^ **^ 

..... ^ . . .* .. .. .^ ^^ 

« H 

up«:s ID but 



Iwists of spirals, cycloids, and circles iiiniiraerable, are 
lU Iht lalteros of things, the ktlcrs, ihe copy-book. The clay 
W iIk potters' tools are pen, ink, and paper. The lines of least 
nraunce are |iartly in the hand of the potter, indeed, a<> Mr. 
Helnw has shown ; they are partly in the muscles of the eye, as Mr, 
Ibm has said ; but fiirelier back than all this is the force of usage 
flul inheritance. 

If we hang a hat intentionally on a peg eleven times, the twelfth 
lure ii will hang itself up. This is the universal and beneficent 
lit of (he passage of painful voluntariness into semi-automa- 
lira which follovvs the frequent repetition of any act whatsoever, 
*< wc pleav^d with certain muscular movements which have been 
rfi tipcaied. There is no doubt, therefore, that Ihe eye accustomed 
i9t«Tain outlines, the brain accustomed to certain consecutive 
wpmrions, are iilea^d with that which has become semi-automatic 
uA h^toal. Wc know that such tendencies are strengthened by 
alwiitiuior, for wc have here the application of a universal law 

Dr. Frank Baker said that Hartt seemed in some respects to ig- 

"wtccrlain ph}-sio logical laws in discussing the movements of the 

t|t. ind lo have loo little considered inventive geniuses. The 

must be sought for in the brain that controls the eye; 

■SBOciaiioo of nerve cells that prompt the movement of mus- 

Taste may follow and accept suggestions from natural forms, 

Dot imitative, for, having its source in invention, it gives 

ig nature does not. 

FhAXK H. Ci;siiiNC said that Hartt apparently did not try 

what the eye might develop, but having certain forms 

reasoned thcfcfrom. The speaker had found in his studies 

in the southwest that decoration in basketry had 

led that of pottery, and that the resulting forms might 

ly attributed to adventicion, and taste might have its 

tonrcc in the environment. 

EinHTT'ElcUTK Reiil-lar Meeting, January 6, 1884. 
>^wj. W, Powtll. President, in the Chair. 
IWSerrrttary of the Council made the following announcements : 
T^ dtction of Dr. J. H. Yarnall, as an active member of 



the Society ; and George H. Black, Edinboro', Scotland 
Hermann Ten Kate, The Hague, Holland, as coi 


Mr. H. N. Bates read a "Memorandum concerning 
Mounds in Pontotoc county, Mississippi," visited by J. M. 
Esq., of Louisiana. No abstract. 

Mr. O. T. Mason read a paper prepared by Daniel G. Bi 

*' On THE Probable Nationality of the Mound-Bi 

Dr. Brinton said : Further reading on the subject, and 
obser\'ations during a trip made to the principal monui 
Ohio, have confirmed me in the opinion that we need not 
farther than the Southern tribes to find the modem repi 
of the mound -builders. Since I wrote the article on the 
builders, Mr. Horatio Hale has published his suggestive 
which he adds strength to this position by linguistic evident 

It would probably be hasty to point to any one of the 
tribes as being specifically the descendants of the nation whf 
structed the great works in the Scioto and Miami Valleyi^ 
evidence is ample that nearly all the tribes of the Gulf Stall 
Lower Mississippi were accustomed to throw up works of i 
character and often greater magnitude. They were of raj 
diverse languages, but nearly in the same plane of culture* 
Natchez, the Taensos, the Choctaws, the Creeks^ the Chci 
and others might put in equal claims. The last mentioned a 
that they once lived in the Upper Ohio Valley, and that thq 
the Grave Croc^k and other mounds, and they are borne out i 
claim"^ by various histctric data. 

With rciraril to the Sluwnees. it has not been sufficiently 
ni.'Ovi by writers that their name in the Algonkin dialects i 
national appellation, bi:t a geographical term. It means 
" Somhornors." and in its earliest emplo}'ment bore no spec 
oronco to tb.o irilv whom we call Shawnees. It first appei 
ni.ip virawn in 1014. intended to show the Dutch colony i 
Nt \v Ani<:ord.rai. In :hi> the •' Sawannew" are located as I 
in^ ::io whole of Southern New Jersey; whereas the ShaM 
wo unvkr<:.:nvl the term tirst came to the Dodoeof dMtJH 
ioiony sn 1002. On :h:s map it simply means " 
with rot'crcnoo 10 the jx>>it:on of New Yoikhar* 


Bj dialect, tradition, and political affiliation the Shawnees were 
a northern tribe who moved south at no very remote period. Their 
iinguage, according to the Moravian missionaries, was closer to the 
Mobegan than to the Delaware, Nanticoke, or other Southern Algon- 
kin dialects. By tradition they at one time were a branch of the 
Mohegans on the Hudson, and it was to them that they returned when 
driven from their towns in Carolina and on the Tennessee river. The 
name of their principal clan, the Pequa or Pick-e-weu, is said by 
Hcckewclder to be the same as that of the Pequods, of Connecticut, 
and he relates that the Mohegans told him that the two were of the 
same family. 

If we can depend upon this evidence, and there is no reason why 
it^oald be rejected, the ** Pre-historic Shawnees*' are to be looked 
for in New York and New England. I have no idea whether this 
will correspond with Professor Thomas* views, but I should be 
gratified to hear that we had reached identical conclusions from in- 
dependent study of the subject. 

The four clans of the Shawnees were assembled in Ohio, but in 
P^nsylvania I have not found evidence of any but the Pequas, who 
lited in the valley that still bears their name in Lancaster county. 
Tneir state of culture was nowise ahead of that of the Delawares. 
They had one clan named Chilicothe, and three of their settlements 
in Ohio bore this name, but while there they had not the slightest 
knowledge or tradition about the ancient earthworks, as we are as- 
wredby the Rev. David Jones, who went out to teach them Christian- 
ity in 1772, and who, I think, is the earliest writer who calls 
attention to the remarkable remains in Southern Ohio. 

Prof, Cyrus Thomas read a paper entitled *' Prehistoric Shawnes, 
from Mound Testimony.** 

Before reading his paper, Prof. Thomas said, referring to the pre- 
ceding paper, that he had recently written a letter with a view to 
pnxnring an exploration of Pontotoc county, Miss., without any 
poative knowledge that ancient remains existed there, and that the 
; piper of Mr. Pollard was in verification of the speaker's assumption 
^soch remains would be found in that vicinity. 

Mr. C. C. RoYCE, at the request of the Society, read an extract 
i former paper of his on the origin of the ** Shawnees.*' 

It Powell said that the papers read before the Society 
t pist two years seemed to establish the fact that the 


mound-builders were Indians, and that many Indians built ml 
While small burial mounds were frequent and widely distri 
the larger mounds and earthworks with circumvallation- 
probably crowned with palisades — were confined to narrower I 
The old theory that attributed these remains to an extind 
grade of civilization seemed to be well nigh abandoned. 

Dr. Gregory said that he had held to the old theory until 1 
become convinced of its error, and described a large mound 
fifty feet high, that he visited in Minnesota, which gave cow 
evidence of its comparatively recent structure. Depression 
still to be seen close about the foot of the mound, from v 
material had apparently been taken to aid in forming the n 

Seventh Annual and Eighty-Ninth Regular Mebi 

January 20, 1885. 

Major J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election 
Addison Porter and H. L. Reynolds as active members 
Society, and advised the Society of the death of Dr. Henri 1 
of Paris, France, and Dr. R. J. Farquharson, of IJes Moines 
corresponding members of th*^ Society. 

The Treasurer then submitted his annual report. 

On the motion of Col. Mallery, the President appointed 
Bates, Baker, and Holmes a committee (composed of memb 
side the Council) to audit the accounts of the Treasurer. 

This session being the time for the annual election of oflk 
balloting for officers resulted as follows : 





Sk«:ritary t» the Council . . F. A- SF 

T, MAsoayf 

PRUI ■■■ 





Additio.nal Members of the Council -l ^' ^' ^^^^^^^* 


The President announced that the next meeting would be public, 
to which the members of the Biological and Philosophical Societies 
were specially invited for the purpose of listenmg to the annual 
address of the President. 

Ninetieth Regular Meeting, February 3, 1885. 

In accordance with previous announcement the Society assembled 
in public session to listen to the annual address of the President, 
there being present on special invitation the members of the Bio- 
l^jgial and Philosophical Societies and other friends of the Society. 

Dr. J. C. Welling introduced to the audience President J. W. 
Powell, who delivered an address entitled **From Savagery to 

At the close of the address, on motion of Mr. Mason, a vote of 
thanks to the speaker was unanimously passed. 

The Secretary of the Council announced that the Saturday 
coarse of lectures under the auspices of the Anthropological and 
Biological Societies had been arranged, and that programmes of the 
^ part of the course were ready for distribution. 


have been made sufficiently clear by the evidence daily discloi 
your papers.** And in a private letter received after his rtHi 
England, relative to views which I had expressed, he re-assert 
doctrine, and says: "As you are probably aware, and as, in I 
said very emphatically when in America, I regard social progi 
mainly a question of character and not of knowledge or enl^ 

In the light of all these somewhat conflicting opinions, if nt 
to rest the case altogether upon authority, we should at let 
compelled to admit that the real moral progress of the woil 
been extremely slow, and that it is imperceptible even in the 
est stages of enlightenment. Such, too, seems to be the leu 
history and of observation. It is only when we contemplate 
periods of history and contrast the present or the recent posl 
the remote past that an advance can be perceived in the mon 
dition of mankind. Yet, when such an historic parallax ii 
secured, the fact that moral progress actually has taken place 
tinctly seen. To read the history of England and compare tl 
committed a few centuries ago by men of our own race, witf 
any one can sec would be done now under like circumstan 
sufficient to demonstrate that improvement has been going 
both individual and public morals. Making every possible . 
ance for all that is bad in the present social system, no one 
probably be found candidly to maintain that it is inferior, fw 
moral point of view, to that of the middle ages or even of d 
teenth century. Modern kings, bad as they are, no longer pen 
sons to death to prevent them from usurping iheir thrones, m 
sons of kings, however profligate they may be, do not » 
dethrone their fathers. When Rome was at its zenith, it i 
more than every one expected that the great armies of Caes 
Pompey, on their triumphal return from victorious fieldsy 
turn their arms upon each other for the mastery of the e 
And I have heard those familiar with Roman history predict, 
time when the vast armies of Grant and Sherman, far outnnm 
the Roman legions, were marching victoriously through di 
parts of the South, that the last grand struggle of the wir wo 
between the Army of the Cumberland and that of the FolQ 
forgetting that since the age of the Caesars there had bCMij 
progress sufficient to render both the leaders and the loUlH 
able of such an act. 


J opponents are no longer beheaded on the accession of 
f party to power; neither are they thrust into dungeons nor 
BS formerly. Persecution fur opinion's sake has practically 
Scientific men arc no longer burned at the stake, like Bruno 
SServeCui, nor made to recant, tike Galileo and Buffon. Witch- 
oifT ha dwindled Into innocent palmistry, and heresy is only pun- 
uhcd In a (eve backward communities by a mild form of social 
Mncism. Imprisonment for debt has been abolished, and the 
Fl«t and the galleys are things of the past. Primogeniture and 
cauil hare disappeared from most codes of law, and trial by jury 
bti [iKTL instituted in the most influential slates. The slave trade 
hi been suppressed wherever European powers have acquired su- 
pmiHcy, and slavery has been abolished in all the most enlight- 
oinl countries. Va.'ii public and private charities have been insti- 
t'lln], ind societies for the prevention of cruelty to children and 
to uiiinals receive the sanction of law. And finally a great moral 
oiKutc, with a display of far more zeal than knowledge, is being 
I"vii«J against the admitted evils of intemperance. 

TW hAs, then, been some moral progress within the historic 
t*riod, but, considering the amount of moral agitation, it has been 

It ii the characteristic of moral progress that it takes place rhyth- 

noEally. In the achievement of moral reforms there are always 

'ifnicaced partial and temporary failures, prolonged interruptions, 

•licw reverses, and constantly recurring waves of reaction, so 

|t il no time has it been possible for the candid observer to 

« that any ccttwn advance was being made. The ground 

tally being lost is never appreciably less then the ground 

H.aiul none but the ignorant, the blinded, or the oversanguine 

knuOi caiue for congratulation. In the great ocean of moral 

Xtion 10 nearly et[ual are the tidal ebbs and Hows that only ihestoi- 

olt^loM^iher whose vision ranges back into the remotest past or 

iawxd onto the remotest future, with utter contempt for the 

MWfcnt preseni, ran perceive the minute increments of secular 

'l'<*|e— fliach as the geologist, provided with his vast time- 

■•>■•», perceives the changes that are slowly taking place on the 

"■Uaf continents washed by the tides and waves ol the appar- 

""ly ttiatigclesB ocean of waters. 

~ 'i : iD'iral progress in society. With it we may now compare, 

"^iirasl, the other form of social progress which we have 

il it material. 


Material progress results entirely from mental and manual 1 
laid out on invention and construction. Moral progress is a 
duel of /tY//»^, material progress one of tJiought; the actioi 
(Oinpanving the former is called conduct^ that accompanying 
latter is called Uxbor, Conduct is confmed to the avoidance of ii 
ference with liberty of action in others. Labor is directed tt 
production and distribution of the objects of desire. Moral ai 
aims at the restraint or control of the forces of society, of ha 
ilesires, prejudices, and ]xassions. Invention and labor aim al 
control and utilization of physical and mechanical forces, and of 
vital proiX'sses as underlie pastoral and agricultural pursuits. 

The iontrast in the essential nature of these two classes of s 
phenomena is thus seen to be very wide, but it is not greater 
is the iliiTerence in their mode of operating. We have seen 
moral progress always takes place by rhythmic action, and th( 
sivular slowness is not due to its own inherent sluggishness, 
to the fact that onlv the alcebraic sum, of its many fluxes 
ivi1;:\on can Iv co'.:u:ed. In material development nothing o: 
kr/.tl '»N :'o-.:'.:J. Every s:er i> a j-ermanent gain. Every med 
c a '. : :". \ o '.". : \ v^ :i i s a n i :i a '. : e :: a M e c on : ri b'^ :i on to the material 
) V. ; : \ v^ \ s^v i i : \ . If: ho :vir: ; : -lur d e v ice nrst produced bcc 
a: *c"jl:"' cS»^*.v :c. .:> :> ->-.:.i*..\ :he case, i: is only because fn 
a ^ a ' \'. > > ',\* : : .■ : c. ; ^ . c :> . : :: \ ." '. ^ . r. j a i i i : : on al princ iples and C 

^rjwr. -L-: . And such, in fact, i 

\ « 

« • • \ 


« « « « 

\ . ^ I 

^ V .■.:•,■•.•..*•* .■ - .^ • . : ":: : r.*..i: r r .^■. embodiment of intellc 

: > :"..^- :""..-.: '. ; .:: :r.i^ foundition of all ma 
■ .:"• ;■' :-. > rrj^ress has consisted of 

Of this cl 

:.i~ ::" wh::h c:in be dii 

,\ / - • . .: -T-T.-T Even- natuml 

. ■ .•- :!• " "■■- ■^- rr.' cress of pure sci 

V. .\. .^- ■ > :■:•: >: r:ii I :houjh not uni 

. . ... 7.".i r:.:?c-:ied lorcesof fi 

., . . . ■.. -:■'•■: 3 ss of aociery have 

' - . . . >- - '. \ s;-.:t25CTr cliecked it, \ 

- - \- 7*i'~i:*iN. bai xiicf have 

7*i£ suae is xnie of ait, 1 

" .«£. « IS 


ii were next to impossible for a single art to be wholly lost. And 
so it is. Every age has known all that was known by the age that 
|ireceded it and has added something to this. Every age has pos- 
med all the arts of the age that preceded it, and has added some- 
tiling to them. And this in spite of the most prolonged moral 
leactions, such, for example, as that of the middle ages. 

If we examine the arts, implements, utensils, and weapons of any 
of the lower tribes, as, for example, the Esquimaux of the extreme 
Dorth, we shall find that they represent a high degree of skill, a 
brge amount of inventive thought, and a considerable real knowl- 
edge of the laws of nature and of physical forces. A comparison 
of many such tribes also shows that these devices represent, like 
those of the most enlightened peoples, a series of steps in invention 
wswering to our improvements. But a better implement is never 
ibtodooed for a poorer one, and here, as in the higher races, pro- 
gtw has been constant — always forward. We may therefore safely 
coodnde that the present high state of material advancement in 
nentific nations is the result of a series of intellectual conceptions 
■tterially embodied in art, stretching back into that dim past when 
dke dab embodied the highest mechanical principles known to man. 
Sach is material progress, and such are the essential particulars 
ffl which it so widely differs in nature and method from moral pro- 
gress. But, great as these differences seem and are, there is a point 
totard which they may be made, hypothetically at least, to con- 
wge. This point is where the human activities are conceived as 
wnml phenomena, and their control through the normal inventive 
Pfoct« is contemplated as a true art. If the power to do this shall 
«tr he attained, there is no reason why morals may not progress 
Qthe same manner and at the same rate as material civilization. 
The tnie interpreters of human history now understand that it is to 
material progress, /. e.j to science and art, that what moral progress 
I has actually taken place is indirectly due. It is knowledge of the 
wuvcise enlarging the mental horizon that has dispelled the bigotry 
of prc-scicntific ages and thrown the mantle of charity over indi- 
vidoal conduct and opinion. And it is the arts of intercommuni- 
Qtioiithat have really civilized the modern world, as compared with 
^fciporld before their introduction. 
J* since morals, from the point of view of social science, are 
exclusively with the welfare of men, and since material 
^ todi physical and intellectual, is also directed exclusively 


toward this same end. the question naturally arises, why i 
not the we hare of men advance /'an passu with the progres 
science and art? As already remarked, no thoughtful pei| 
will maintain that it does so advance, some insisting thatd 
two are wholly independent, and others claiming that the mi 
condition of society is degenerating in spite of the brilliant mati 
civilization of these later times. After conceding all that is pi 
ble on the side of a real moral progress in society the case is | 
enough, and the blunt comment of crude common sense natuij 
and i)roperly is. of what use are science and art if they are ind 
])etent to add anything to the general welfare of mankind ? J 
to this question the resjwnse of the highest science is that if i 
cannot do this thev are of no use. The welfare of mankind is 
ultimate test of utility, and whatever fails to withstand that 
stands condemned. 

But admitting, as has already been done, that all the percept 
moral ])rogress that has taken place has been due to that of inti 
gence in interaction with the practical arts which it necessi 
creates, it may still be a question whether this trifling result is re 
worth the Titanic efforts which this teeming age puts forth. ' 
attemi^t to answer this question would probably be attended i 
insuperable ditticuhies and need not be made. It will be fl 
profitable to con>ider the far more important one whether, in 
nature of things, this admitted slight influence of material ii 
moral j^rogress ituild. even theoretically, be so far increased I 
render them somewliat proportional in amount. 

Moral progress may be defined as embracing all those chai 
in man's social condition which actually enhance his gen 
well-l»eing: material progress may be defined as embracing ti 
I hange-i which give him power, if judiciously employed, to imp 
hi< • oniiiiiori. without implying such employment. If these ( 
r.::i'-»rj> arctorrect. it is evident that all that is needed to make a 
J r-^r^s oepend qunntiiativcly upon material progress is tose 
!:. ; i:::'io;:N employment of the modifications of crude naturew 
::''--]■: : :i cd by human ihuiight and action. Knowledget ingeoi 
'•:.!!. ..rjil i:..J':^try need to be applied to moral ends and dirtcll 


..•:.: :.:jj.:;: o\ ihe social well-being. At present scienoej 
:.-: ..r- • v.'.y r- ' factors in civilization. The need bttM 
' ■ -.•.::."; ra :\\a\ Ku-iors. They are well n^OHlfl 

i:. •jr. ..'.' /:n:/:i-;ini'jr,t of anvthinc toward whieh tt 



[nfiy directed. The difficulty is entirely that of securing for iliem 
tix opporlunity lor free action. The power, for example, to pro- 
docf a large quantity of a u-seful commudity may exist, but the con- 
ditioiu be w^inttng for placing the product in the hands of those 
»i»waDt it. This checks the production without affecting the pro- 
iuciag power. That lies latent, and such latent power is simply 
•Bttd. Not is it aliogetheradiscrepancy between production and 
distribution. The power to distribute exists as well as the power to 
ptodncr, but the conditions are wanting which are necessary to call 
tbi power inio exercise. And this is the actual industrial state of 


Whu is true of art is tnie of science. Inteliigence, far more than 
Wtnni)', is the mother of invetition, and the influence of knowl- 
t^eaiocial factor, like that of wealth, is proportional to the 
oinitufits tli.tinbution. 

Sxiety has always presented to the thoughtful student two great 

iMqmliti« as the adequate explanation of nearly all its cvils^in- 

tfolilyofknowlcdgcand inequalityof possession. Moral progress, 

■"niiiuii has taken place at all, has consisted in the slight diminu- 

"fliofimeor both of these inequalities. This is always accomplished 

»T ifct adoption of a better system of distribution. These two com- 

Mdicies, information and possession, differ in the essentia] particu- 

to llal the latter is and the former is not destroyed in consumption. 

IV oiisiencc of a snpply of knowledge for distribution is therefore 

Fnnnl liy the very fact of its inequality. But there is a sense in 

•fcti the supply of wealth for distribution is also practically unlim- 

tied. Pniductioa never ceases from having reached a limit to the 

font ta ]>TodDce. It always ceases from having exceeded the 

Jcwfi jf ihe rommunity to consume. But the limit of consurap- 

I 1 never lliat of the desire to consume ; it is always that 

r,. obtain. The power of both production and con- 

r.itcd only by that of distribution — not the inechan- 

disiribution, for these, too, are unlimited, but the 

'he jwrformancc of the sociological function of dis- 

iild the distribution of knowledge and of physical 

■ ■n at a rale at all proportional to their possible crea- 

1 1 piof^cas of society, /.<■., the increase in its aggregate 

: enjoy mem, would not only be as rapid, but would 

kt ii^ .1' iinilorm auil steady asitsmalerial progress. If ilieknowl- 

fe oiKir in powewion of the few were in the possession of all, its 


benefits would be far more than proportional to its universal 
since inequality itself often renders knowledge positively injurif 
Although it be true that if the actual wealth of the world « 
equally distributed the share of each individual would be a 1 
small fortune, yet if the limitations to possible distribution i 
removed production would so far increase that almost any ded 
portion might fall to each and all. 

Wherein, then, consists this mysterious yet potent barrier to 
distribution of wealth and wisdom : this practically prohibi 
tariff upon the world's commerce in both thoughts and things] 

The answer is rather deep than difficult. The two process^ 
they go on in society belong to antithetically opposite categc 
of social phenomena. We have in them the ultimate kernel of 
broad contrast which has just been drawn between moral and n 
rial progress. It is the great distinction between natural and i 
ficial processes, between genetic and teleologic activity, bcti 
growth and manufacture, between the method by which feeling m 
and that by which intellect works. The former is a metho 
direct effort, and fails in the great majority of cases to attain iti 
because of obstacles which are never taken into account. The 
ter is a method of indirect calculation by which the obstackl 
foreseen, and in one way or another provided against before 
advance is attempted. Hence it is always successful if the pha 
ena and laws to be dealt with are really understood. This is 
science and art, as already stated, move ever forward, never I 
ward. The discovery of truth on the one hand, and the invei 
of artificial appliances on the other, are always going on, mult 
ing the power of man to produce and distribute the objects of di 
Of the gain thus made nothing is ever lost. But when we cob 
the actual utilization of the products of discovery, inventioDj 
handicraft, we find this under the control of the opposite cli 
forces. The power to produce either knowledge or wealth is 
trolled by man, exercised when it can serve his purposes, ch< 
or arrested when it no longer does this. But the power to poss 
the ability to obtain the truth discovered or the commodity w« 
— is controlled by natural laws and depends upon the thousand 
dents of life — the conflicting wills of men, the passions of ai 
and ambition, the vicissitudes of fortune, the uncertainties 0| 
mate and seasons, the circumstances of birth and social stadol 
interests and caprices of nations and rulers. Of what use Mm 


tfnl iriih ro the millions whose minds it can never reai-h? Why 
iraliKc UMfnl commodities which ihose who need Ihem are unable 
Coobtaia? For while all producers are also consumers, and nearly 
alUoDtamers are at [he same lime producers, yet Tew can satisfy 
their wnw, however capable they may be of producing an equJva- 
Inil in value of other forms. Inventions in the practical arts by 
which the power is acquired to multiply the products of labor, in- 
hchI of working the rapid amelioration of the laboring classes, 
ictuily iojurc their prospects by throwing skilled artisanii out of 
dploymeni ; and instead of resulting in greatly increased pro- 
4oi3ion they do not appreciably affect production, but reduce 
ihc iniQunt of labor to the disadvantage of the laborer. The 
[pla of over- prod uctioQ in periods of financial depression is the 
Aetna marlcery, since it is just at such times that the greatest 
■iDl i» felt. It may be true that more Js produced than the 
<9liiuiiier» can obtain, but far less is produced at all times than 
'^ Jctoally need and are able to render a full equivalent for. The 
n^a manner in which every demand for laborers is responded to 
■<Acienily proves this. It proves also that the industrial system is 
nuafotder, and that we live in a pathological state of society. The 
WiccDmulaiions of goods at the mills avail nothing to the half- 
^ men and women who are shivering by thousands in the streets 
I ■Ue vainly watching for an opportunity to earn the wherewithal to 
tedMhnl. The storehouse of grain held by the speculator against 
1 rat in prices has no value to the famished communities who would 
|tadlj p«y for it in value of some form. 

Va in all this the fault cannot fairly be said to lie with indlvld- 

mbnurwiih corporations, with manufacturer nor merchant, with 

pnxboi nor consumer. These do but act the nature with which 

tWy <tr luidowed. This defective circulation of industrial pro- 

AcU ii the nsull o( the state of society. It is in one sense normal, 

ma it is due to the operation of natural laws governing social 

fknooieua. Tire enormous inequalities of both the classes named 

udtiieciibi reiutiing, constituting the major part of the woes of 

•uktod. Me simply due to the fact that the agencies for distribu- 

liag tjKxrlcJge and wealth arc/ref in the politico-economic sense, 

I «■.. not regulated nor controlled by intelligent foresight. The 

oOBtnu between moral and material progress is the contrast bc- 

IverA Nature and An. Nature is free. Art is caged. The forces 

tf NitDrc play tinbiidled among themselves, until choked by 


their m-jtuul iViciion, :hey ire equilibrated and come to resC: 
comminds their, wirh rones of aurhorit}* to pursue paths sel 
by iritciligence jlt.c ih-jLS indennitely to continue to exertij 
jx>wer. Under the dominion of" Science, /. ^.^ under the intdf 
control of physical force>. nun's jx)wer to create the objects cjl 
aire and to send them ivhcre he will, is practically unlimited. ^ 
under the dominion of Nature, /. ^.. under the free operation 4 
S'xial force>, as ye: I'eyond the reach of science, these obje 
iiuman necessity in seeking unaided their proper destination 
flic t {perpetually in their {ossage, dashing against unseen ota 
tions, forcing themselves into inextricable entanglements, pQ 
ing themselves around ]x>werful centers of attraction, heapingi 
selves up in inaccessible *• corners," or Aying off on tangentid 
to Ixr lost forever. 

Til is is what in modern phrase is very properly denominate 
"waste of competition.'* But it is far more than the mere 
of the wealth ])roduced. It is the {laraU'sis of the strong hai 
science and art as they co-operate with labor in the creaC 
value. It in the>tubl)orn, the protracted resistance which the 
forces of society offer to its material as well as to its moral pre 

The statement of the j^roblem is its theoretical solution, 
can be nothing less than the conquest by science of the don 
the social as it has conquered that of the physical forces. 

But alas I how wide is the difference between the theoretic 
the praciical solution of a problem to the bare statement of 
the foremost thinkers of the age are as yet unwilling to listen 


The paj>er was discu.-iNcd at length by Messrs. Powell, W 
Tliomas, Baker, Peters. Hart, and Ward. 

Major TowiM. maintained that there had been much mon! 
r(.-v>, :i\u\ ii.iw' ninnerons iU list rations of this among uncivilizeci 
III- N.iid xiinc ofthi-NC races had elaborate codes of moral 
wmtliv of iiititation hv < ivili/ed races, and that the wor^ofd 
niran^ nt ]>rtvcntiii,u and terminating controversr and secnii 
iiM- liad cniirosMil r!n. ciu-r^nesof all [X^ople from time 
that it had Ihcii 1 r^'cly mk <-c>>tul, and had resulted in 
prn^p'ss. a- ui.-.r a^. nr even greater, than the 
a( hu-\r«l 1)\ Niii li ia< i-N. . 


'elung, after paying a high tribute to Mr. Ward's paper, 
I the opinion that the complaint which it formulated, based 
sumed failure of moral progress to keep pace with material 

was in itself the mark and the expression of growing moral 
IS, seeking more and more to realize themselves in the 
society. It is a sign of intellectual growth when an age 
g vehemently on unsolved problems along the converging 
x:ientific inquiry; and it is an augury of moral progress 
age has become impatient of existing social adjustments 
elation to public well-being, and is longing for a better 
ition of social relations and a better distribution of social 
es. The unrest of such an epoch, he said, is the unrest 
1 to all transition periods, and is a ground of congratula- 
?r than a source of lamentation. It is necessary that social 
i moral aspirations shall be distinctly articulated before 
be properly embodied in institutions or in regulations; and 
xliment must needs be a slow process under the formula of 
>lution, because social experiments are experiments made 
-andest of all living organisms — the body politic — and not 
r viU. 

it enough that the co-ordination of society should be 
by the highest intelligence of the community, if that intel- 
>c congested in the head of the social organism. It is so 

to-day, and has there resulted in a stationary civilization. 
E-cn so in the feudal system of the middle ages, and had 
ulted in a cast-iron polity destructive of moral progress 
< ial well-lxMng, until that cast-iron polity had been broken 
x}>ansive force of a larger and more complex social life 
ng the lower members of the body politic. True moral 
can take place only in asocial organism which is '* vital in 
n/* for here the actions, reactions, and interactions of 
pmions give the widest possible distribution to social 
, feelings, purposes, and aspirations. It is in such an 

that ** discussion becomes the mould of measures," to use 
phrase of Thucydides, and that the lines of safe social 
ID be soonest discovered and soonest followed. In such 
pity there will be a growing complexity and a growing 
■jf-llie problems to be solved by each generation, but the 
vil increase in difficulty or number beyond the grow- 
mKation for coping with them. He illustrated 



this point b]^ citing the new and difficult social problems ci 
the abolition of slavery, and by the removal of governmental 
tions on the freedom of industry. 

Dr. Baker said that in estimating progress in the doi 
morals we should be careful to consider the average state tl 
out a sufficiently wide area. Comparing the present state 
civilized world with that of ancient Greece and Rome, we 4 
at first see such a marked advance, but it should be remeo^ 
that at the time of Socrates and Seneca the greater part of E^ 
was living in a state of low barbarism, comparable to that d 
madic savage tribes, preying on each other like hawks and £d 
and it was not until after the Norman Conquest that life and) 
erty in the northern part of Europe w^ere safe from ruthless d 
ders and sea-robbers. Respect for abstract right and justice 
matters of late growth, clearly recognized, it is true, by the G 
and Romans, especially by the latter. 

We may be in error in estimating the state of morab il 
ancient nation, for we know that it is extremely difficult to con 
estimate our contemporaries. Thousands of Englishmen an 
to day that our late civil war was a mere struggle for suprem 
conflict for territory, and it seems hopeless for an American ^ 
derstand French politics or French morality. According ( 
average French novel, infidelity to marital relations is the ru! 
all who have had access to French households agree that 
country arc the family habits more sweet, aflectionate, and fix 
am sure that wc would err grievously to take our view of I 
morals from Zola, Balzac, or Sue. In reading Plato I have 
startled ac the mention of certain habits and practices in 
connection as to show that they were not regarded by the au) 
at all objectionable, practices which would to-day be conside 
famous. Tlie collection at the Museo Borbonico at Naples, a 
many articles of personal adornment and public exhibitioi 
Pompeii which are so shocking to our ideas that they are not 
to the general public, and Terence, Plautus, Juvenal, and R 
abound in passages which show that they addressed an audi< 
whom gross and lascivious ideas gave a pleasure which t< 
usually replaced by disgust. Indeed this attitude of mind 
common that even the purest Greek and Roman authors I 
read in our schools with expurgated editions. 

It seems to me clear that a certain unwritten code of JMi 



4Imjs easily deliDed has been growing ihroughoat the historical 
p«iod wiih a steady jirogress on the whole. I refer to that code 
»hichlias for iu basis the criticism of our fellows, and which we 
till the inorali and tnanners of a gentleman. Obscured by many 
ibaintand trivial detaibasto what clothing we shall wear and what 
tinner of our cards we shall turn down, it has yet a very substantial 
raoRil basis, and (here are evident signs of its advance. Time was 
«btn it was not considered necessary to adhere closely lo the truth, 
■nctwhcnthc seduction o( young girls was considered an ace om- 
pliwiirent. Our grandfathers reverenced a five-bottle man while 
wlook rather askance at one who *' tarrieth long at the wine." 
iWitve thai never in the world has the standard of clean, healthy 
autnliiy been as high as to-day, although I am aware that the eager 
•cnaiMe for money perverts and injures many features of the fair 

We Jo not always completely realize the Titanic task which this 
•oaderfut leeming nineteenth century has before it. The civiliza- 
■"OBotiHc past had for its object the training and enlightenment of 
llxfew; wc are apt to judge of it by its results upon that few, and 
fc'Ktt the countless miserable hordes of slaves and plebes that were 
l«tle»bove rattle, and whose morals no one noted. These formed 
itcinnits that sacked and burned conquered cities, a proceeding that 
*Jionte a matter of course, performing deeds of lust and rapine 
■hindmost irajwssible to realire. The task to-day is lo civilize 
<*.Mfivc (o all the opportunity to live healthful, active, lives of 
wfulnens and enjoyment. It will take long, and we are in the 
Ihroo of the conflict. Of all biological processes those that bring 
*l»* lonions under control are the slowest. The African whose 
PMdftiher was a cannibal will not at once conform to the moral 
•"itmle of the descendants of a long line of civilized ancestry, how- 
**" t« ro.iy seem to do so. 

"^ the other hand, I cannot but note that any stride in material 
l^^iTs miwi ameliorate the general condition, and so foster moral 
P^ffcft. That morality has something to do with food supply is 
•^'-"iit t(i Hi all, and it is a matter of daily observation that one is 
■ '■> do a good deed after breakfast. The poor half- 
j.r.uant ready to (^hoot his landlord on trifling provo- 
'■''■ '• .'L-fomied in Ihc course of a generation to a jovial, hard- 
, and tolerably law-abiding citizen when trajisferred lo a 



Mr. E. T. Peters said he had been deeply intei 
ing to the paper read by Prof. Ward. He thought 
of the comments made in the course of the discussif 
assumed that the term moral progress, as used in the 
to improvement in public morals ; but, as the essay i 
it, it embraced not only this but ever)'thing else wl 
the happiness of man. The lack of prog^ress which 
dwelt upon in the paper just read seemed to him to 
in the tardy advance of political and social science, 
and the marvelous advances which in modem times 
in the physical sciences and in their application to 
there was mdeed, a striking contrast. Referring to a 
Major Powell had made as to the necessity for| 
ments in social organization arising from changes in. 
conditions under which a society existed, the 
was a pregnant thought. The changes of condition 
within the last one hundred years through the ii 
labor-saving devices into the industries of the civili 
alone amounted to an economic revolution, and a 
been created for changes correspondingly great in thej 
ments which relate to the production and distributi 
The knowledge essential to the making of such cl 
interests of society required had, however, not been 
and although vast social changes had occurred, tl 
about not in pursuance of any wise and comprehei 
through the blindly exerted pressure of changing 
and in a large part they had been productive of great] 
and discontent. To take a single illustration, the 
the new industrial methods had given a powerful 
growth of towns and cities, causing them to spread 
of suburban land, or to rise up on land where m 
before. Tliis had operated to the great enrichment 
owners, at the expense of crushing rents and ruinous 
to the poorer portions of the urban population, 
interest in this enrichment of a few land-owners, 
o( curred independent of the exercise on their part 
eronomic or social virtues which it is the policy 
couraj^c ; while on the other hand the most im] 
of public policy had demanded that the o 
of the poor — unwholesome no less frmr 



I«)imof«icw, and lendinf- to rapid social deterioraiion — should if 
[iMiltle have been prevented. A social adjustment adapted lo that 
paipose might have been found in a land tax like that suggested 
bi'iTcry eminent English economist, the late John Stuart Mill, 
umely, a Uix which as nearly as practicable should appropriate for 
public purposes the whole unearned incrcjae in the rental value of 
lanii But Mr. Mill's suggestion had not been made until about 
Sfinn ycai? ago. and the advanced public opinion necessary to the 
idopiion of a plan involving some such piinciple did not exist 
wenjiei. That the situation created by the want of social and 
piliiiul adjustments adapted to modern industrial conditions was 
^Tiyscrioui one was apparent from indications that might be seen 
OB every hand. To close the great gap between social and physical 
»eii(e— between moral progress as defined in the paper just read 
«nl nBlerial progress as illustrated in the stupendous achievements 
o' modem industrial art — was in the speaker's opinion the crj-ing 
Mtdudiie lime, and unless this need were supplied there would 
le imminent danger of a soda! catastrophe. In order that it 
nught tie supplied it was necessary that social questions should 
iroivc aiienlion lo a vastly increased extent. In particular should 
■be iMHt serious and unprejudiced consideration be given to llie 
ntnifaiiaiions of discontent thai came from the working jieople of 
OWlcwiliicd nation. If thty were not proposing the best remedies 
fetllit evils they complained of, so much the greater was the need 
tiw Ihe deep sociological problems involved should be taken up in 
"mrvi Ijv those who liad more time and a better inlellectiial cquip- 
■rMudy; and they must be taken up, not as it was to be 
I ni been by some men rated high as political ccono- 
" • . II. l_i. in ihc spirit of an advocate retained for the defense 
kaiaUogiUtcof things— but in the pure spirit of the man of 
'; tauiy [0 follow where the truth should lead, however 
dndical the social changes which might be involved in 

* were very influential writers who would have us believe 
Kdiicooient of the poorer classes had no foundation unless it 
b dw mischievous meddling of governments with the natural 
Kofa&u^ The speaker believed ihat we should come much 
k Hie troth if we accepted the views advanced in the jMper 
too, which were directly the reverse of that just indi- 
IncognUing the necessity of social coordinations to which 


only governmental agencies could be adequate. There was da 
less a field for legislative action in the repeal of bad existing I 
but there was a still wider one in the enactment of good A 
adapted to the needs of society. ' 

Mr. Ward, in reply to numerous inquiries and objections I 
during the discussion of the paper, explained that for tbei 
of brevity he had omitted any precise definition of the ! 
Moral Progress as used in the paper. He said that the i 
was often employed in two quite distinct senses, and that mm 
the disi^ussion had considered it in the other sense from that cb 
implied in the jxii^er. There is a subjective sense which relal 
individual character and an objective sense which relates til 
lective well-l>eing. Th^ jxiper did not pretend to discua 
qm'stion whether human character had advanc^, or how nui 
havi advanced. It aimed onlv to consider the relation of ms 
civili/auon to social well-being, the sole test of moral progn 
this objei^live sense KMng the condition attained with respect t 
en joy men t of lite. This j^rogres-^ might be either positive, co 
in*: in an increase in the pleasures ox life : or it might be neg 
and von>;s: in the r<.\:uv.:ion of the pains of life. In fac 
nocav.vo :^:o;cn.*ss h.:< Ixvn bv far the most obser\-able, the 
i n\ p r\^\ n^ o r. : i r. n: .-. r, * > c o :"i vi ■ : :o n i hus far bei ng some si ight no 
:io:\ of i>.o cv:*.> v^f o\:>:i':'.v:e- In view of this criterion of; 
^^rOj:Tx>ss a^>::n\; V\ :>.v- vie^iree cf collective happiness, al 
h.;J. Iw:*. Swvu: :o>*v\ ;!:'.< h.^he: s:ar.dard> of Liste in literatui 
>^v;.v'. *.*.:v' v^.i^ irr.'cva": r^^ :>.e d:^-u:S5.ion, since it simpljf 
:> .: " xi x\*. : V r. .*. .* :" c :\ : « . : "-. c r. ■ ; -. ::: ^ r. : . w h :oh a re two en t irel v d 
t> vi\ .Vv:*-v..::.rj: :^-:: ^T^.iT <<r>:":-.".:::e< are ca;>able of higb 
Vi '."<*":, :>.:> ^ :".i: ::vv. yr,^...*,; :"-a: :hey necessarily enjoy 
v: : 'x-\ ..:v ./.v^ x.-.-.v.*. 'i .:' :v:re .-,:u:e >c5erinj:. and the 
V xv: ,-' x': j: •*.*.' ^ «.> '■-"";:^:: :v..*.:i r-.jil j;v:Iiza::on prevents 


< »* ■ ■ 1 

V,: \X v\.- • xV •. > , ■ iy.ri-ii>i'i 5s:r7-ri5e that Dr. \1 

'.^." x-l v.^x' >Ov -x-." :. TVji/.-x: >.> vwLi-^r a: ill in the ligb 
^ .^. .-.-...-. ... ..^.j^ ., ^^* ^j^jj ^ view - 

V .;- V . ,: v •>.' :^ . -^jl:>.;: fMn e::her pessimi) 

V V -..■.■■:•> ".o;- -jc^soi of 



SiNsrv Second RectrLAR Meeting. March 3. 1885. 
IT J. W. Powell, Ihc PresidenI, in the Chair 

TV SecrtUry bciug absent the minutes were not read. The 
IMdcni announcecl that on account of the small attendance the 
Coundl had thought best to defer the regular program till another 
BKting, and that a portion of the time would be occupied by him- 
«lf- He ihcn addressed the Society upon Patriarchy, and the 
tonditions of savage society which preceded and led to it. 

Htmt followed by Mr. Ciishing in some remarks upon artificial 
WanJ pateniagc among the ZuHis, illustrated by his own expcri- 

Nwrri-THikD Regular Meeting, March 17th, 1885. 

MijoiJ. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

The Seetetary of the Council announced the election of Prof. 
"' C. Kerr, of Raleigh, N. C, as a corresponding member, and 
^- E- R. L, Gould, of Washington, D. C, as an active member 
trflhf Society. 

Th* following papers were then read ; 

"Sti'dvoftiie Circular Rooms in the Ancient Plteblos," 
byWr, ViciobMindelbfk. 

"Ocular Architecture Among the Ancient Peruvians," 
»*'' W. H. Holues. 


™-MasoS. a very interesting separation has been made by 
r» of the evening without design, The subject for discus- 
I !• "Circular Architecture of the American Aborigines." Now 
1 iag Ihis theme we may have regard eithar to structure or 
tSOtt. If Mr. Turner not been called away he would have 
Bd(i1k Eskimo tg/aa, 01 winKr temporary hut of ice or snow; 
fcMiadddT described at length the circular rooms in the pueblo 
i of our iioulhwesi territory, and Mr. Holmes has dwelt 
I the chulpaiL Structurally we have the material at hand 


wrought into the most natural shape for a cist or cell, the a 
simple being that of the Elskimo, the most complex, the chulp 
dref^sed stone. Now as to function, they differ verj- curiously, 
igloo teems with daily life, the esfufa is open to ceremony and j 
ventions, the chulpa is a sealed tomb. The Eskimo has a coa 
chamber, a place of public meeting in the permanent undergo! 
dwelling. The Chibchas and Peruvians had both dwelling i 
meeting places apart. Descending the continent from nortl 
south it is curious to notice the transfer of function in ciic 
architecture from dwelling pkice to meeting place, from roea 
place to tomb. 

Mr. .Arthur Mitchell, in his admirable work, " The Past in 
Present," has shown us how old arts degenerate as new artst 
The reason is not far to seek. When our Indians were brought 
to face with the civilization of the whites, the bright, intelli| 
susceptible individuals and tribes dropped at once their old 
and took on the new. The old, the dull, the conservative elm 
former things, which degenerated in their hands. On the a 
there was progress, but many things in the onward mass were I 
ing "backward. 

So it is with civilization at large — families, gentes, tribes — m 
nations and races disappear ; but new and better families — ge 
tribes, nations, and races take their places. 

Mr. J. H. Blodgftt said the remarks as to a sinking di 
persons in this city and elsewhere, call to mind an in vest ig 
carefully made and recorded about 1810 in the city of Glasg( 
connection with some of the benevolent operations of the Q 
of Scotland. 

The classitication then made was in these four groups : 
wealthy class, able to select and carry out their own plans of 1 
the main independently — one-sixth of the people. 2. An upi 
class, struggling for better advantages for themselves and 
children — one-third of the i>eople. 3. A sinking class, ta 
downward except for helpful influences brought to bear on the 
others — one-third of the i'>eople. 4. A sunken class, conf 
criminals and i\iujK*rs — one-sixth of the people. Such inw 
tions have a l)oaring upon discussions such as that of the Si 
rtvcntly upon our rolaiive moral and physical progiea. ^J 



bjor J, W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 
TJr. ffASHlXGTus Matthews, U. S. A., read a paper entitled, 

" HrXHOUHlICAL DRV-PaINT1«JC of the NaVAJ03." 

Tfiwearc pictures of large size (10 lo 12 feet in diameter) drawn 
in pwdcrcd substances on the sanded floors of the medicine lodges 
of ilw Navajo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona, They repre- 
•Mtnnous gods and other mythical conceptions of this tribe. 
1^ pigments used are five in number: white, made of powdered 
while undstone; yellow, of yellow sandslonf ; red, of red sand- 
''Ooe; black, of charcoal ; and a so-called blue — but really a gray 
-flf bbclt and white mixed in pro[>er proporlions. To apply them 
ile«li« grasps a little in his hand and allows it to How out between 
•felhumb and the opposed fingers. When he makes a mistake he 
ii^tiot brush away the color, he obliterates it by pouring sand on 
".ind ihcn draws the corrected design on the new surface. 

The drawings are begun as much towards the center as the nature 

*( depicture will permit, due regard being paid lo the precedence 

^ 'h< points of the compass, / e. , the figure of the god in the east is 

'^pinfinl; that in the south, second; that in the west, third; 

'*ui in (lie north, fourth. While the work is in progress the chief 

'himin does little more than direct and criticise ; a dozen or more 

rwing men, who hax-e been initiated into the mysteries, perform the 

nuoail Ubor. The pictures are drawn in accordance with estab- 

Inhft) rules, except in certain well-defined cases where the painter 

iillowtd to indulge hu fancy. This is the case with the embroi- 

'™1 pouches, which the gods arc represented as carrying. On the 

^^otbei hand some parts are measured by palms and spans, and not 

^H«BcoE tI)G sacred design can be varied in them. Straight and 

^^■liUel lines are drawn on a lightened cord. The naked forms of 

^^paythical persons are first drawn, then the clothing is put on. 

I "tKti the picture is finished il is ihe duty of the shaman to put 

•Wn-poUen on the lips and breast of each divine form and to set 

plumed wands around Ihe picture. Then the sick person 

loic benefit the whole ceremony is performed enters and has 

lored du»t from various parts of the pictured forms applied to 


corresponding parts of his person to remove disease, and to have 
many other rites performed over him. When the patient -has de- 
parted many of the sp)ectators pick up and preserve the sacred 
corn -pollen. Some take dust from the figures on their moistened 
palms and rub it over their own bodies. Then the shaman obliterates 
the picture with a slender wand while he sings a song appropriate 
to this part of the ceremony. Lastly, the assistants gather the sand 
in their blankets, carry it to a distance from the lodge and throw 
it away. Thus in half an hour from the completion of the picture 
not a trace of it is left. 

The lecturer has heard of seventeen great ceremonies of the 
Navajos in which pictures of this character are drawn. There are 
about four pictures to each ceremony — only one picture being 
painted in a day — and besides these great ceremonies there are 
minor rites with iheir appropriate pictures, smaller and less elab- 
orate. The medicine men aver that these pictures of the great 
ceremonies are transmitted unaltered from year to year, and from, 
generation to generation. This is doubtful, as no permanent designi 
is preserved for reference and there is no final authority in the 
tribe. Furthermore, as the majority of the rites can be performed 
only in the season when the snakes hibernate, the pictures are car 
ried from winter to winter in the fallible memories of men. It is 
probable, however, that innovations are unintentional and that 
changes are wrought slowly. 

The lecture was illustrated with seven large charts, representing 
some of the pictures which the lecturer had seen. Of their meaning 
and symbolism there was given a full explanation, which included 
the description of many of the rites and the narration of many of 
the myths and traditions of the tribe.* 

Following this paper Prof. Gilbert Thompson presented sketches 
of rude drawings, seen by him in a cave at San Antonio Springs, 
N. M. The walls of tke cave were smoke-covered, but the draw- 
ings were distinct and plainly marked, etched in the stone surface 
and brought out with various colored pigments. Certain points of 
resemblance were indicated between these figures and some de- 
scribed by Dr. Matthews. 

* A more extensive abstract appears in the "American Naturalist " for October, 



Mr. DoRSEY said, referring to the mystic qualities attributed to 
the number four among the Navajos, that among the northern Atha- 
Ittscans the number five held the place accorded to four by the 
Indians of the Missouri river and Southwest. 

Maj. Powell said that great elaboration was to be observed in 
the myths of the North American Indian. The speaker at one 
time witnessed a ceremony in a Moqui village that lasted four days, 
including one day of feasting. A constant succession of nude 
figures with highly colored faces formed a njarked feature of all the 
ceremonies. He saw different colored sands, meal, corn, and peb- 
bles used in many ways in connection with the incantations of the 
Sumin, which were performed, as the speaker believed, to the end 
that rain and abundant crops might follow. The falling rain was 
'^presented by sprinkling the floor of the estufa. Among the 
Utesand Shoshones fully one-half of the nights, during six months 
of the year, is taken up with ceremonial gatherings and the rela- 
tion of myths. 

Col. Mallerv said that he found in Thomas V. Keam's Cata- 
logue of Relics of the Ancient Builders of the Soutinvest Table 
^ds, a somewhat different arrangement of colors in symbolizing 
ff^c cardinal points from that observed by Dr. Matthews : Wiiite, 

■ignified north ; yellow, the east ; red, the south ; and blue, the 

.ViNETv-FiFTH Regular Meeting, April 21, 1885. • 

•^lajor J. W. Powell, President, in the Chair. 

^e Secretary of the Council announced the election of Prof. A. 
"• Thompson, of the Geological Survey, and Mr. Charles N. 
•^dams, of the Civil Service Commission, as active members of the 
^^i«ty; and inforlned the Society of the death of Dr. Harrison 
^^'nght, on February 20, 1885, at Wilkes Barre, Pa., and Col. P. 
^ N'orris, on Jan. 14, 1885, at Rockland, Ky., corresponding 
"*«nbers of the Society. Appropriate remarks upon the death of 
^' Norris were made by President Powell, followed by Col. Mal- 
'^t who delivered a brief eulogy upon Dr. Wright. 


Mr. H. W. Henshaw read a paper entitled ** Medicine Stones." * 


Col. Mallery, referring to the evidence presented in the paper, 
that the objects generally classed as sinkers were used ^ ceremonial 
stones and amulets, remarked that amulets and fetiches had often 
been adopted from utensils and objects connected with daily life. 
He gave instances specially connected with the fish — commonly 
appearing towards the third century as an emblem of Christ, but 
derived from the worship of the Phoenician Dagon, and found still 
more anciently in Egypt, Nineveh, and India, with some relation 
to the productive powers of nature. The lingom stones were men- 
tioned in this connection, also the bulla and the form called from 
its shape vesica (bladder) suspended to the necks of Roman bo)rs, 
which was succeeded by the Agnus Dei, used in the same manner. 
Without attempting to trace an immediate association between 
these objects and those presented by Mr. Henshaw, his views are 
corroborated by the fact that stones similar in shape and size have 
been employed from high antiquity in many parts of the world for 
superstitious purposes, and that therefore it is unphilosophical to 
insist upon their exclusive design for mechanical or industrial uses 
among the tribes of North America, which are known to have uni- 
versally been addicted to amuletism. Without any elaboration of 
symbolism the selection of the form might readily have been 
derived from the idea of **luck** connected with sinkers used on 
some special occasions. 

Mr, Dorsey, referring to what Mr. Henshaw had said about the 
** Medicine Stones '* and the down from the breast of a white goose, 
remarked that he had noticed among the Omahas, Kansas, and cog- 
nate tribes, some of the uses of this down from the white goose, and 
that in the gens or clan of the Earth-lodge Makers in the Omaha 
and Kansas tribes there were ** White Goose (or Swan) people." 
In t]>e Omaha gens referred to there are also Keepers of the Sacred 
Stones (or Mysterious Stones.) 

He then gave a part of the traditon of the Sacred Pipes to the 
Omaha gentes : "The Earth-lodge people were visited by the 
seven old men bearing the pipes. When the gentes were finally or- 
ganized half of these people were bad, and half were good. The 

* Pu])lished in American Journal of Archaeology. I. Pp. 105— 114. 


^ODcs had some stones at the front of their lodge, and they 

colored them as well as their own hair, orange-red (zhee.) They 

•Ore the down of the white goose (or swan) in their hair, and 

brujcbcs of cedar around their heads, being frightful to behold. 

So the old men passed to the good ones, to whom they gave one of 

the pipes." According to Joseph La Fleche and Two Crows, there 

aie four of the sacred stones, their colors being black, red, yellow, 

and blue. (One tradition is that the stones were made by the 

Oyotc in ancient times, to be used for conjuring enemies.) In 

the Osage tradition, the four kinds of stone found at the first, were 

^hitc, black, red, and blue (or green.) 

In reply to a question put by the President, Mr. Dorsey said that 
among the Dakotas, Ponkas, and other related tribes, there was a 
^wrship paid to boulders found on the prairies, these being regarded 
« representatives of the Earth-god. When an Indian met one of 
tbem, he addressed it as "Grandfather," the same term that is 
applied by many tribes to the President of the United States 
(wrongly translated the " Great Father. * *) This term, Grandfather, 
it applied to supernatural beings. On addressing such a boulder, 
^ Indian laid on it a small quantity of tobacco wrapped in a 
r-iccc of cloth or skin, and then he smoked his pipe toward it, 
^"Jting the Grandfather to help him in his journey or undertaking. 

Colonel James Stevenson read a paper on the ** Mythological 
Pa'xting of the ZuSis.** 


Col. Mallerv presented the following account of Yuma cere- 
•^nies witnessed at Camp Verde, Arizona, as related by Dr. W. 
H. Corbasier, U. S. A.: **A11 the medicine-men meet occasion- 
^ly, and with considerable ceremony make medicine. They went 
through the jx;rformancc early in the summer of 1874, on the 
'^nation, for the purpose of averting the diseases with which 
t'clndians were afflicted the summer previous. In the middle of 
''tit 'jf the villages they made a round ramada — or house of boughs — 
*^nHr ten feet in diameter, and under it on the sand, illustrated the 
*piniland, in a picture about seven feet across, made in colors by 
•pnnkling powdered leaves and grass, red clay, charcoal, and ashes 
* the smoothed sand. In the centre was a round spot of red clay 
*fcoot ten inches in diameter, and around it several successive rings 



of green and red alternately, each ring being an inch and a tj 

wide ; projecting from the outer ring, were four somewhat trii 

lar shaped figures, each one of which corresponded to one o(\ 

cardinal points of the compass, giving the whole the appe« 

a Maltese cross. Around this cross and between its arms wei 

figures of men with their feet toward the center — some m^ 

charcoal with ashes for eyes and hair, others of red clay and 

etc. These figures were eight or nine inches long, and nearlj 

of them lacked some part of the body — some an arm, others 

or the head. The medicine-men seated themselves around the 

ture, on the ground in a circle, and the Indians from the dific 

bands crowded around them, the old men squatting close I 

and the young men standing back of them. After they had* 

voked the aid of the spirits, in a number of chants, one of if 

number, apparently the oldest, a toothless, gray-haired d 

solemnly arose, and, carefully stepping between the figures of; 

men, dropped on each one a pinch of the yellow powder, whid 

took from a small buckskin bag which had been handed to i 

He put the powder on the heads of some, on the chests of oth 

and on other parts of the body, one of the other men someti 

telling him where to put it. After going all around, skipping d 

figures however, he put up the bag and then went around ag 

and took t'rom each figure a large pinch of powder, taking up 

yellow jK)wder also, and in this way collected a heaping hzni 

.\fter doing this he stepi>ed luck, and another medicine man 

lected a handful in the same way, others following him. Soni 

the laymen in their eagerness to get some pressed forward, but l 

ordered kirk. But after the medicine men had supplied therosd 

the ramada w;i5 torn down, and a rush was made bv men and b 

handtuls of the dirt wero i:rabl>ed and rubbed on their bodie 

carried away. The women and children, who were w*aiting fo 

invitation, wore then called. They rushed to the spot in a cr( 

and grabbing handtuls of dirt tossed it up in the air so thi 

wvHild fall on them, or they rublnxl their bodies with it. Md 

throwing i: over their children and rubbing it on their ha 

Vh\< elided the i^Ttormance. 

Mr. iiAr>v HKr -xiid : Fhe Chiricahua Apache **sun circle,' 

** magic iirvio," i> constructed lor the purpose of curing those 

have Ix-vn **>un-N:ruv k." or as they express it, those who 

LK\.ouie <ivk from the ^iin. 



Conjurors will consent to construct a circle only when they are 
caJW upon by the sick person. The patient must indemnify the 
conjurors for the arrangements, and provide food for the Indians who 
congregate to witness the ceremony and participate in the dances. 
Frequently the sick person is compelled tD borroyv money to defray 
he expenses, and then he will kill his cattle to satisfy the appetite 
>f the hungry crowd assisting in the great ceremony. 

The conjurors do not always make the magic circles with their 
>wn hands. When they have it drawn by others they walk around 
uperintending the work. 

A few days before the time appointed for the ceremony the con- 
^rors in charge send out heralds, each provided with several sym- 
bols called "nadu *hkada,** or ** God's messengers.** One of these 
iymbob is left with every head man or chief of an Apach*? tribe. 
Its purpose is to direct them to summon their men, women, and 
girls to appear and take part in the dances of the ceremony. 

When the invited arrive, the nadu *hkada are brought back by 
tbemand set up in or near the center of the circle during the per- 
fonnanccs. The symbol is in the shape of a cross. The four 
inns thus point to the four cardinal points, and the feathers at the 
<^n(lsof each arm represent the birds which convey to the con- 
jurors the dreams of the human figures set up within the circle. 

The magic ring is made on the ground in a place carefully screened 
'rom mortal eye, and sometimes covered by a shed made of bent 
»illowrods (called in Spanish ** ramada".) The circle is properly 
'K'aking two concentric rings, and is composed of colored substances 
•"^i various shades. The diameter of the ring is ten or more feet. 
^0 l^ves of various trees are mostly used in effecting the different 
'hades of color, and, if the weather permits, the conjurors go into 
•he mountains to collect earth, clay, and colored sand for the same 
V*^fffi<. The clay being the same as that used for body paint. 

The inner ring of the circle is called bas or nibas (round ). The 
r^roof the cirdesdoes not follow the line of a true circle but shows 
'lilies and angles. The spaces in the angles are frequently col- 
led. Tht-se colors when not of mineral substance are made by 
drying leaves in the fire and grinding them to powder. The angles 
• comers in the circle represent rays of the sun and the whole cir- 
*«i*an image of the sun. The effigies of four men, each painted 
*™ a different clay color are placed on the inside of the circle; 
^tttcalled "God's people,*' or ** divine people," and repre- 




sent genii that can only be seen by the conjurers in their dr^ 
They stand on one leg only, the other leg being ^vrapped arotuJ 
one on which they stand. This helps, it is said, to remain onl 
legs longer than by standing in any other way, since one lcg| 
strength to the other. On their heads they carry an omanu 
serabling two horns, which are in fact, as the name has it, two 
The men represented by these effigies are supposed to dream 
convey the import of their dreams to the conjurors by 
birds called ** God's messengers," each bird having the same 
as the effigies. 

The effigy of the black man lies behind some black rays 
circle and is supposed to have charge of the whole ceremony, j 
effigy of the blue man stands at the end of blue rays. The f 
of the yellow man is at the end of yellow rays; and the ^ 
effigy at the end of white rays. j 

Before each of these effigies a sort of standard (nada) is j 
u\) — about six feet high. They are carried about in the danod 
their purpose is, as alleged, the same as our lightning-rods. * 
say the nadnai insure getting good health while dancing. ' 
chief part of Indian religious ceremonies consist in dances 1 
commence at sundown and continue till sunrise, with only 
interruptions for meals. The dances take place at some dil 
from the magic circle and about a central fire. Near this fin 
be seen the pile of firewood provided for the occasion, and € 
other side a group consisting of conjurors and men of the 
Close to the fire are the groups of dancers, male and femak 
dancing they do not move about but skip up and down — a im 
dancing common to all Indians of North America. Smalle 
are blazing in a circle around and at some distance from th 
tra! fire. About these fires are gathered the people, old and) 
while back of them are standing the horses that brought tl 
the ceremony. 

Dances begin when the leading conjuror begins a song. A 
new song a girl starts from one of the fires and directs hei 
l(.»war(l the males standing in the central group. She gently t 
one man's shoulder and then returns to her family at the fire. 
l>anlomime indicates a sentiment of love and is at the same t 
invitation to the dance, which is resix)nded to within a sho 
by the lucky young man, who is careful not to meet the 1 
the girl's mother. 


The ending of the ceremony is similar to that described in the 
Vmna ceremonies. 
The cardinal points are symbolized among the Apaches thus: 

East— Black. 
South— White 
West— Yellow. 
North — Blue. 

The sun in the east is called the "black sun.** A wind gust or 
tornido is also called " black.*' 

NiNET\--SixTH Regular Meeting, May 5, 1885. 

Vice-President Col. Garrick Mallery, U. S. A., in the Chair. 

The Secretary of the Council announced the election of Hon. 
V. B. Sncll, Justice of the Police Court, and Mr. L. J. Hatch, of 
^ Bureau of Engraving and Printing, as active members of the 
Society, and informed the Society that the Council had determined 
to print Vol. Ill of the Transactions of the Society. 

Col. F. A. Seely read a paper entitled '*The Genesis of 


During the past few years unusual attention has been directed to 
the study of human inventions. The close relations between the 
«nelioration of man's condition and the improvement of his me- 
chanic arts have led to the consideration of the subject as one in 
*hich social science is concerned. It has been observed that insti- 
tKior.s of every character — languages, laws, customs, philosophies, 
UHi Wiefs — have been largely, if not wholly, the product of in- 
»«fiyn of somewhat the same character as that which has produced 
too'h and machines. The term invention has acquired a broader 
5C0J*. and includc*s every subject on which human thought and in- 
|cnuity and fancy may exercise themselves. Its study is therefore 
^ DO little consequence. It is no longer limited to the field of 
•ere race hanics and physics, but embraces all that concerns what- 
Itter has Ijeen devised by men to satisfy the material and moral 
pwb, either of the individual or of the mass in their various social 
^■^^tioiis. 1 propose to inquire what are the processes by which in- 
i&Nis are produced ; what influences lead to them; what laws, 



if any, they follow ; and what results, immediate and ^ 
flow from them. I conceive that these inquiries are best pii| 
connection with mechanical inventions. A parallel inquitf 
be pursued in respect to inventions in the broader sense. I 
the study of savage society is, to a certain extent, such aa 

Before proceeding to the consideration of the subject, 
portant to call attention to the various meanings and 
meaning of the word invention, which we have such cons 
sion to employ. A late writer on Patent Law* refers to 
opening chapter as a source of much confusion, since, as he 
it is not uncommon to find the word used in different se 
same paragraph, even in the same sentence. He distinguii^ 
meanings of the word : 

(i) The mental act of inventing. 

(2) The thing invented. 

(3) The fact that an invention has been made. 

(4) The faculty or quality of invention. 
It is scarcely necessary to illustrate these significations, 

a little reflection they become apparent. We may say of 
ing machine, it was the invention of Howe, referring to t! 
process which produced it ; we may say it is a great or usk 
tion, meaning the machine itself; we may say the invi 
revolutionized the manufacture of clothing, in which we mean' 
that it was made ; and we may say of any particular form 
to us, there is no in'oention in it over some earlier form^ in 
refer to the quality of invention as distinguished alike 
mental act, the concrete product, and the historical fact. 
of all these uses of the word and not to overload it furt 
venture to suggest a new one to designate the study of i; 
This study has not yet perhaps developed itself as a tr 
though it appears to possess all the elements of a sci 
a study of growing interest it is worthy of a name of 
and, with all deference, I submit to the Society, as 
priate name worthy of adoption the word Eutematii 
should include the study not of arts, machines, laws 

* Merwin. Patentability of Inventions. Boston. 1883. 

•j* Av^/jy/jta, An invention. If the Greeks had been in the 
phizing about inventions, they would have had an adjective, *4 
the word would have found its place in English long ago, as Im 


'utjcins in ihcmselves, bul of tliem all in respect to their methods 
of growlli and the means by which they have been developed 
and are still developing. This is a study which many are pur- 
suing with eagerness and delight j and the need of a. Da.nie for it 
^.'IcuIt separating it from other kindred studies is every day more 

It is my purpose to present in this paper a brief chapter in tliis 
scincc, following out and perhaps to some extent repealing some of 
ihr thoughts expressed in a paper presented to the Society two years 
ago,* in which t di.scnssed Ihe nature of the earliest human inven- 
tion, the nriginal germs out of which they grew, and the steps and 
processes by which they were evolved or elaborated. Speculative 
as some of my suggestions may have been as to the nature of these 
Iiriniiive inventions, nevertheless the nature of the processes by 
which Ihey were made is so inherent in ail arts that it cannot 
. W Kgarded as in any degree speculative. Possibly the inven- 
■ pointed out were not actually the first contrived by man, but 
tT were the tirst, the way described is beyond doubt the way 
ich they were arrived at. 

roposc ia Ihe course of this paper to discuss the development 

le^one hatchet in its most finished formj but before doing so 

■Mceaory to inquire into the nature of invention and some of 

J principles it follows. Lying absolutely at the bottom of 

Hptindplesare the following postulates, the ABC of Eurcmatics: 

B any artificial implement or product, we must assume — ist, 

(Mm- was a tine when it did nol exist; zd, that before it existed 

a hope b((n It creature capable of producing it; and ^6,t/iat 

mtrtature iefore producing it must have been conscious of neeiiing 

a have ha4 use for it. 

t can be no orderly discussion of the genesis of any art 

t rtJcogniiing the truth of these postulates at every step. 

li may arise upon resultant or collateral propositions, but, 

lioj; all [hat can possibly be claimed for accident as an ele- 

I io invention, these propositions are not to be questioned, 

t fundamenul. and no logical consequences that flow from 

R lan be tn^dc-d. 

icftr»t imjposition, ihut before any artificial product existed 

i(t> the Ofigiii of iDventlon. VJ. tl, Ttans. Aiithrnp. Soc., 


there was a time when it did not exist, is not startling, and m 
passed over for the second : before it existed there was a c^ 
capable of producing it. This is as much as saying that no 
of art came into existence simultaneously with its produ( 
seems to be no more startling a proposition than the first ; 
if I rightly interpret the ideas of most writers, they have' 
to grasp even so common-place a truth. 

The third proposition, that the producer must have been 
of needing the product, or must have had use for it before pi 
it, is not at first sight so obvious. In fact I believe the faQ 
grasp this truth is a great source of error and misconception 
many writers. No one, however, who has given any thoi 
the nature of invention, has failed to observe that every stepi 
mechanic arts has grown out of a pre-existing want. Nol 
sarily out of a pressing need. Invention now-a-days does 
for the call to be so urgent that waiting can be no longer, j 
before this stage necessities are anticipated, and the means bjrJ 
they are overcome often do not become indispensable till 
habits they engender make them so. Illustrations of this 
around us. The sewing machine, the reaper, the telephone 
could we do without them ? And yet in our own general 
have done without them all. They have themselves ci 
conditions which have made them indispensable. But none 
came by accident. They have been, every one, the fruit 
of toil and thought and anxiety on the part of those who sat 
few clearly comprehended, the imperfection of the means ei 
to do the daily work of mankind, and studied to produce ! 
means. This is the history of steam, of electricity, of rai| 
of metal working, of pottery, of every art that has a recordi 
tory. Prevision and calculation are so truly elements in the! 
of all known arts that in asserting their universality we 10 
more risk than did Newton in asserting the law of gravitatiol 

What then, it may be asked, is the place due to accident iai 
tion ? Notwithstanding a popular belief that many if not i 
the great inventions have been the fruit of accident, it i 
asserted that the contrary is true. Fortuitous circumstances, ] 
unforeseen incidents, have in many cases doubtless suggested 
dients which have led to the consummation of great inq 
It was an accident — the result of his poverty — which If 
to write on a stone slab his family wash-bill, and so led 


'•ooof rhc lithographic process; but the accident did not occur, 
*n(J oouW not, lill long and persevering pursuit of a method of 
printing cheap music had brought together the polished slone, the 
•nfc, ihc acid. — all ihc materials necessary to accomplish the result. 
IVwibly il was an accident which led Goodyear lo the use of sulphur 
for Ihc valcanization of India rubber ; but the accident, if such it 
wwre, did not occur till years of expense and toil and exjieriinent 
with a great variety of materials had led the way to it. And the 
ruliber and the sulphur and all the appliances necessary for the ex- 
periment were ready to his hand, all accumulated in the pui^it of 
hit lifelong purpose. Such experiences are common, and familiar 
Ulintiation& of them arc found, as lor instance, in the li\fes of Pal- 
»T. the Huguenot potter, and William Lee, the inventor of the 
dockiti;; loom. In these the element of accident enters in some 
"Wpa; into ihc ronsummation of the invention ; but in every case it 
"•Bifh accident as might have occurred a thousand times over with- 
Rtttult to other men whose minds were not intent upon the inven- 
Lunps had swung for centuries in the Itahan cathedrals, 
nhad idly counted their oscillations as they kept time to the 
edetiwry of generations of dull sermons; but tiieisochronism 
Wt siring, if observed at all, was not regarded till Galileo 

t tnic and only field that philosophy can concede to accident 

1 is that it supplements and sometimes abridges the 

i, calculation, and time of the inventor. To a man filled with 

It puritosc, all his senses alert to every means chance or 

Uian may present to accomplish it, the moat trifling incident 

hfomikh the clue, which has fled from him like an ignis faluus. 

■toother the same chances may come and go continually without 

And while il cannot be said that accident has no place in 

I, it oiuKl be conceded that its place is completely subordi- 

j to other elements. Great inventions have been the fruit 

t in ibc same sense and to the same degree that a 

t peach is the fruit of the rude blast that shakes it from the 

uimportant in a discussion like this to keep clearly in mind 

IdiScTtnce between invention proper and discovery. The 

n of the latter is to bring to light the material facts, and the 

i law*, which the former applies to useful purposes ; and in 

|tc[ to discovery, the element of chance, of accident, is im- 


portant. The progress of scientific discovery is marked at ef 
milestone by the revelations of accidents, which the thoi 
mind of the inventor did not apply to practical ends till long 
wards, when the need had arisen. If it was an accident that 
Galileo to the discovery of the isochronous oscillation of the 
dulum, it was not till fifty years afterwards that this discovery 
applied to regulate the movement of a clock. The phenomi 
electricity that accident may have revealed to Galvani and V( 
are the basis of inventions that the most active minds of this d 
are expending their best energies upon. It cannot be denied 
in discovery accident has played an important part ; but the 
this fact is considered, and the more we consider the true fu 
of discovery, the more strongly do we find the proposition 
firmed that improvements in the arts are not the result of c 
but of intelligent efforts to supply conscious needs. Hence I 
regard this proposition as conceded, and I pass to another. 
(4) Every human im^ention has spmng from some prior ii 
or from some prior known expedient. Inventions do not, like 
protectress, Pallas Athene, spring forth full grown from the h 
their authors. This suggestion needs no argument when 
garding any of the modern inventions. Every one of them is| 
by the most superficial observer to be built ui>on or elaborated 
of inventions and expedients previously in use. It is only 1 
we go back of these and study the expedients and appliances Of 
which they have grown, and whose history is unrecorded, tha| 
proposition I contend for is not obvious. And yet there is 
single one of them which does not when studied exhibit in 
the evidences of a similar substructure. In the process of elifl 
tion we go back and back, and find no resting place till we I 
the rude set of expedients, the original endowment of men 
bnites alike. This is a truth which study more and more con! 
and from it the proposition stated may be deduced as one tA 
laws of invention. 

It may be deduced as a corollary to this proix>sition, but I 
same time a fact determinable by independent observation, thi 
generation of one invention from another is not immediatt 
always through one or more intermediate steps. The effect of < 
invention fundamental in its character is first to generate wanl 
fore unknown or unfelt. The effort to supply these wants 



Oct in?em ions.* These may be quite distinct in their character 
from the original invention to which they indirectly owe their origin. 
The? arc related to it only as means to supply some want to which 
j ii has given birth. I shall not pursue this branch of the subject. 
IIlQstrations will occur to all. There is hardly a branch of industry 
thar has not felt the effect of inventions based upon wants created 
by the introduction of petroleum, or the general use of the tele- 
phone. Wood-working, mining, transportation by land and sea — 
ill the avocations of men — have felt their influence, have found 
wants engendered by their use, and improvements have been made 
to meet these wants. The wants of primitive man were limited, 
and hts inventions were accordingly few. As wants increased in 
wnnber and intensity, inventions multiplied, and the numberless 
vants of modem civilized life are only paralleled by its numberless 
vts and expedients. 

1 set it down as a fifth proposition: Inventions always generate 
wuitSf and these wants generate other inventions. 

A sixth proposition is that the invention of tools and implements pro- 
cttdsby specialization. This is true to a certain extent of all arts, 
tHough perhaps not a universal truth regarding all invention. It 
r«ulis, as will be apparent on reflection, from the last proposition. 
A single tool may have a great variety of uses, but, if there is a suffi- 
fient requirement, men will not long be contented with one tool for 
those uses for which it is least convenient. It will be reserved for 
that to which it is best adapted, and other forms will be devised 
httter suited for special uses ; possibly the parent type may be found 
inferior for all uses to some of its modified forms, and it may, on 
the principle of the survival of the fittest, become obsolete. Look 
at the variety of tools on a joiner's bench, chisels, planes, saws, 
^h especially adapted for its particular work, but all pointing 
^k to a time when there was but one form of chisel, or plane, or 
^^- The ''jack-plane** and ** long-jointer** may each be made to 
perform the work of the other, but they do it very imperfectly, 
^primitive bench plane was like neither, but was the type of 

* A curious instance of this is brought to my attention while writing this paper. 

*■ oottseqaencc of the expiration of the earlier patents on roller-skates, a great 

"pctos has been given to their manufacture, the result being the exhaustion of 

[ wt world's stfKrk of boxwood of certain sizes used for rollers. And to supply 

\ ■^•inlio created hundreds of people are trying to invent a suitable and cheap 

F •••itale fof boxwood for this purpose. 


both. There is nothing more striking than the variety of cutlery 
on a well-furnished table. The time is not remote when one knife 
worn at the belt served the purpose of all these, so far as these pur- 
poses existed, and of many others; when the table knife was not 
differentiated from the dagger of the soldier or the tool of the 
artisan. A man then used one knife to cut out a leather sole, to shape 
his arrow, to carve his food, and to stab his enemy. Changes in 
modes of living have led first to the broader specializations ; fashion, 
caprice, and increasing refinement to others ; till one scarcely dares 
attempt to enumerate the various forms of carvers and table knives 
of various sorts differing in form and material, each adapted by 
some feature' for its particular use, and each the result of some 
degree of invention, with which the tables of Europe and America 
are furnished. Undoubtedly this process has gone on ever since 
man became an inventor, and might be illustrated as perfectly, 
though not so profusely, in the implements and weapons of the 
savage as in those of civilized men. All study of invention must 
take account of it. As soon as men began to adapt sticks to their 
use by artificially pointing them they began to find in them various 
degrees of hardness, weight, length, and rigidity, qualities fitting 
them for diverse uses, and as skill and experience were acquired 
they fashioned them accordingly. Likewise when man had begun 
to employ flint flakes, and before he had learned to fashion them 
to his will, he selected from the splinters made by accident or by 
his own unskilled blows those which served best such diversified 
uses as he had found out. 

My seventh proposition, and final one so far as this paper is con- 
cerned, is that no art makes progress alone, I venture to assert the 
universality of this truth from what is seen in the recorded history 
of all inventions. In the development of the mechanic arts, two or 
more arts distinct in their nature but having close interdependence 
make advance pari passu. If one lags the other is necessarily 
retarded. If one makes rapid progress the other springs forward with 
quickened impulses. An improved utensil or article of manufacture 
may be the result of or may lead to improved processes and tools and 
machines for producing it, or to improved means for its employ- 
ment. The progress of the steam-engine was long retarded by the 
imperfection of iron-working machines, since perfect cylinders could 
not be produced. The progress of electrical invention has neces- 
sitated the invention of new machines and processes for insulating 


▼ire. The introduction of illuminating gas has created a demand 
for metal tubing, and machines for its rapid and perfect manufac- 
ture. And SO every step in every art is marked by one or more 
corresponding steps in other arts. 

These general principles, imperfectly stated as they are, by no 
means exhaust the study of invention. They only lie at its thresh- 
lK)ki. They are among the more obvious laws which inventions 
follow as they are every day presented to the mind of those who deal 
with them: so obvious, that I have found myself hesitating as to the 
value of their presentation in this form ; a hesitation which is removed 
b]rob6er\nng that, so far as writers upon early inventions are con- 
cerned, they are unnoticed and apparently unknown. Further chap- 
ters in Eurematics might be devoted to the elucidation of other truths 
equally generic and universal, but more intricate and therefore less 
olmoQs. I might cite for instance the tendency of civilization to 
convert luxuries into necessaries, true not only of absolute civiliza- 
tion but of every stage of it or every step towards it. The effect 
<>f this tendency upon inventions is marked and positive. I might 
cite the fact that invention is stimulated by rewards and retarded 
by opposition, which history abundantly illustrates, — eminently the 
hbiorics of France in the middle ages, of The Netherlands, of Great 
Bniain, and of our own country. Another proposition might be 
that the truth regarding biologic evolution — that the type of any 
species which is to predominate is at its first api)earance uncon- 
^awus — applies equally to the evolution of arts. Many such propo- 
5»itioD>more or less recondite might be stated, the adequate discus- 
«on of which would require a volume ; but I can afford to pass 
them by, as I have not set out upon an exhaustive study. The few 
pfopositions considered are enough for the present purpose. 

1 shall now discuss the progress of invention in a single direction, 
pwlyasa study in itself, partly by way of illustration of the doc- 
^nnes I have enunciated. I have selected the stone hatchet for 
^^is purpose because in some of its ruder forms it represents the 
^hcst human workmanship of which any knowledge has come to 
Ji, and also because in its rudest form it presents the evidences of 
^ing the fruit of long antecedent growth. Further than this I 
o^nrc that primitive as it indeed is, and in its highest develop- 
■ttit rude and ineffective in comparison with the finished imple- 
■OUof this age of steel, the thoughtful student of invention sees 
•i^ the culmination for the time being of human art rather than 


the beginning. For the purposes of this paper I regard nothing less 
than the hafted celt as the fini'jhed implement whose genesis I shall 
attempt to indicate. 

I assume as the starting point the conclusion reached in my papei 
before referred to,* that the earliest mechanical process employed 
by man was the art of working wood by abrasion. This cannot be 
regarded as proven ; absolutely proven it can never be ; but il 
comes in as a link connecting what must have been in the historj 
of primitive man with what is revealed to us regarding the man o 
the earliest stone age. This art, or something closely similar to it, 
appears as the immediate derivative of the original mechanical 
expedients of man in a state of nature, and of the wants engendered 
by his human characteristics. Tracing back the art of wood work- 
ing we find no resting place till we come to the art in this condition. 
In short the more the subject is contemplated, and from whatever 
point of view, the stronger appear the probabilities, so strong that 
to my own mind they are convincing. Starting from this basis, 
what was the process, what the result sought, what the methods 
employed to produce it? 

The object sought for was a pike, a strong, rigid, sharp-pointed 
stick or shaft adapted for use as an offensive and defensive weapon, 
a want early felt and hitherto imperfectly supplied by chance and 
nature. The means employed was a rough rock, a coarse sand- 
stone or mill-stone-grit upon whose exposed surface the wood was 
rubbed or drawn back and forth until reduced as desired. A tedious 
process, but not more so than many of those employed to this day 
in the arts of savage life. We can imagine men coming from great 
distances to the inventor of this art with poles on their shoulders tc 
be prepared in the new style. It would not at once be perceived 
that no special properties attached to this particular rock, that rocks 
having similar properties and perhaps better suited to the purpose 
were every where. The mind was dull in grasping the essential fact 
of the art, and perhaps for ages superstition and fetichism may have 
been engendered by this very improvement. It is easy to see, 
however, that it had created a new want, or perhaps intensified the 
old one. Pikes were liable to be broken, were subject to natural 
decay. They must be replaced, and new ones were always in de 
mand. Their artificial production had increased the number of theii 

* An Inquiry into the Origin of Invention. Vol. II. Trans. Anthrop. See 
Washington. 1883. 


possessors, and the want of a ready means for the replacement was 
more widely felt. To the majority it was a new want. Hence among 
people widely scattered, more convenient and accessible means were 
sought for supplying the demand ; and in answer to this want came 
the discovery, perhaps the result of similar experiences and obser- 
vations, that gritty rocks every where would yield the same results 
to similar manipulation by the handsfof any one. And a further 
discovery followed close on the heels of this, that the jagged edges 
of flints and other hard rocks would by a manipulation but little 
nried perform the work better and faster than the gritty surface of 
the sand stones. A stick drawn forcibly over such a sharp edge 
bsits surface scraped from it in thin shavings instead of being 
inerely abraded as heretofore. This important step from abrasion 
to scraping, which is in fact cutting, was therefore reached before 
tty cutting or abrading tool had been devised. Reached by slow 
steps, in answer to a felt want, but a want in no way pointing to it, 
it was actually the invention of another and quite distinct mechani- 
cal process. It was a better process, gave better results, and the 
tapon and the art of wood working made progress together. 

We have advanced one step, man now has the notion of the cut- 
ting edge and its use. But it is part of an immovable bowlder or 
Wge, not always accessible, and the want of a convenient means 
^^^ys at hand is but partially supplied. The long pilgrimages 
*hich had to be taken to the primitive pointer of pikes were at 
*nend, but the journeys though shorter still have to be made. How 
'"^ the next step, resulting in the production of a portable cut- 
ting implement, to be accomplished? 

It will be seen at once that in the use for a considerable period 
of the edge of a rock for cutting purposes it will become dulled. 
Other parts of the rock having exposed edges will be sought, and 
thee will become dull in turn. This dulling process proceeds more 
•^f less rapidly according to the material applied to it; and as the 
^rder woods were found to be in all respects more serviceable they 
•fre more generally used. We may conceive that at some time by 
*h« violent application of a hard piece of timber to an edge some- 
*^t thinner tlian ordinary, the edge itself instead of being merely 
I dulled is broken off, and to the pleasant surprise of the operator a 
**^edge, sharp and clear, and better than the half-dulled one he 
'^ been using, makes its appearance. And he eventually learns 
^ he can at any time produce a new edge by shivering off a piece 


of the rock with blows. He is not long in learning that the ■ 
broken off has similar edges. If it be large enough to lie firmltf 
can employ it as he does the parent rock. If smaller, he may h 
it firmly with his feet while he manipulates the wood upon it with 
hands. Perhaps he can carry it away and use it at the place ■ 
convenient to him; when dulled he can shiver it by a blow ort 
and it is sharp again. And then at last by slow degrees, requir 
ages perhaps, one can hardly tell how, but by the continuance oft 
process, he observes that these splinters struck from the fragntf 
these fragments of fragments, possess the same cutting edges as 
original rock, and in a bit of stone not larger than his hand or 
finger he possesses an instrumentality capable of doing all that 
and his ancestors have been laboriously doing on the parent > 
or clumsy fragment. He learns also that instead of dragging 
wood over the edge, he can, with a totally different manipulad 
hold the wood firmly and operate on it with the stone splinter, i 
the tool is invented.* ' 

When I think of man in his primitive condition, as the log 
necessities of this subject have compelled me to think of him, h 
less, miserable, the prey of beasts, without tools, without mean 
defense except such as he shared with the beasts, and then thini 
him in the condition to which he is brought in this outline of 
inventions. I find it impossible to adequately express my sem 
the progress he hxs made. One effective weapon, its structure 
proved, and skill in its use acquired by generations of experifl 
and one cutting tool, even in the rudimentary form of an uof 
ioned ilake, h.ive separated him incalculably from the conditioi 
his ancestors. His knife or hatchet, as we mav henceforth cal 
container.! within it all the possibilities of the future, but for 
prest'-nt — his pre>ent — its capabilities were learned by constant 
sons and with every new occasion. He had no want to whic 
GUI no: minister. It not only M^rved its first purpose toprepu 
we.i: on, but it Ini-came itself a weapon. It ser\-ed him lo pro 
arid -jTcjarc his food, both animal and vegetable, his shelter, 
raiment, it" he \\:x^X reached the stage of wanting raiment. 

■ I: > .^r.l\ J y .1 '.o.-^-o c-^n-:n;ction of I^n^»:ige that this can fc« called thei 
t r-^. '•" .■. tD '.. T':;,.' : ■ ■'.. a mrre nike \^\ >:.-»ne. had alreadr long cioicd. 
act J A. ::.\cr.::.>n *.v.\^ \'\ art tr :^:,.'s:-^<'^ .:ui:e vii^inct frv>m adt berettlbreaml 
T:.e .r.vf ar.i n'.^re ;>:;..:..": :"v mi of expre>>:or. maj be caijlloy"* ^^ 
cx: '.-::i:. :r. 



aqauition was ihe greatest step he had taken in invention; and 
tlicn tre regard what has grown out of it, the infinite variety of 
culling tools, implements, and machines, whose origin we remotely 
trace to it, and ihe unnumbered needs they supply, we cannot 
hnitue to ascribe lo it the highest place among all the inventions 
of ill titne. 

It" the hafled celt was for the time the culmination of art, this is 
not ten imc, of its time, of the flint knife. As in man's rudest 
ouie he used the expedients with which nature endowed him, 
stfcning those best adapted lo his immediate purpose, so now out 
of ihc divert forms assumed by flakes and chips, he selects those 
Imi acUpted for particular purposes. He is repeating what occurred 
IB his earliest |)eriod, but with new and diversified wants, wider 
mitiligence, and a greater range of material out of which to select. 
Hrfinds blunt edges give satisfactory results in the old process of 
>'^'^ing wood, but he finds that thinner and sharper edges pene- 
tait the wood deeper, and remove the superfluous material faster. 
Ht finds he can work more deftly, more conveniently, can put a 
*Mf point on his weapon, can apply the new tool to all parts of it, 
rin ttducc and trim the shaft as well as the point, can even sever 
ttc growing saplings to obtain his material. He finds that some 
btnaun be made to penetrate and divide the tough skins of beasts, 
uiltarvi- Uieir flesh. In fact, in whatever direction his necessities 
w utciinaiioiis lead him, he finds his knife in some form conlribut- 
■■f to hi:i comfort, hi» protection, and the supply of his wants. 
•V pDiaession of the tool has wrought out his mastery over nature. 

Thiiculminalion in invention is but momentary. It is a mile- 

""Hs, i breathing place in the history of arts. But the march 

'■Blgwson, and wc find man still searching among fragments for 

^"na adapted to his pariicular uses, but gradually learning by 

"(erience thai by well-directed blows he can sometimes produce 

tfcil* Wing special forms, and so fitted for special uses. But these 

1 flakes only. There is no attempt as yet at dressing 

■ K1L-. The rude forms they bear when shivered from 

.ill that man ha* yet conceived in the structure of a 

— ■>ii[(t!.im:ui. These rude forms seldom appear in our museums. 

ffcy arc Ihc scoff of archaiologists. They are not distinguish- 

iM* from llic work of the elements. In fact, the splinters thrown 

C froMt or fire may have been as readily selected for use as 

mix) by human agency. And as writizn* have agreed upon 



the name paiceoiithic to indicate the age marked by the ft 
traces of human workmanship in stone implements, we must rcGfl 
nize the protolithic age, in which stone fragments showing I 
trace of such workmanship were the common implements of niJ 
kind. The earliest age of wrought implements could never \m 
come but for such a precursor. The rudest wrought forms did if 
appear till something of the same nature and used for the same pf 
poses, but imperfectly adapted for their performance, had croU 
the need of them and led up to the means for its supply, and d 
one thing which bore these relations to the earliest recognixatj 
forms of dressed -stone implements was the unformed flake. 

What were the steps from this form of flint knife, or scraper, \ 
hatchet, to the hafted celt? « 

I formerly reached the conclusion that the original endowM 
of man could include no less than the stick and stone for stnkil 
and hurling, and the string or withe for tying or binding. In t 
course of this paper I have traced the synchronous development 
the art of dressing wood, and of stone appliances for the porpoi 
With the advancement of these it is not to be supposed any fom 
art or expedient was lost. On the contrary it is to be presun 
that progress in them had been made corresponding to that we ha 
been following. The club was better fashioned ; approved foe 
of hurling-sticks may have been discovered and come into n 
Greater skill may have been acquired in the use of the hammer-stoi 
and judgment in the selection of suitable forms either for crushifl 
or for splitting, and with more convenient hand-grasp. The flc 
ble vines and strips of bark, with which primitive man lashed 
frail shelter, his successor may have improved by rudely twisting) 
fibres or strands, or have supplemented by other materials, notab 
after he had acquired the use of the flint knife, by strips of skin l 
animal tendons. The inventory of his possessions then wa 
embrace the club and pike, each clearly specialized, the hama 
stone, not formed by art but selected, the stone knife, and stril 
of various materials. The pike, the hammer stone and knife o 
have l)ecn of many forms. Now it will be seen that these eleme 
may be brought together in various ways so as to accomplid 
variety of results, the elements in every case being a stick, a sto 
and a string to bind them together, and the difference in resuttj 
pending on the particular form of stick and stone. For IQIM 
the heavy end of a club is made heavier by lashing to it a h 
stone — result the mace. The pike is improved by securiiif 


pointed flake of flint. A flint flake too small for the hand is made 
f eftcfive by fixing it to a piece of wood, making a knife or dagger. 
A bearier sharp-edged fragment secured to a handle adapting it for 
striking, becomes the axe or hatchet. What imriTediate incidents 
or needs led to any of these combinations, I do not propose to 
guess. It is enough to have shown that at a period when man was 
as yet onleamed in respect to any dressing of stone beyond knock- 
ing off rude splinters from a rock, he may have had in his posses- 
son the means to produce, and was fully capable of producing, such 
implements and weapons as I have named. This being true, the 
ame wants which might at any period of his history have led to 
their production may without violence be presumed to have done so 
then. They are in the line of his acquired arts, and the necessary 
linb between these and the arts he is yet to acquire. 

Whether these various combinations were made prior to actual 
«wkingof flint it would be idle to speculate. It is more likely that 
ntiiher preceded the other. While man was finding out how to use 
Ins possessions by bringing them together in new combinations, he 
VIS naturally improving them all.. Having found the flint and 
other rocks of similar texture so far obedient to his power that they 
coald be shattered, and new and useful forms produced, having ac- 
'jttired uses for these forms, having learned the purposes to which a 
Airp edge could be applied, and that a fresh one could be pro- 
<luced by knocking off the dulled one — it followed in due course, 
irom experience, to form the new edge with less violent blows, with 
°H>re judgment and dexterity, and, as the advantage of special, forms 
^•unc apparent, with a view to bringing it as close as possible to 
5«:h forms. And all this time the old art of reducing by abrasion 
Wnot been lost; applying it now to the stone as finer and finer 
•"hipping suggested and provoked the desire for a smoother edge, 
ihtr celt appeared, polished at first on its edge only, afterwards on 
*^ entire surface. There was no dividing line between the palae- 
olithic and neolithic ages. If separated at all, it is by a broad zone 
trough which the implements of both are found side by side. 
•Either was there any step from the finished celt to the hafted im- 
P^roent. The essential step, that of securing a stone in some form 
*> a handle, had been taken long ago. 

■ Icrt it might be suggested that in order to sustain a theory regard- 
:% the dcvelopement of the arts, I have myself been led to invent 


in Aft that were never known to man, it is worth while to remark 



that none of the steps I have set forth are imaginary. All of 
are in existence and in use yet, in their appropriate places, 
amidst the completest appliances of modern mechanic arts, 
primitive man sharpened a stick by rubbing it over a rough 
he used the same means an artist employs to-day to produce 
point on his pencil, and the same by which we sharpen all 
tools. The scraping tool is one of the ordinary provisions 
joiner's outfit ; but the use of a bit of broken glass is more coi 
still. As the edge becomes dulled by use, the glass is simply bi 
and two fresh edges are formed. This is universal in civilized 
and a curious instance of it in savage life has just been brou[ 
light by the Rev. Lorimer Fison, in his pamphlet on the Nanj 
Sacred Stone Inclosure of Fiji, in which he relates often 
seen ** a mother shaving her child's head with a bit of glass, | 
biting a new ^dgt on the instrument when it became dulL" 
original arts have never been lost. Probably it is a general 
regarding mechanic arts that no one of them .once commonlj 
quired is ever again lost. It may be laid aside for a lime orj 
pended, but it revives in some, form ; and I venture to think 
much of the eloquence that has been expended upon the ** The 
Arts" has resulted from a very imperfect acquaintance with 
that exist. 

It is apparent that every step in the progress that has been 
resulted in an improvement in man's condition. The first iropiOj 
weapon, club or pike or missile, was equivalent to so much grei 
streng^th of arm or length of reach. It augmented man's supei! 
ity ov«r the brutes ; it made his life less precarious ; it put 
means of securing food, shelter, and covering more fully within 
power. His environment, to which he had in his primitive c 
dition been completely subject, he now could to a certain exi 
control, could subject to himself. The first improved meaw 
fabricating a weapon, the first tool or mechanical process, ace 
plibhed these results in an increased ratio. The step that made 
cutting tool the possible possession of every man, which made 
knife even in its clumsiest form a common tool, did for the wi 
race what the earliest steps did for a limited number, and made 
amelioration general. The increased number of forms and vari 
of tools and weapons, growing out of the diverse and mad 
wants they were adapted to supply, were each steps in thelM 
uient of his material condition, each an indication of ptOjl 
man's advance towards civilization, slow as it must haveb 



i off step by stej) by the advances he made in his mechanic 
Tlic more he became independent of nature and capable of 
(otdng her into his senice the more time and inclination he found 
fpf the perfecting of his implements ; and the more he perfected 
bi» implements the more capable he became of subduing nature, 
Andlhi* iuleraction has never ceased, it goes on to-day. But the 
ichievemenis of to-day are not the conquest of savage beasts, nor 
the wlulion of the problems of food and shelter and warmth. We 
areorercoming time and distance; we are conquering the barriers 
of waind mountain ; we are finding out the more hidden forces of 
iiAiu»,»ndsiiiijc(tingthem. The fruit of our inventions is not seen 
ia wiigh flakes of stone lashed by sinew to rude hafts, but in the 
Bijihly movement of the railway train thundering across Iheconti- 
utit, at the click of the telegraph as London talks with Calcutta, 
And every step in progress has been a step in the improvement of 
■«a*i randiiioii from the first to the last. And so it shall be in 
the tore. 

Kraoi depict the gcniu-s of invention as a voluptuous female 
time, in various stages of imperfect attire, attended by innocent 
Wff in thtir primitive nudity, and with gear wheels and anvils and 
"ttw tough equipments of the artisan in ill-assorted proximity. 
"Uni w i feeble conception. The genius of invention is not a crea- 
tw of delicate mould, but one of brawn and sinew. His voice is 
•ojewlcsong of lullaby, but comes to us in the deafening clatter 
« Untcll looms and the roar of Pittsburgh forges. Mighty and 
Wtfceniand responsive to human wants — this is the kind of song 
^in (lis rugged rhythm : 

■■ I an monarch or ■■! ibe forg^ : 

1 have wilvcil llic riddle of fire; 
The amen at Solan tu ciy of maji 

Aniwert ai my desire. 
I graiii with the suUle soul of fianie 

The heart of the rocky eiirthi 
And lioi Frum my anvils the prophecies 

01 ilic miracle years leap forth. 

I am iwart with the mot of my furnace, 

I drip with the iwent of toil ; 
My fingers tliroltle the »vage wasie. 

I tear the curae from the soil ; 
I fling the bridges across the gulfs 

That hold us from the To-Rc ; 
And build ihc roads for the bannered march 

Of crowned humanity, " 




Mr. P. B. Pierce, discussing the paper, referred to some' 
osities or phenomena of invention ; for this science of 
like every science, has its attendant phenomena. ^^Ii 
invention is a science is demonstrated by its attendant 

Invention is not creation ; the first deals with matter 
latter supplies that with which invention deals. ThC;! 
eurematics, giving heed to what the history of his scu 
teach, soon discovers the principles of the great law oi 
Let him inspect the almost humanized giant that bears 
living freight daily from Washington to New York in 
hours, and what does he find, except that since the 
the process of selection or differentiation has been ii 
going on ! The clumsy, the crude, the ruder elements 
rejected; the harmonious, the simple, the efficient, 
have been utilized. Increment by increment complexit 
way to simplicity, until the perfected machine stands 
know it ; that is to say, the machine we are pleased to 
the selected excellence, the sutnmum bonuniy of all that 
and long use have taught to be best of those that have 
Each inventor has contributed his mite, and lo ! the gi 
And its maker, man, is he not perfecting himself aloi 
dull matter upon which he works and in which he achi< 
not, as described by the poet. 

The heir of all the ages in the foremost files of time ? 

Is not matter reflex? Is Frankenstein in reality the 
author protrayed him to be ? Will not the science of 
when once fairly beset by the persistent inquisition 
study and investigation, open wide the door of the tei 
even now ajar, and permit its disciples to enter and make] 
conquest, under a full knowledge of its laws, where unt 
have only been permitted to make occasional, random ca| 
the vestihulum, as it were? 

The thousand forces of nature lie hidden within graspii 
but for lack of systematic study they elude our clutch, 
ojr wilie^st approaches as the thistle down upon a puff 
may not always remain so. The Lilliputians botmd 
straws ; let us ply Nature with pitiless interrogatioil 



US the fullest knowledge of all her laws. For this is eurematics in 
iu broadest significance ; it is encompassing the laws of nature with 
nutcrial form and compelling matter to do the bidding of psychi- 
cal cncrg>'. 

Bat evolution does not account for all. There is in invention a 
synchromism that is almost mysterious. The present is the grand 
hirvtst time of all the seed that has been planted by the generations 
that have preceded us; but why the thoughts of inventive minds 
appear to move in batallions, all aiming at some common objective, 
seems at first view almost inexplicable. A given function is demon- 
strably demanded ; a hundred minds set themselves at once, in all 
parts of the world, to produce the means for its satisfaction. With 
the almost universal diffusion' of information that has come about 
vith the art of printing, even in all languages and tongues, aided 
by the telegraph and the telephone, who fails to know in all the 
bfoid earth to-morrow morning what the chiefest want of to-day 
has been? Within one month's time from the great flour-dust 
explosion in the mills of Minneapolis, in May, 1878, there were 
ow thirty inventions made for preventmg the recurrence of such 
in accident, and all practically effective. Many of them were 
ilitiost if not quite identical, although made by men having 
no knowledge even of each others' existence, and in all parts of 
the world! So quickly, when a pressing want is known, is the 
toeans supplied for staying the same. When the science of inven- 
tion has been |x?rfected, and every want has been given a means for 
it> satisfaction, will not the highest type of invention then be the 
discover)' of a new want, latent in the human soul, but never before 
developed ? 

Another feature of invention noticeable to an attentive observer 
i^the ijjolation in which an important discovery is often times set. 
T^€ evolution of the automatic grain binder of this day, from the 
sickle of Egvpt and the Orient, is plain and familiar. To one who 
^witnessed the devouring knives of this latest type of human 
genius, hungrily levelling the yellow harvests of the great northwest 
^^ tossing the bundled sheaves backward in serried rows upon the 
bubble, and contrasts its action with that of the reaper in the time 
^fioaz, how far apart they seem separated ! And so they are, wide 
^'o^^ries apart. But the quick, mind of invention anticipated the 
•*tt almost in the earliest day of the reaper. In the year 1854 two 
■* invented, perfected, reduced to practice, and patented the 


completed machine whose opportunity for use did not come unfl 
twenty-five years later. Like lonely islands arising out of the reo^ 
ing waters of an ocean, such inventions, though they may aft^j 
wards be the highest lands of great and fundamental enterprise, ^ 
lost for want of use. Although pioneers their inventors are withtf 
remuneration because they are too far in front of the needs of m 
world. The world itself is ever unready; the lines of necessity ■ 
conservative and strenuously refuse to make room for the new appf 
cant for favor, even though full of promise. 

Mr. Wm. H. Babcock said no one, on glancing over our patent 
can fail to observe how many of the inventions covered by thd 
are obviously outgrowths of those already in existence rather tin 
contrivances adapted to meet any real want. A man sees a parti 
ular machine, or a description of one, and forthwith proceeds 1 
devise a similar but slightly different construction. Thus there ar 
for example, more than three thousand patents on car couple 
most of them varying from others in a trivial degree, very few 
them being actually in use. A large class of our inventions are 
this incidental kind. 

But another large class of inventions have grown mainly out d 
distinct conception of a public demand, real, foreseen, or fandc 
or of the practical needs of manufacture. Exclusive of certain ^ 
radic and eccentric instances, inventors are either manufacture 
the men employed by them, or who expect to sell to them. 4 
these are on the alert to note the drift of public taste and practi 
requirements. A manufacturer sees, or thinks he sees, that a 11 
article, or a change in an old one, would meet with or lead toaa 
siderable sale ; or that a simplification of his machinery would C 
ble him to reduce his force or his fuel; a factory hand finds t 
the macliine with whicli he works has some persistent, annoy 
defect which a slight alteration would avoid ; an outsider in a I 
tory village forms his own theory as to what would give one c< 
peting manufacturer an advantage over another and knows thai 
would be well paid for; in all these influences the exertion of in 
nuity is easily accounted for. 

The effect of the public demand is curiously illustrated in 
synchronism of invention. It frequently happens that men wll 
separated territorially and having, no discoverable communical 
with one another make the same invention at the same timef-^ 
nearly at the same time that priority cannot easily be detel 


The progress of a certain art has reached a point where a given step 
becomes inevitable, and like causes produce like results everywhere. 

This shows, further, that the individual man is of less importance 
as a (actor in invention, than his environment. Indeed invention 
in the wide vague popular sense can hardly be said to exist. Even 
our greatest inventions have proceeded by a succession of small in- 
crements. Each man puts a round in the ladder, and the next climbs 
on it to put in his higher up. The one who puts in the last round 
steps from it to receive the crown of success, although his contribu- 
tion may have been the least of any ; and his even more meritorious 
predecessors who failed, but made that success possible, are gener- 
ally forgotten. 

Invention for the pleasure of inventing is of prime importance in 
literature and art, and cannot be wholly ignored even in treating 
of mechanical matters. Many men delight in experimenting with 
machinery, combining element with element, adapting every part 
»ith every other and to the end in view. They find invention * ' its 
own exceeding great reward. * ' Every one who deals with inventors 
on recall such enthusiasts, who are often men of notable if narrow 
ability, and, on the whole, the most interesting of their tribe. 

.Mr. .\. W. Hart said : I am very glad that, among other things 
lie has done, Col. Seely has put his foot down on the theory that 
accident is the mother of invention. This is a popular error which 
most of us may have sometime shared — certainly, I must admit it 
•^included once in my catalogue of sins. What are called acci- 
<ienis are in reality normal results of a search or inquiry, or series 
^f experiments, such, for example, in the geographical field, as 
the discovery of America by Columbus, or in the healing art, the 
prevention of cholera by inoculation with cholera genus if that 
i^ the correct term. In the way of a homely illustration, I will 
ftlatea |)ersonal incident. A friend proposed a walk to Arlington, 
i^dsaid we would look on the way for Indian arrow-heads. I as- 
*^ted but said that I never found an arrow-head in my life. 
''That is merely because you never looked for them," replied my 
"itnd. We went, and sure enough, found the arrow-head, and I 
found another the next walk I took in search for one. Now, while 
^'J a certain sense I may call that finding an accident, in the true 
**<1 proper sense, it was none at all. It was the regular legitimate 
■ftlt of the search instituted. But for the preparation or plan and 


^tpXansLtic execution, the ** accident " of discovery would never 


have occurred. So inventions come when we are ripe for them 
and look for and strive after them — and then they are not accidents, 
but logical endings of systematic beginnings — ^just as the solution of 
a mathematical problem follows its working. 

One may walk — as the savage does — over diamond or coal fields, 
rich bottom lands, or gold-bearing rocks, seeing nothing of their 
nature, contents or potentialities because intent on other things — 
of the hunt or war — and because not developed to any possible com- 
prehension of anything more. But the civilized and mentally and 
scientifically developed man, going over the same ground might 
make valuable discoveries, for good to himself and his fellows, while 
losing sight of the beasts or the signs of presence of others that the 
eye of the savage takes in. The latter is therefore not to be charged 
with negligence, nor the civilized man with being the victim of an 
accident. So inventions come when we are ready for and seek them, 
— as apples fall into the basket we hold to catch them when ripe 
and ready to drop. 

Mr. Murdoch read a paper on the ** Sinew-backed Bow of the 

All the branches of the widely-distributed Eskimo race now live 
in regions which are either treeless or else deprived of the ash and 
other elastic woods fit for making bows. The fact that the bow was 
in general use among the Eskimo previous to the introduction of 
firearms is one of the arguments that they have not always lived ii^^ 
the regions which they now inhabit, but have moved on from places 
where wood suitable for the purpose was to be obtained. As the 
gradually became settled in their new homes, probably before th 
different branches were so widely separated from the original stoc 
as they are now, and as the simple bows which they had brougkn^t 
with them from their old country became worn out and had to t>« 
replaced, it was necessary to find some means of giving the needrmj/ 
elasticity to the brittle spruce and fir, frequently rendered stil/ 
more brittle by a long drift on river and sea, followed by exposure 
to sun and rain on the sea-beach. In some places even driftwood 
is so scarce that bows were made of no better material than dry 
antler. The elastic sinews of several animals, especially of the reifl- 
deer, furnished the means desired of making an efficient weapon out 
of these poor materials. This is not employed in the way used by 
the Indians of the plains, who glue a broad strip of sinew along the 



iif ilic liow, liui i!i braided or twisted into a cord the size of 
I whip-cord, which is laid on in a continuous piece so ihat there 
tnitmcroiis strands of Ihe elastic cord running along the back of the 
rnoastobcsirctclied when the Ijow indrawn. The simplest or, so 
itpak, ancwtral iialiern of sinew-backed bow from which the types 
i»» in use arc evidently derived is one in which there are a dozen 
w twniy of such plain strands along the back, running around 
tl(t " nocks ' " and held down by knotting the end of the cord 
nutti the handle. Bows of this fomi, slightly modified by having 
thccordi somewhat twisted from the middle, so as to increase tlieir 
temiM, are ttill to be found in Baffin Land, where manyof the arts 
wmtn a lower state of development than among the Greenlanders, 
on the one hand, or the We.stcrn Eskimos, on the other. Let us 
hu* consider how in coutw of time the different branches of the 
hkimo race have iraprovrd upon this simple invention. Along the 
«t!l-wooded shores of southern Alaska, from the island of Kadiak 
iieulyto the mouth of the Yukon, where there is plenty of fresh, 
Imng spruce, they have chiefly increa.sed the efficiency of the bow 
!>r Icngilientng and broadening it, and have paid but little alten- 
lim lo the sinew backing, contenting themselves with slightly in- 
duing the number of strands, wrapping them round with a spiral 
"Wiog, which prevents them from spreading, and occasionally add- 
t*? a few more stiands which only extend part way to the tips, 
tang secured by hitches round the bow. This makes the bow a 
'I'lle siiffer in the middle than at the ends, where less strength is 
"Inifwl. On the other hand, the people who live along the iree- 
katborcK of the Arctic Ocean, from the Mackenzie river to Ber- 
tUlSttait, can obtain no wood lietter than the dead and weathered 
'V^tt which the sea casts upon the beach. Consequently, all ira- 
fWonents in the weapon were of necessity confined to the sinew 
Wtitig, which has developed into a marvel of complication and 
ptrfctiion, while the bow itself is rather short and not especially 
'Ml Starting as before with a loop at one end of the cord strands 
"t hid on from nock to nock until there are enough of them to 
Vt efficient stillness to the ends of the bow. Then the cord goes 
""Ij to nriihin 6 or 8 inches of the lip and is secured round the 
*"• by hiichci, sometimes a very complicated lashing of as many 
**iituen half hitches alternately in opi>osite directions, and returns 
'•Kurresponding place at the other end, where it is similarly 
favfanl. In this way strand after strand is laid on, each pair shorter 


than the preceding, and the backing constantly thickening ton^ 
the middle of the bow. When sufficient strands are laid on 
are separated into two parcels, and with a i>air of very in| 
little bone or ivory levers are twisted from the middle into 
tight cables, so that the twist of the cords adds to the resist 
be overcome in drawing the bow. These are prevented from 
twisting by a lashing at the middle which runs through the df 
and round the bow in a sort of figure of 8. The end of the oi 
then makes a tight spiral seizing round the bow which not 
keeps the backing from slipping, but serves to distribute the 
evenly and keep the bow from breaking. This pkattem is prol 
the ultimate development of the sinew-backed bow. Not onl 
it difficult to imagine making a more perfect weapon from the 
rial, but attention will no longer be paid to possible improvei 
in a weapon which is rapidly falling into disuse. As would nat» 
be supix)sed the region about Norton Sound, where the tribes 
Arctic coast meet those of Bering Sea, is a debatable ground, 
bows of the two types described are found side by side, along 
others partaking of the characteristics of both. If now we ci 
St. Lawrence Island, we find Eskimos depending solely on dl 
wood, who employ another and most peculiar modification of 1 
original type. They have lengthened the ends of the bow so 4 
the original simple backing hardly reaches within a foot of cM 
end, while these ends are bent up as in the Tartar bow, andsepu 
backings are stretched across these bends. 

The Eskimos of the mainland of Siberia, who have long mi 
tained direct intercourse with the St. Lawrence Islanders and % 
the Eskimos of the Arctic coast by way of the Diomedes, show 
evidence of this intercourse in the pattern of their bows, using eit 
the' peculiar St. Lawrence tpye, or purely American bows of 
Arctic pattern, or weapons which curiously combine characteri 
features of both. 


Mr. Bates said that the little blocks which are tied into 
concave outer limb of several of Mr. Murdoch's bows are so 
thing more than a mere stiflener of the wooden portion. It i 
truly mechanical expedient, to give efficiency to the tension li 
her of the combination, which is the sinew. It not only 9m 
a stmt to increase the leverage of the tension member^ wfai^Vi 


loction of the strut in all combination trusses, but it shortens and 
traightcns the line of the sinew, thus bringing its rigidity and 
bsticity into full play. In this, as in so many other instances of 
icrely experimental evolution, the best results of abstract theory 
re arrived at. 

Ninety-Seventh Regular Meeting, May 19, 1885. 

Vice-President Dr. Robert Fletcher in the Chair.* 
The Chair announced the death of Count Giovanni Battiste Erco- 
ini, of Bologna, Italy, a corresponding member, after which a 
ttnoir was read by Dr. E. R. Reynolds, who, in the course of his 
:oarks, presented to the Society an embroidered Italian flag and 
number of scarfe and mourning wreaths contributed by various 
^tific societies of Italy, of which Count Ercolani was a member. 
V Chair remarked that Count Ercolani would probably be remem- 
wed principally for his discovery that the circulation of the blood 
w known and promulgated prior to Harvey. 
Dr. Matthews then read a paper upon **The Cubature of the 
^UU," which was followed by some inquiries by Dr. Frank Baker 
^^ Mr. Bates, leading to further remarks by Dr. Matthews. 


The lecturer discussed briefly the various methods which have 
ta employed in the volumetric measurement of the cranial con- 
toitsand pointed out their various defects. He then described a 
sjcthod which he had recently devised and employed in the Army 
Mdical Museum at Washington. 

After recording the weight of the skull it is varnished inside 
'Jth thin shellac varnish, applied by means of a reversible spray 
^ratus. Artificial or accidental orifices are closed with India- 
fJibber adhesive plaster. The foramena and fossae are filled with 
Wty. The skull is wrapped in a coating of putty an inch 
f more in thickness, which renders it water-tight. It is filled 
Wfc water by means of a special apparatus in forty-five seconds and 
■pCied in fifteen seconds. The rapidity of this manipulation in 
■JMiJitiuu with the varnishing^ prevents soaking into the sinuses 
tflheimdae measurement of water which does not pertain to the 


cranial cavity. The water is poured into a measuring glaa^ 
2,000 c. c. capacity, and lycopodium is scattered on the watoi 
define the true surface. The putty is taken from the skull; ( 
latter is cleansed and placed in a dr>-y warm apartment until byi 
evaporation it is reduced to its former weight and consequently 
its former capacity. Then it is measured a second time to vei 
the results of the former measurement. 

Hitherto anthropologists have chiefly employed solid partid 
such as shot or seeds, in the cubature of skulls. Water had bi 
tried by former experimenters without success, and abandoned- 
objections to its use being considered insuperable. The lectv 
however, considered that by his method he had overcome the d 
difficulties. Although the method is new and still susceptibi 
improvement, it is thought that the results — an average of one d 
centimetre difference between the first and second measuremenl 
have not been excelled. 

One of the bronze skulls of Professor J. Ranke, of Munichj 
exhibited, and the claims of the inventor, as published in "( 
respondenz-Blatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Anthropol 
Ethnologic und Urgeschichte,'* September, 1884, were quo 
The lecturer had foimd one difficulty in using the artU 
skull which Prof. Rauke had not suggested. The cavity vi 
greatly in capacity with changes of temperature. For a pa 
conformity of measurements not only was it necessary that 
water used should be certain specified heat, but the bronze al 
the various vessels used, and the atmosphere of the apartroei 
which the experiments were made should be of a correspon 
temperature. At 4° centigrade the lecturer obtained for the br 
skull, estimating both by weight and measure, a capacity of 1,220 
while at 14° centigrade he obtained 1,240 c. c. In no case d« 
get a result as high as that engraved on the skull, viz: 1,255.6 
The skull was presented by Prof. Rauke to the Army Mo 

A i)apor followed from Dr. Baker upon *' The Frinxipu 
iNrKRPRKTATioN OK Brain, Mass, AND FoRM." This papei 
illustrated by numerous charts. 





J. VV. Powell, 
Delivered February ^y iSSj. 

It b a long way from savagery to civilization. In the attempt to 
ddioeate the progress of mankind through this long way, it would 
be a convenience if it could be divided into clearly defined stages. 
The course of culture, which may be defined as the development of 
BukiDd from savagery to civilization, is the evolution of the 
bonanities — the Hy^ great classes of activities denominated arts, 
nttitotions, languages, opinions, and intellections. Now if this 
came of culture is to be divided into stages, the several stages 
iIkwW be represented in every one of the classes of activities. If 
there are three stages of culture there should be three stages of arts, 
three stages of institutions, three stages of language, three stages of 
opinions, and three stages of intellections. 

Three such culture stages have been recognized by anthropologists, 
denominated Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization. But they 
hate been vaguely characterized and demarcated. Savagery has 
been considered a low stage of culture, barbarism a middle stage of 
culture, and civilization a high stage of culture In a brief address 
it IS not practicable to set forth the essential characteristics of the 
»holc course of culture; and it is intended on this occasion simply 
to characterize Savagery and Barbarism, and to define the epoch of 
transition. To this end it will be necessary to set forth the charac- 
tenViics of savage art as distinct from barbaric art, and the nature 
of the change; to explain savage institutions and barbaric institu- 
tion^^, and how the lower class develoi>ed into the higher ; to set 
forth briefly the characteristics of savage language and barbaric 
'^^S^e, and the origin of the change; to show the nature of the 
ntoionsheld by savages and the opinions held by barbarians, and 
^ otplain the reason of the change from one to the other ; and 

■■% to explain savage and barbaric intellections, and to show 


how savage methods of reasoning were transformed into barbor 
methods of reasoning. 

The most noteworthy attempt hitherto made to distinguish andd 
fine culture-stages is that of Lewis H. Morgan, in his great workeol 
tied * * Ancient Society. " In it these three grand periods appear- 
Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization — each with sub-division 
Morgan recognized the importance of arts as the foundation of coi 
ure, and his ** ethnic periods," as he calls them, are based oni 
development. With him. Savagery embraces all that stage of humi 
progress extending from the beginning of the history of man, asd 
tinguished from the lower animals, to the invention of potter 
Barbarism then succeeds and extends to the invention of the alpl 
bet. He adds that among some peoples hieroglyphic writing tal 
the place of phonetic writing, and civilization begins at this tin 
He then divides each of these periods into epochs which need a 
here be considered. In some of Morgan's works he connects t 
evolution of institutions with the development of arts, but to ; 
imperfect degree, and without . explaining their interdependeo 
He also, at different times, hints at the relation of linguistic def 
opmont to arts ; but he considers mythology to be too vague 
afford valuable data for this purpose. 

The scheme here presented differs from Morgan's in placing t 
eptH'h of demarcation between Savagery and Barbarism later on 
the course of human culture; and it is proposed to characterize t 
stages, not by arts alone, but by all the fundamental activities 

The next most noteworthy attempt to define culture-periods 
that by I^^ster F. Ward, one of the Vice-Presidents of this Socie 
In his scheme there are four stages of social progress, or social agg 
gal ion, vi/: 

•• 1st. The solitary, or autarchic stage; 

2\\. The ci>n>trainod aggregate, or anarchic stage; 
^^d. The national, or poliiarchic stage; and, 
4th. The cosmopohtan, or jxmtarchic stage." 

Warvi socks tv> cstaMi>h these as veritable stages on the basil 
iuNtnutu^nsalor.c. I'hoy arc treated as stages of social aggregati 
and not as i.:::-.:rc >:ai:cs. The tirst. second, and fourth are pu| 
hv;K^;!u':ic I :-..i\c c No where >:a:od my reasons for not acoe|lri 
ll\o i;:^: .1:1^: >cv v^v.d s:.ii;c>; Iv.:. whether real or imagioaiy, jl 
a n : c vi .i : c .1 '.1 i v ^ ^s -. > . c o *: \- c v- : ; » c k n o w 1 cd ^e of I he cond i t ion of ■ 



'md Tile fuurlh slage is a prophecy, and though I believe ihat 
'"sprophelic vision is clear and that he sees a true picture of the 
'uian, it need not be considered here, His politarchic stage era- 
tinCM all the course of human culture with which science may at 
precnl deal on a basis of observed fact, aud it is this stage which 
** here divided into three puits — Savagery, Barbarism, and Civili- 

£■ B. Tylor, alw, has classiGcd the stages of culture as Savage, 
BMbaric, and Civilized. The lowest or savage stage he defines "as 
ttm in which man siibststs on wild plants and animals, neither till- 
■Dgtluioil nor domesticating creatures for his food." He considers 
*ha men airive nt the barbaric stage when " they take to agricult- 
Wr/'and pass from the barbaric to the civilized stage by acquiring 
tttHi of writing. 

In rrUlion to the epoch which separates Savagery from Barbar- 
twi. Tjrlor does not greatly disagree with Morgan. Morgan uses 
»i 1 triletion of Barbarism as distinguished from Savagery the 
*ni«Mtion of the art of making pottery; Tylor, the acquisition 
ol igrituhurc. But usually the two arts have been acquired at 
^bnl the same time, and it seems probable that the conditions of 
liftbruQght aliout by agriculture were necessary properly to develop 
^tminic art. If this is true, agriculture is the more fundamental. 
If tl»g« of culture are to be established on conditions of art 
*l«tlopnient alone, the invention of agriculture should doubtless 
^ ««riu«l as the plane of demarcation between the two lower 
**(«; I)ut if the cuh tire-stages are to be based upon characteristics 
*'"wi from nil the classes of human activities, the separation 
"*«nn Sai-agcry and Barbarism must be placed somewhat later on. 

di» plane of demarcation has been adopted by me for a number 

», both in my publications and in the discussions and exposi- 

Kiofonnally presented to this Society from time to time ; and it 

f purpose to make a somewhat fuller exposition of my 

■tlie grand claasei of human activities are inter-related in sucb 
Tihal one pre«uppO!tes another, and no one can exist wiih- 
^1 Ihr others. Arts are impossible without institutions, lan- 
:o. (.-[iiniiin'i, and reasoning; and in like manner every one b 
''^^lujjcd by aid of the others, If, then, all of the grand classes of 
mauiviiies are interdependent, any great change in one must 
I drctCDrTCSpoitduig changes in the others. The five classes of activi- 


ties must progress together. Art-stages must have correspond! 
institutional, linguistic, philosophic, and psychic stages. 

Stages of progress common to all the five grand classes of hn 
activities may properly be denominated Culture- Stages, and ri 
culture-stages should be defined by characterizing all these adl 
ties in each stage. This I shall attempt to do, but in a brief i^ 



The very early history of mankind is covered by obscurity, thnu 
which conjecture peers at undefined forms; but when that portioi 
human history which rests upon a solid basisof known facts is read 
a succession of arts is discovered, each of which challenges attenf 
and admiration. In the lowest stage of culture which comes wil 
human knowledge, men understand the use of fire, and we i 
pretty fairly guess how they have learned of its utility. This Cf 
man also uses tools and implements of stone, bone, hom,wood«: 
clay, and by them adds skill to his hands. It is the genius of sM 
intellect that makes the hand more than a paw, that makes i 
organ for the fashioning and the use of tools and implements. 
this earlier stage man also knows how to protect himself from vi 
.and storms and the cruel changes of the seasons by providing! 
self with clothing and shelter. He has also explored and esq 
mented upon the whole realm of the vegetal world, and dis 
ered in a more or less crude way the properties of plants, so tbi 
knows those which are useful for food, the woods that are useiii 
fire, and the fibres that are useful for woven fabrics. In the J 
period of culture man has learned that the animals of the land 
the waters arc useful for food, and has discovered crude method 
which to kill and ensnare them, and has invented many si) 
instruments for hunting and fishing. Such is the state of 
industrial arts in that stage of culture which we call Savagery. 


Institutions relate to the constitution of bodies politic, to i 
of government, and to principles of law; and in describing Si 
cry we must c haractorize the constitutions of savage tribes 
forms of savage government, and the principles of savage law 

In Savagery the tribe is always a body of kindred — actual }ai 
in the main ; but, to a limited extent, artificial kinship obM 



Dtlhods of adopiian. In this stage of society no method is con- 
mitd in ihe human mintl by which a number of men can be held 
togRher in one common body except the bond of kinship — the ties 
ofrannnguinity and fiffinity. The savage thinks and says, "My 
■unJmi are my friends, and he who is not my kin is my enemy," 
wd upon this theory he acts. 

_Thc tribal slate, therefore, is organized upon the basis of kinship, 
It islitmlly a bond of blood entwined in a bond of conjugal love, 
lad the lamily organisation thoroughly [termeates the constitution 
of the tribal stste. In this stage of culture the family, as under- 
wod in the civiliicd world, is unknown. The marriage of one 
DUD to the woman of bis choice, and of one woman to the man 
of liet choice, is unknown. The right of the father to his own 
thildrMi, is unknown. The husband does not take the wife to 
lii awn home ; the haiband is but the guest of his wife, who re- 
miaiwith her own kindred; and the children of the union belong 
toW, and over her the husband has no authority. The tribe is 
ihnji divided into kinship clans. Each clan of this character is 
limp of [wople related to one another through the female line, 
■d children belong to the clan of the mother, and submit them- 
«lw to the authority of the mother's brother or the mother's 
■Kit The husband of a woman is selected, not by herself but 
^hercbn, to be the guest of the clan and the father of additional 
Wnbers of the clan. In this form of society, then, a clan is a 
WfofconKinguineal kindred in the female line governed by some 
nb member of the clan, usually the elder man. The clans con- 
"iating the tribe are bound together by lies of affinity. The 
Wwdj by which they are thus bound vary from time to time and 
■w tribe to tribe. In the simplest possible case a tribe is com- 
l^ed of two clans, each furnishing the other with husbands and 
■"kb, and in such a case the men of the one clan are the guests 
" '1*^ other, arc the husbands of the women and the fathers of 

1 f the other clan. In snch a case the common gov- 
iiuncil of the elder men o( both clans, or of chosen 
I i-jircsentatives of both clans, and the council chooses 

...I, Such is the simplest possible form of tribal society. 

.'I the tribal state and form of government becomes 

.li*vclo(ied; there may be three, four, twenty, or fitly 
"iin iHaay curious tics of affinity, with many curious re- 
ansing from marriage la^-s. Tlie clan .\ may furnish 


husbands to clan B, and clan B to clai^ (^, and clan C to ^ 
D, and clan D to clan A. It will be impossible to explain alljl 
forms of kinship society in Savagery; but it is sufficient to 
that everywhere the tribal state is organized on a kinship 

If two tribes form an alliance for offensive and defensive pui 
an artificial kinship is always established. Under such cii 
stances the tribes entering into the alliance make an agreement 
one another what their relationship shall be. If two tribes arc 
joined they may call each other brothers; then one will be the 
brother tribe, the other the younger-brother tribe. Or they 
assume the relationship of parent and child to each other, and] 
men of one tribe call the men of the other '* fathers" and the 
** mothers,*' &c. But all clan relations and all tribal relatic 
really or theoretically kinship relations. In all such bodies 
tic there is a perpetual conflict between tribal and clan prero^ 
and it is settled by different methods in different tribes and 
ferent times; but, in general, crimes are of two classes in 
resi>ect : those over which the tribe has jurisdiction, and those 
which the clan has jurisdiction. Sometimes the clan assumes 
supreme jurisdiction ; at other times the tribe assumes almost sa| 
jurisdiction. All petty crimes, as they are considered in 
society, fall under the jurisdiction of the clan. It may be 
how a state of social organization so strange to us ever became 
lishcd, and yet it may be easily seen that, anterior to the d< 
ment of modern ideas and methods of government, it wai: 
simplest way of settling difficulties, establishing peace, and 
solidating peoples into bodies-politic that could occur to a 

In the 34th chapter of Genesis there is recorded a propositi< 
organize a barbaric tribe : 

** And H.imor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to commune willli 

■'.i *t * * « « ♦ 

*'An(l Ilamor commiincil with them, saying. The soul of my son 
longeth for your daughter : I pray you give her him to wife. 

** And make ye nurri iges with us, and give your daughters unto us, aadj 
our dauifhters unto vou. 

'•And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before )'Ou; di 
trade ye therein, and get you pos-ic^^ions therein." 

In all stages of society, laws regulate conduct in those 
lars about whic:h men dis;igree. Wherever there is unii 
ment there is no need for law, and when men disagr 


: be I 

nilated. Now, 


I early 

IS or lire, their actions i. 
tUfiBafiQcKty, ihe chief things about which men disagree are the 
nUliontof the sexes, iwrsonal autUorilj', possession of property, 
am) conduct relating to mythical beings. Their ian-s therefore 
nlilt, fiisl, to marriage : and they avoid controversies in this re- 
tfKt Uy establishing the law that individuals themselves shall have 
BO )«rM>na) choice in (he selection of mates, but that husbands shall 
Vbmiihed la wives by legal appointment through the officers or 
ndmof the clan. Sec-ond, property rights are established by laws 
■hiiJi make certain classes of the property belong to Ihe tribes, 
olkr cbsscs to the clans, and a very small part to individuals ; and 
Ihr pmperty held by individuals cannot descend to other persons; 
»tnltii prevent controversy in relation to personal property, it is 
tM»lilislied by law that every man's personal properly shall be placed 
wbliim in his grave. Third, personal authority is established on 
wiwniy. The elder ahvayshasauthority over the younger; and as 
'It imiplc in this stage of society have not yet developed arithmetic 
•fidictords losuch an extent that the ages of individuals are known, 
• omoui hngiii-itic device is established by which relative age is 
ihn)^ known. Everyman, woman, and child addresses every other 
MM. womaji. and child by a kinship term which always indicates rela- 
•"tige: thus, there is no term for brother, but a man in speaking to 
Mlirotlicr always uses a term which signifies that he is an elder 
"Btlft Of a younger brother, as the ease may be ; and thus, through 
fttniircsyatcmof kinship terms in tribal society no man can speak 
•"Moihcr without addressing him by a term which, in its very 
"^WW, claims or yields authority. The younger must always be 
"Witnt to the elder. Fourth, laws involving conduct relating to 
"Jlhic beings arc very diverse and multifarious, and cannot be fully 
'Mijctcriicd. But one of the most essential of those laws concerns 
"^"ior in relation to the tutelar deity. Each clan has its tutelar 
*^.| J"d il'.-fcnds Its honor, and punishes all impious acts or words 
: 4ti_lar god. And in savage society no man may speak 
\\ of his neighbor's god, but may praise or defame his 
jud is propitious or angry. 

' il principle running through all these laws is thU: 
T [Itai men may live together in peace and render each 
. ,i>aisliinc«, controversy must be avoided; and in con- 

n mih this first principle. 

:ond i 

and J 

t, vU, wh;n controversy h^ begun ii 

i through 
t be lenniiialed. 



The methods of terminating such controversy are various, and may 
not here be entered upon. But, in Savagery, the struggle is for 
peace, and peace is secured by preventing and terminating contro- 
versy. Such are the institutions of Savagery. 


It is not easy to characterize savage languages in such a manner 
that the subject may be clearly understood by scholars who are not 
specialists in philology. This is due to the fact that a false stand- 
ard of linguistic excellence has been set up through the worship of 
Greek and Latin. These languages, at the time when they were 
taken as classical models, were very highly specialized, but not highly 
developed as compared with the languages of modern civilization. 
But having been taken as the models of excellence and the stand- 
ards of comparison, erroneous ideas of the course of linguistic 
growth and of the value or excellence of linguistic methods 
have obtained currency. In order to understand clearly what 
savage, barbaric, and civilized languages are, and how they rank, 
it becomes necessary to eradicate these preconceived ideas, and 
this cannot be attempted in a short address. It can only be 
stated in a general way, and without hope that the statement will 
be fully understood, that savage languages have the parts of speech 
very imperfectly differentiated, that the grammatic processes and 
methods are heterogeneous and inconsistent, and that the body of^ 
thought which they are competent to express is greatly limited. 
But there is one linguistic characteristic of Savagery that may 
made very clear; it is this: That simple picture-writing is founcz 
among savage peoples as a linguistic art, and that in such picture- 
writing conventional characters are rarely used. Hieroglyphs am- 
never found among savage peoples, and of course alphabets are u 


It seems probable that, in the lowest stage of Savagery, all chan^^^ 
motion, or activity — in fact, all phenomena — are attributed to li/<? 
supposed to exist in the objects exhibiting the phenomena. Thus, 
all things, animate and inanimate, are supposed to have life and to 
exercise will. But gradually, in the development of savagery it- 
self, the animate and the inanimate are distinguished ; and finally 
these ideas are usually woven into the grammatic structure of savage 


languages. Still, in this stage of culture, the animate is supposed to 
ice on the inanimate ; so that while life is not attributed to all 
ibings, all action is attributed to life — that is, unseen beings are 
apposed to actuate all nature and to produce all the phenomena 
of existence. Thus it is that the stars have spirits, the mountains 
hare spirits, and all inanimate and vegetal nature, to a greater or 
less extent, is the abode of invisible beings. Superimposed on 
this is found an exalted conception of the wisdom, skill, and powers 
of the lower animals. In savagery the animals are considered to be 
the equah of man, and in some cases even his superiors. There 
is also a general belief that the form in which men and animals ap- 
pear is but transitory and that these forms may be changed. They 
believe not so much in transmigration as in transformation. Then, 
through the principle of Ancientism, by which the remote past is 
exalted — in Savagery, Barbarism, and among the ignorant in Civili- 
xation alike — the ancients of the star, mountain, and river spirits, 
the ancients of the birds and beasts, are deified and worshiped. 
The most important characteristic of savage philosophy, then, is the 
exaltation of the lower animals, the worshiping of these animal gods, 
and the belief that they are the chief actors in the creation and his- 
tor> of the universe. Savage philosophy is best characterized by 


Sensation is the recognition of external action upon the apparatus 

<>f the mind. When the olfactory nerves take cognizance of an 

^or, a sensation is received ; but when the mind associates that 

^orwith previous sensations of odor, and recognizes it as of some 

^juality, or as belonging to some known object, it performs an act 

<^' inductive reasoning, and pronounces judgment that the odor is 

^^ett, or that it emanates from some pleasant substance. When, 

ihtrefore. we say that the odor of the rose is perceived, we fairly 

^rm that in that perception a train of reasoning has been pursued 

^ a judgment formed thereon. By long exercise of the individual 

^ the cultivation of the faculties of inductive reasoning, and by 

^inheritance of such faculties from ancestors, trains of reasoning 

of this character gradually come to be so spontaneous and so appar- 

<Mly instantaneous that the course of inductive reasoning is not 

.iBOOgnized. The judgment is instantly formed, and the inductive 

Booing is unconscious induction upon the data of sensation. 

(hction is the composition of data. 


Again : a sound falls upon the ear; that is, many waves of sound 
beat upon the nervous receptacle which groups the sensations we 
call sound ; the mind recognizes qualities in the sounds, and at the 
same time compares them with the memories of other sounds having 
the same quality, and the ear thus recognizes the voice of a friend. 
But there may be something more recognized, such as characteristics 
that express joy or sorrow, and the mind recognizes not only the 
voice of the friend but the state of his emotions. Now this process 
is wholly inductive, both in the perception of a known voice and in 
the perception of a known emotion. It is all a complex course of in- 
ductive reasoning, but that reasoning is so instantaneous that the 
facts which lie at the basis of inducti6n, and the methods of induction, 
are not discerned, and the unconscious induction is called perception. 
When the eye is turned to look upon a horse it is affected by certain 
conditions of light, transformed by reflection from the object upon 
which the eye is directed. The different rays of light coming to the 
eye are of a multiplicity of kinds, exhibiting different degrees of light 
and shade and different degrees in the analysis of light into its con- 
stituent colors; thus, chiaroscuro and color strike upon the eye, the 
vast multiplicity of minute effects upon the eye are composed in 
the mind by an inductive process, and the inductive process goes 
beyond the composition of these facts to infer others. Perhaps 
the left side of the horse is turned to the eye, and the mind infers 
that there is a right side, that the hither side of the ear has a farther 
side, that beyond there is a right ear, and a right side throughout, 
so that the conclusion is reached that the object is characterized by 
bilateral symmetry. Still more than that, through that profound 
principle known as the correlation of parts, internal organs are in- 
ferred ; it is concluded that the animal has a backbone, a heart, and 
other parts. All these facts, observed and inferred, are combined 
into a general conclusion by the mind that the object seen is sl 
horse, and we say that a horse is perceived. Now this ^process oC 
perception differs in no wise from any long and patient course 
of reasoning except in one characteristic, namely, that the process 
of reasoning is so instantaneous that the steps and methods do not 
arise in consciousness. The individual facts upon which the reason- 
ing is based do not api>ear in severalty, but as forming integral 
parts of the whole ; and the steps by which these observed facts arc 
combined with previous knowledge, and reasoned upon from the 
basis of the principle of the correlation of parts, are unobserved. 

astkropolooicai. society, 


■ niad is unconscious of tlie facts upon which reason is lia-ed, 
tf ihe process of reasoning, but instantaneously reaches a con- 
Thus perception is unconscious indiiciion. 
■ may be further illustrated by facts familiar to all, The 
d arithmclician labors with a simple problem in addition; 
» slowly from one number to another with his eye and his 
fieye as lie ascends the column; but an expert accountant 
shis eye up and down the column and instantaneously states 
; and that whiih was a slow inductive problem in arith- 
Itfor the child and the ordinary adult is performed as an ioslan- 
\ process by (he expert accountant; and that which was 
I induction in the one was perception in the other. In 
^ways and on all hands this fact may be illustrated, that per- 
in and induction (or reflection, as it is usually called; are one 
Hi the same process in kind, but differ only in degree. Peiception 
it luentiiout induclian. 

It WIS necessary to explain this fundaraenlat principle in psychol- 
•^ymwdcr that we may properly characterize the psychic operations 
olSivjgiiry, The psychic condition of a people can only be fully 
*^iliin«i by setting forth fully the whole system of intellections, 
^iiWmg perceptions, inductions, and inventions (or imagination, 
B the process of invention is more usually denominated in psychol- 
<tr}r md also characterizing the emotions, the desires, and the 
^'I»«s,»o frequently denominated the "will." But it will besuf- 
icKill for our purposes here if we characterize the perceptions and 
'MlOiOns of Savagery; and it may be safely inferred that the 
"■"ginings, ilie emotions, the desires, and the purposes will corre- 
•Pwd llicrcto. 

'fa" Ihc perceptions of Sav.igery are of a very rudimentary char- 
Wee Md, are greatly restricted. This can be shown in many ways, 
wllwo particulars will suffice for present purposes. The first is 
™. Ihai ilie savage is unable to perceive a conventional meaning, 
wan perceive a horse, and he can even perceive the picture of a 
™* if its outlines are lairly drawn, but he cannot perceive a horse 
"1 conventional character, like a hieroglyph or a written word. 

Ajun; the Mvagc can perceive numbers but to a very limited 
"tttl, but cannot jierceive the relations of numbers; for example, 
btiantiot add groups of numbers, a.i 3 lo 5 ; but wishing to add 3 
•OJ, he fint counts off carefully 5, and then adds the 3. one at a 
Omc— that is, be counts his addition. To subtract 3 from 8, he 


subtracts one at a time until 3 are taken away, and subseqi 
counts the remainder to discover the 5. In like manner he 
multiply, that is, add like groups to each other. Nor can he dii 
that is, separate into like groups, but must in each case go thi 
the process, not by considering abstract numbers, but by coi 
ing individual things, one at a time. Thus it is that in Sa^ 
very large field is included in conscious induction which beloi 
perception in a higher stage of culture. There are many 
mental characteristics of Savagery, but those given are sufficient 
present purposes. 

Savagery has been thus described with all the minuteness 
on such an occasion, and perhaps with sufficient thoroughnesi; 
present purposes. The* savage has invented rude arts by whi< 
obtains food, clothing, and shelter. He has invented a nides] 
of kinship society, with descent in the female line. He 
spoken language, gesture-speech, and picture-writing, but is wil 
hieroglyphic, syllabic, or alphabetic writing. He lias a phiU 
which informs conspicuous and important inanimate objects 
spirit life, and which deifies the brute; and a mind whose 
tions are so slightly developed that conventional characters d< 
convey to him ideas, and his arithmetic is yet "counting." 
in general, are the characteristics of all savage peoples that have 
carefully studied by anthropologists. Now the question ariseSfi 
was this Savagery transformed into Barbarism; and what is 
Barbarism ? 

In the lower stages of culture all progress rests upon the 
life. To discover any great change in the condition of mai 
we must look for the art-invention which was the efficient 
in producing the change. 

If the early course of human progress be surveyed for the pi 
of discovering the most important art-epochs, it will be safe 
gard those of the greatest importance the effects of which are 
clearly exhibited in the concomitant activities — that is, instil 
languages, opinions, and psychic operations. If an inventi< 
but slight influence on these correlative activities, its impel 
may be questioned. But if an art-invention is discovered to 
worked radical changes in all other activital departments, 
must be of the highest importance. 

I'hcrc arc two arts intimately associated the invention o^ 
causes a radical change in all of the departments of In 


ni, agriculture and the domestication of animals. Agriculture 
began in Savagery. Many savage tribes cultivate little patches 
offround and thereby provide themselves with a part of their 
ftbsbtence. This petty agriculture does not of itself result in 
any radical change ; but wlien the art has developed to such an 
extent that the people obtain their chief subsistence therefrom, and 
especially when it is connected with the domestication of animals, 
so that these are reared for food and used as beasts of burden, the 
change for which we seek is wrought. It seems that extensive agri- 
culture was first practiced in arid lands by means of artificial irriga- 
tion. In more humid lands the supply of food is more abundant, 
ud the incentive to agriculture is less. On the other hand, agri- 
culture is more difficult in humid lands than in arid lands. The 
avage is provided with rude tools, and with them he can more 
easily train water upon desert soils than he can repress the growth 
ofnltieless plants as they compete for life with those which furnish 
fcod. The desert soil has no sod to be destroyed, no chapparal to 
be eradicated, no trees to be cut down, with their great stumps to 
beextracted from the earth. The soil is ready for the seed. Throw 
tipon that soil a handful of seed and then sprinkle it with a few cal- 
abashes of water once or twice through the season, and the crop is 
ra^cd; or train upon a larger garden patch the water of a stream 
«Hi let it flood the surface once or twice a year, and a harvest may 
bf reaped. 

Petty agriculture, such as I have described as belonging properly 
to Savagery, has been widely practiced in the four quarters of the 
globe among savage peoples, quite as much in humid as in arid 
^fgions; but the art seems not to have indigenously extended 
beyond that stage in any but arid regions. The earliest real agri- 
ftilture known to man was in the Valley of the Nile, an almost rain- 
^bnd; but the floods of the Nile were used to fertilize the soil. 
Apin, in the land of Babylon, along the Tigris and the Euphrates, 
wensive agriculture grew up, but it was dependent upon artificial 
tnigation. Still farther to the southeast, in the Punjab, another 
sy^em of indigenous agriculture was developed by utilizing the 
waters of the five great rivers. Still farther to the east an indlge- 
agriculture was developed on an extensive scale, all dependent 
artificial irrigation, as the Chinese use the waters of the Ho- 
I'ho and the Yang-tse-Kiang. In South America the first system 
^igriciilture was developed in Peru, all dependent upon artificial 


irrigation ; and finally, to the north of the Isthmus of Panama, ii 
Central America and Mexico, agricultural arts were highly devel 
oped, and here also they were dependent upon artificial irrigation 
From these six examples of high agricultural art, all the agricult 
ure of the world has been developed ; from these centers it ha« 
spread. The petty agriculture of humid lands never went beyonc 
the utilization of little patches of ground in the forest glades unti! 
it was borrowed in a higher state from arid lands. Everywhere with 
the development of agriculture in the arid lands, the art of domes- 
ticating animals was associated, and everywhere such anioials were 
raised for food, and to a large extent they were used as beasts oi 

Now, it is to be noted that the animal industry eventually devel- 
oped beyond the vegetal industry, and spread more widely, and 
many tribal peoples became herdsmen and nomads l^efore they came 
to be agriculturists. The art of domesticating animals was more 
easily borrowed, especially in humid regions, than was the art ol 

These industries enabled mankind to obtain a far more generous 
subsistence and more thorough protection from unfriendly nature. 
They thus caused a great increase in population. They also con- 
stituted the first great agency for the accumulation of wealth, by 
creating it in giving value to land, by creating it in fiocks and 
herds, and by storing it through the discovery of methods by which 
the wants of the future could be met. By planting fields the wants 
of to-morrow and all the days of the year to come are served ; and 
when the young of animals are reared, provision for future years is 
made, and thereby men learn to accumulate. 

This change in the arts of life, and the increase of population 
resulting therefrom, entirely changed the constitution of society. 
In savage society, when mother-right prevails, a tribe is a group of 
classes or clans living together in a village that is easily moved from 
time to time. If a colony departs from k tribe, a segment of two 
or more clans goes away and starts a new village, and the clans 
again live as a village community upon the same plan as the parent 

Now, let us suppose that a tribe separates by clans, so that each 
goes off by itself; a curious condition arises therefrom : first, it 
results in the divorce of all marriages, because husband and wife 
are always of different clans; and for the same reason the father is 



(fjaraiwl frntn liis cliildrcD. Id such coramunilies there is often a 
parlial sepanilion by clans of this nature: in savage society tlie 
am of a clan often go off together on a hunting or fishing excnr- 
'ion. Sometimes these excureions or travels are prolonged for 
Web or months. In such cases the men often take their wives 
Titli ihetn, and under these circumstances the women are separated 
from ihcir clan and kindred and are not under the control of clan 
Ulhorily, but fall under the temporary control of their husbands 
Bid &lbers. Now, if we could suppose a slate of affairs where 
lln scporalion of women and children from kindred and clan 
Olhorily becomes permanent, it is manifest that the power of 
dm uthority would wane, and the authority of the husband and 
fchcr would grow. Such a condition of affairs results from ex- 
taoire agriculture by irrigation and the care of extensive flocks. 
Ii must be remembered that in this stage of society property is 
tommunal; tliat is, property in the main belongs to the clan. A 
fctkof 5heep, a herd of cattle, a band of horses, is the property 
^flhemcn of a clan. When such property becomes so large thai 
8«ill occupy for its suslenlation a large valley, the men to whom 
it Wongs will necessarily be occupied all the time with its care 
1"! protect ion, and they must have their wives and children with 
lira in order that domestic life may be possible. Under such 
coBimitances it results that women and children are gradually taken 
^ iheamtrol of those persons who had previously been supposed 
*!k their natural protectors, their clan kindred, and fall under the 
'OBtfoJ iif iheir hiisliands and fathers, who are members of other 
■*»». Tlic same result has always been produced by the segrega- 
™io( Die male members of the clan from the trilie through agri- 
•iJlnt hy irrigation. Tlie circumstances are these: In this early 
Vitiiltur« the agriculttiral implements are very crude, and great 
Mmiii: works cannot be undertaken. It is thus necessary to 
■tmpt the control of only the small streams, and the men of each 
tluirill therefore select some small stream and occupy the little 
"Uty Uuough which i( runs and upon which its waters are trained ; 
•^ mm nt mie dan. with their wives and children, occupy a dis- 
■lie male members of another clan another valley, and 
[■ segregated into grDii|)s, the male members of each 
. . ig to the same clan and having with them their wives 
en. The women and children being thus severed from clan 
fall atider the authority of their husbands, and mother- 


right, or descent in the female line, is changed into father-righ^ 
descent in the male line; and thus is established the patriai 
form of society with which we are all familiar, as it is very 
set forth in the post-Noachian history of the Bible. 

Under this form of society kinship bonds are still preservedgi 
they are of a different nature. First, descent is transferred toj 
male line — that is, children belong to the clan of the father, 
are controlled by him instead of by the mother's brother, ori 
mother's uncle; second, the husband is no longer the guest of jl 
wife and her clan. At first the wife is the guest of the husband ^ 
his clan, but gradually this relationship of guest and host is chad 
to the relationship of master and owner, and the husband becof 
the owner of his wife, and finally the owner of his children. TJ 
are considered to be his property ; they are responsible to no^ 
but himself — that is, the tribe does not hold the wife and chihl 
responsible for their acts, but holds the husband responsible^ 
them. (It is impossible in an evening's address to characterize I 
the causes and the consequences of the change from enatic ta 
natic descent, but the statement here given is perhaps sufficient 
present purposes.) 

Another great change is effected, the increase of wealth wl 
has been described multiplies the relations between men aril 
from the possession of property. And these are relations al 
which men disagree, and therefore they must be regulated by 1 
The state, therefore, comes to be organized in part on a prop 
basis; hitherto it has been organized wholly upon a kinship bi 
The plan of the structure of the state is thus changed. The h 
too, are enlarged to regulate the relations that arise out of ow 

And yet another change is effected. Some clans prosper 
increase in wealth ; other clans fall into poverty. With this inci 
of wealth and desire for wealth, labor becomes of value, becais 
can be converted into wealth, and the poor are employed by 
rich, and the relations of the employer and the employed arces 
lished. Out of this grows the relationship of master and slave, 
ranks or grades are established in society. With this grows a: 
lion for wealth and power, and tribe wars on tribe to drive awa 
herds and to take ])osscssion of its accumulated propjerty, and 
turcd peoples become slaves, and the chiefs of conquering.! 
extend their authority over conquered tribes, and gradual^ jj 


chk6 become great leaders in war and gather their retainers about 
them, giving to them protection from without, and claiming in 
compensation for the same fealty, tribute, and service under arms. 
Soch is a brief outline of the characteristics of tribal society in 
Mttrism, brought about through the cultivation of the soil and 
the domestication of animals. 


The great changes wrought in arts and institutions which have 
been described doubtless had their influence on languages, as the 
new ideas required new means of expression. While in the present 
ttite of knowledge it is perhaps not possible to set forth clearly the 
RsoltaDt sematic and structural effects upon any language, in lin- 
guistic arts important effects are discovered. 

In the lower status of culture, here denominated savagery, picture- 
writing was highly developed ; but in the transition to barbarism, 
pctnre-writing was transformed into ideographic writing. In the 
ttrlier stage a slight tendency to conventionalism is discovered ; 
ba in ideographic writing the original pictorial signs are conven- 
tionalized to such a degree that it becomes an important linguistic 
vt, by which ideas may be recorded and transmitted from person 
to pcRon and from generation to generation. It must be under- 
stood that the evolution of picture-writing had all along been in 
the direction of ideographic writing, but a great impulse is given 
to this tendency by the enlargement of human activities in the arts 
of life and the institutions of society. This is discovered in many 
directions, the chief of which may be here enumerated. 

1st. The increase of property demands increase in the methods 
of identifying property and of substantiating ownership. 

id. The separation of clans and the distribution of cognate 
topics over large areas of territory demand means of intercom- 
^Micalion other than that of direct oral conversation ; and 

jd. Nomadism, which is the direct result of the domestication of 

MinuLj, makes men travelers, and so enlarges their horizon of 

ohser^-ation that some method for the record of events becomes 

flttessary. Under such stimulus, picture-writing speedily develops 

into ideographic writing. 


In avagery, mythology develops into a high form of zootheism. 

300 TEAXSAcnoys of the 

The beaati are no: z'jds. Lu: mjny of the gods are beasts— | 
an'^ieriCi of beasr.-. the proco'>-pe> or progenitors of the iif| 
animali. The rcdimer.ts ot physi theism also exist in the woi 
of the heavenly bodies, the winds, and other natural phenoi 

When anin:iaL5 become beasts of burden they are degraded; 
are diviovered t-j be inferior beings, and the mysteries of anu 
life ar-j largely di5[^te lied : and by the development of agrici 
man i/ecomes more dependent upon the sun, the seasons, and 
weather. The heavenly bodies and meteorologic powen 
phenomena grow in importance and become more and more 
subject of interest and speculation, until the person ificatiomj 
natural objects in the heavens and natural phenomena in the; 
and the weather are deified, and the tribal worship presided 
by medicine-men and prophets becomes a religion based 
physi theism. The occult lore of the people is composed of sU 
of the sun, moon, and stars; of thunder, lightning, and the 
bow : of the stonns, clouds, and winds, and of dawn and gh 

There is another important development in the religion of 
baric peoples. With the establishment of the p>atriarchy the 
arch r;omes gradually to be the great power, and worship of a 
tutelar fieity is changed into ancestral worship — the worship of j 
ancient chiefs or patriarchs; ancestor gods and ancestral wonl 
rc]>lar e tutelar gods and tutelar worship. Barbarism, then, ispiM 
crly characterized by domestic ancestor worship and tribal nai 


The enlarged plane of human activities already outlined cai 
an iin[K)rtant dcveloimient in jysychic activities. First, pcib 
tion i>> enlarged. This is seen in the fact that i^eople at f 
stagr are able to read hieroglyi)hs; they can perceive meaiiii 
in ronventional characters. Again, stimulated by the accoi 
latioM ()!" wealth, arithmetic is developed beyond the couoti 

stage, ami man can add a number of units to a number ofuBJ 


and < an subtract numbers from numbers, and divide numbeiSj 
niinilxTs. In savagery, men learn to count; in barbarism, i 
learn arithmetic, and can at once perceive the simpler relatioQl 
ntiniber^. Tlu* entire field of human thought is greatly enlam 
and with this enlargement there may be observed a nicer d 


Mtion of phenomena, and a grouping of phenomena on a new 
^em of analogies. 

From the foregoing brief characterization it will be seen that bar- 
hwc culture implies a somewhat high state of agriculture and the 
domestication of animals, one or both. It implies that patri- 
archal institutions have been organized, that descent is in the 
■ale line, that ranks in society have been established, and that new 
kws regulating property have been enacted. It implies that the 
people use hieroglyphs. It implies that domestic worship is ances- 
tal worship, that tribal worship is based on physitheism, and 
tbat the phenomena of the universe are attributed to nature gods. 
And finally, it implies that men can perceive meanings in conven- 
tional signs, and that arithmetic has been invented. 

The statement I have hitherto made rests on the postulate that 
the progress of culture has been essentially along the same line in 
lU times and places. The facts accumulated by the researches of 
modern anthropologists fairly establish this. It is true there has 
kea much variation in tfie order and steps of culture, but this 
nnition has been confined within certain limits. The chief 
iriation lies in the fact that all races have not made progress to 
Ac same extent. Some tribes are yet savages; other tribes are yet 
^■rtarians; and some peoples have attained civilization. 

The common origin of mankind, otherwise denominated the 
'nutjr of the human race, is a conclusion to which the modern 
'cicncc of anthropology gives abundant evidence. Although the 
diversity among men is so great that no two are alike, yet this di- 
'^ty is restricted to narrow limits. The units of the mass of 
bununity are discovered to be homogeneous in essential endow- 
'"^^ts to such an extent as almost to startle the student who 
'^ift man in all lands and at all times. 

Primitive men had a common origin, but early in their history 
^ differentiated into biotic varieties, characterized by the con- 
^^nnation of the skull, the proportions of the skeleton, the color of 
^ ikin, the structure of the hair, the attitude of the eyes, and 
<*htr biotic peculiarities. Had this tendency to differentiate con- 


toucd through the entire course of human culture, species would 
fcjvbeen established, but early in the period of human history the 
■teiency to differentiation was checked and a return to homogene- 
%r mutated. Thenceforth the progress of mankind has been by 
Whods radically differing from the methods of biotic evolution as 
Bttbited among plants and animals. 



This return to biotic homogeneity is due to the developme9| 
human activities, which make men depend one upon anothi 
such a manner that the welfare of one involves the welfare of ot|l 
so that no man may claim the right to live for himself, but everf i 
lives and labors for the good of his kind. The fundamental n 
ciple of animality is supreme selfishness ; the fundamental prind 
of humanity is mutual assistance. 

As man is an animal, in systematic biology he may be 
with other animals as determined by morphologic charactei 
He has a head, body, and limbs ; he has organs which perfoi 
functions of biotic life ; and when we consider man in this 
the study is a i)art of biology. Man is more than animal by 
of his activities ; man is man by reason of his humanities ; 
when we study him in this aspect the subject is anthropology. 

Henceforward human evolution differs radically from biotic 
lution as exhibited among plants and animals. Animal evoh 
has been accomplished by the survival of the fittest in the sti 
for existence. By this method animals Vere adapted to em 
ment, and in the course of this adaptation they differentiated il 
multitude of species, genera, families, and orders. Animal 
tion, then, has these three characteristics: first, the agency of 
tion was the survival of the fittest in the struggle for exi 
brought about by over-population ; second, the fittest that sui 
were adapted to environment ; and third, progress resulted 
measurable variety, carried to the utmost degree. In all of 
characteristics human evolution differs radically from animal 

First, man has not progressed by the survival of the fittest 
struggle for existence. Man does not, to any important 
compete with plants and the lower animals, but he utilizes 
developing such as he will in directions that best subserve his 
ests, and gradually destroying others from the face of the 
Nor does man progress by reason of competition within the 
When the hi<^h\vayman and the traveler meet, the robber 
always killed ; and when races battle with each other, the si 
and the best go-to die. In the course of human history, in 
localities and at a few times population has been overcrowds 
in the grand aggregate the world has never been fully people 
man has not crowded upon man for existence. 

While man has not progressed by the struggle for 


has pro^jfressed by his endeavor to secure happiness ; and in this en- 
deavor he has invented arts, institutions, languages, opinions, and 
methods of reasoning — that is, he has progressed by the development 
of five great classes of human activities. In the establishment of 
these activities, he transfers the struggle for existence from himself 
to his activities, from the subject, man, to the objects which he 
creates. Arts compete with one another, and progress in art is by 
the survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence. In like 
manner, institutions compete with institutions, languages with lan- 
guages, opinions with opinions, and reasoning with reasoning; and 
in each case we have the survival of the fittest in the struggle for 
existence. Man by his invention has transferred the brutal strug- 
gle for existence from himself to the works of his hand. 

.\gain, man has not been adapted to environment. There is no 
aquatic variety of man, no aerial variety, no tropical variety, no 
horcal variety, no herbivorous or carnivorous variety. On the other 
hand, man has adapted the environment to himself — that is, he has 
created for himself an artificial environment by means of his arts. 
He can sail upon the sea and live on the products of the sea, and 
hsmilizes the denizens of the air and the plants and animals of the 
land. He protects himself from great heat and great cold and in 
a multitude of wavs creates an artificial environment. And this he 
has done to such an extent that were he suddenly to lose his control 
over the environment gained through his arts, he would speedily 
F<riih from the earth. 

Again, among the lower plants and animals the course of adap- 
tation to environment led [)rogressively to the differentiation of 
^^■ies, until a multiplicity of biotic forms covered the earth. The 
method qf human evolution by endeavor to secure happiness through 
human activities, which resulted in the creation of an artificial en- 
^"ironment, checked the tendency of the animal man to differentiate 
J^to distinct sprcies, and the interdependence and solidarity that 
*ere e>tablished through these activities tend more and more to 
^ore the units of mankind to pristine homogeneity. This is 
^'omplished biotically by a constant interfusion of streams of 
Mood, as men are commingled and intermarried throughout the 
*orld. When races of higher culture spread civilization over infe- 
^ races, the admixture goes on at an increased rate. The blood 
^ the American Indian is to a large extent mixed with the blood 
: ^ the European, and especially is this true where Latin peoples 



have established themselves. The African tribes transplanted i 
America are rapidly bleached by the synthetic chemistry of sog| 
life. When three generations more have passed, it may not j 
possible to find a drop of pure Indian or negro blood on this 
tinent. Civilization overwhelms Sai-agery, not so much by q>i] 
blood as by mixing blood, but whether spilled or mixed, a 
homogeneity is secured. J 

This return to homogeneity is accomplished by the spread of « 
from their centers of invention to the circumference of their on 
ities. As an art is expressed in material form, it is an object-kfl^ 
readily learned. It may be that the tongue of the inventor can I 
understood by no people but those of his own tribe, but his hand! 
work needs no interpreter ; and so arts are spread from land i 
land, and those who engage in common arts are trained by hoof 
geneous methods. 

This return to homogeneity is accomplished by the spread i 
institutions from tribe to tribe and from nation to nation, for waw 
of conquest have rolled again and again over all lands, and wkH 
civilization is reached institutions and institutional devices are XM 
planted, for civilized men are ever engaged in comparison and et 
striving to select the best. 

This tendency to homogeneity is accomplished by linguistic CM 
munication, for with the progress of culture men come to spe 
more and more in synonyms, and dominant languages are spat 
far beyond the boundaries of their native lands; and thus there il 
tendency to homogeneity of tongue. 

This return to homogeneity is accomplished by the spread of op 
ions, for the opinions that influence the highest of the race coi 
ultimately to influence all ; and scientific philosophy is rapic 
spreading to the uttermost parts of the earth. 

And finally this homogeneity is accomplished by the spread 
the >ame methods of reasoning, the same psychic operations. Ho 
ologic methods of reasoning, by which the truth is reached, ; 
steadily replacing analogic methods, by which myths only are 
vented ; and as gradually the same facts are brought to the light 
all mankind, and the same processes of reasoning are pursued, n 
arc gradually becoming occupied in the same mental activities. 

Thus it is that if we consider man biologically, or man in reiat 
to his activities, expressed in arts, institutions, languages, opiiii^ 
and reasoning, we discover that the tendency to the differea 


of species has been checked, and that a tendency to homogeneity 
Itts been established. 

To recapitulate : Human evolution has none of the characteristics 
of animal evolution. It is not '* by the survival of the fittest '* in the 
ttniggle for existence, but it is by human endeavor to secure happi- 
oes; and in this endeavor man has transferred the struggle for 
existence from himself to the works of his hand and mind. It is 
not by adaptation to environment, but by the creation of an artifi- 
cial environment. It does not secure differentiation into varieties 
and species, but establishes a tendency toward homogeneity. 

By the division of labor meh have become interdependent, so that 
erery man works for some other man. To the extent that culture 
has progressed beyond the plane occupied by the brute,* man has 
ceased to worked directly for himself and come to work directly for 
others and indirectly for himself. He struggles directly to benefit 
otheR, that he may indirectly but ultimately benefit himself. This 
pnnciple of political economy is so thoroughly established that it 
Meds no explication here ; but it must be fully appreciated before 
It can thoroughly understand the vast extent to which interdepend- 
oice has been established. For the glasses which I wear, mines 
wcrcworked in California, and railroads constructed across the con- 
tinent to transport the product of those mines to the manufactories 
in the East. For the bits of steel on the bow, mines were worked 
^ Michigan, smelting works were erected in Chicago, manufac- 
tories built in New Jersey, and railroads constructed to transport 
iHe material from one point to the other. Merchant-houses and 
^king-houses were rendered necessary. Many men were employed 
'n producing and bringing that little instrument to me. As I sit in 
^J library to read a book, I open the pages with a paper-cutter, 
^^ivor)- of which was obtained through the employment of a tribe 
^^ African elephant-hunters. The paper on which my book is 
pnnted was made of the rags saved by the beggars of Italy. A 
*3tchman stands on guard in Hoosac Tunnel that I may some time 
"de through it in safety. If all the men who have worked for me, 
^i^tly and indirectly, for the past ten years, and who are now 
*^ttercd through the four quarters of the earth, were marshaled on 
^fe plain outside of the city, organized and equipped for war, I 
^d march to the proudest capital of the world and the armies of 
EBTope could not withstand me. I am the master of all the world. 
iMdoriog all my life I have worked for other men, and thus I am 


every man's servant; so are we all — servants to many masters 
masters of many servants. It is thus that men are gradually becofl 
ing organized into one vast body-politic, every one striving to 
his fellow man and all working for the common welfare. Thus 
enmity of man to man is appeased, and men live and labor for 
another; individualism is transmuted into socialism, egoism inlj 
altruism, and man is lifted above the brute to an iromeasui 
height. Man inherited the body, instincts, and passions of 
brute ; the nature thus inherited hxis survived in his constitution 
is exhibited along all the course of his history. Injustice, 
and cruelty stain the pathway of culture from the earliest to 
latest days. But man has not risen in culture by reason of his bi 
nature. His method of evolution has not been the same as that of 
lower animals ; the evolution of man has been through the evol 
of the humanities, the evolution of those things which distini 
him from the brute. The doctrines of evolution which biol 
have clearly shown to apply to animals do not apply to man. 
has evolved because he has been emancipated from the cruel la* 

The evolution of man is the evolution of the humanities, 
which he has become the master of the powers of the universe, 
which he has made life beautiful with aesthetic art, by which he 
established justice, by which he has invented means of com 
cation, so that mind speaks to mind even across the seas; by 
his philosophy is the truth of the universe. Man is man because 
the humanities. 



^Monnent of homes ^y savAges ^.... 20 

^^ CL (X, elected a corresponding 

■rabtr. 60 

^UorjgiMt Protection Society 91 

*«dd(at In InTention 160, 107 

i^nut C. y^ Election of, to membership. 141 
i<iiBi^ Henry B., elected a corresponding 

nember. 60 

AMtidsPenlnsola. 101 

idlsi _ 100 

Umfatlty Inlet 06 

fixture of races.. 193 

Mruee towards clTilixation marked by 

ttsfis in mechanic arts 102 

^^Htie ta6te mi* a sociologlc force 62 

^^ 96 

J^BPBiilL 96 

AlBtkdgHi, Leke 96 

^inHars began in savagery 186 

^Mivmiau. 96 

Ikoiairmiot 96 

Akodairn 96 

^'^wiaic inotlveti explained 37 

^■wdfnent to the Constitution 21 

*"*«1cio aborigines, Circular architect- 
ore of 137 

AatUetn tad fetiches. Adoption of. 142 

*wUptij<t8 83 

*fi>huic Pott«ry from 72. 74 

^^•wtlling 102 

**«»tor vorship 190 

***f80Q, Joseph, elected a correspond* 

^ member.. 61 

^^'f'*' earrings of mound-builders 8 

'^♦Volation, Characteristics of 192 

^■*^ic r^. bioiic evolution 68 

-tropology, Divisions of. in National 

^Qi^in 39 

^»PncUc»i utility of 93 

***^«>pt»oetric committee of the British 

A>«citiion. Report of the 67 

*«tJqaiiW from Veodome.Senlis.and the 

<^'tte-Irwellings of France 67 

^^HOityof moonds 18, 19 

ffteh^ Ceremonies of the 145 

-.I^twing ol....«^ 146 

-. tiiHr fymbols of cardinal points. 147 

ippetitcf as social forces 60 

Artlcration, 8abstitution of, for war 6G 

Archaeological collections of Bureau of 

Ethnology 42 

Arithmetic acquired in barbarism 190 

Artificial environment of man 193 

— kinship in the tribal state 178 

— parentage among the Zuf\is 137 

Arts. Competition of 3ft 

— , Independent progress of. 16^1^ 

— of savagery 176 

AssiniboiiJR 65- 

Auditing committee appointed US 

Aurora, how regarded by the Eskimo 1U7, 108 

Authority of husband and father dovel- 

oped 187 

Aztecs, Pottery of the 72 

Babcock, \Vm. H., Election of, to member- 
ship 95 

— . Remarks by 166 

Back River 96 

Baffin Land, The Eskimo of. 95-102 

Baird, Spencer F., complimented by Dr. 

Tylor 92 

Baker, Frank, Charts prepared by, to ilhis- 

trate classification of social forces 64 

— , Remarks by 115, 130, 132 

Bancroft, H. H., elected a corresponding 

member 61 

Bandelier, Ad. F., elected a corrt-sponding 

member *l 

Barbaric origin of relations of employer 

and employed, master and slave 188 

Barbari.Mm defined 28 

Barclay. Robert, on the origin of the 

Quakers* 83 

Bates, Herbert H., Election of, to member- 
ship 22 

—, Papers road by 51,116 

Bearded Seal 103 

Bengal, Census of 9 

Bessel.s Emil, Arctic researches of. 102 

Bigolow, Horatio R., Election of, to mem- 
bership ft 

Bigelow, Otis, Remarks by fitt 

Biotic vs. anthropic evolntiou 68 

Black, Geo. F., Gifts from 108 

— elected a corresponding member lift 

Blodgett, James A., Paper read by 9 

— , Remarks by 12, 14, 138 





Boas, Franz, Paper read by 95, 102 

Bonaparte, Prince Roland, elected a corre- 
sponding member Hd 

— , Gift from G7 

Boothia Felix 101 

Boulder- worship 143 

Brayarrces .• 06 

Brinton, Daniel G., elected a corrcsijond- 

ing member 61 

—.Gifts from 22 

—, Paper by IIG 

Bull roarer, Analogue of the, among sav- 
age tril>e*i 87 

Bureau of Ethuolog>', Researches and col- 
lections of 8, 24, 42 

, importance of its work 1)2 

Burnett, Swan M., Paper read by C7 

Burnt clay in mounds 14 

California Indians, houses of 10 

Camp Verde, Arizona, Yuma ceremonies at 14:j 

Cape r>icr W 

— Isabella lo2 

— Kater HV2 

— Mercey i?7 

— Mickleshiun !>7 

— Wolstenholme 90 

Carl, Anton, KIrction of, to moni)>orship.... 22 

Carr, Lueien, quoted 2, 7, IJ, 24 

— elected !i ooire^pondin;; nifnibor 51 

('R'ste in India and elsewhere 0-V.i 

Ca-at.H of niMnndbnildor!«' textile^ 

Catlin iM.rtraits 44 

Cave-dwclk-r", Rt'lation of the Kokimo to., loo 
Ca\e-dwollinj:H df Franco, .\titiquitie«* 

froni th«» 07 

Ci'n»*U!* of lU>n(;al 

Corami*' urt, « >r:ain anti dovolopment r.f 

form ami ornuuK'nt in 112-114 vaso Irom M«.'Xioi', Figure 

of a. 

Corom«»nio' ot' th«* M«H|ui>i Ml 

N:iv«i<i^ i;i'.» 

rt».*oanii .*^ljoK|i..n«"« HI 

— , Wiilo-pronil -iniilarity of n*. ; 

<"hann»» fiotn fnati<' to .I'tCnatir do<«*ont !>*•< I 

t'hantn-. I>nf««t. <iirt> from '*-i 

I'narnay, I»i'.ir<\ exploration^ of |o 

t'lioroU'i'-, nj'iund bnildor* 24, 11». 

— , Anoi«-nt h.«nio of. 2.'> 

<'hr>terlio.<l InKt j«'. 

Childinai rirtj:o«> in lioniial 1' 

Chinsi, Stati'-nnry oivili/ation of i:U 

Chiricaiiiia A| a« !«•■ sun tip !«■ 

Ch«M'ia\v> .1- ini'iiwl J'tnii|»'r< 

Cht>lula, r-'ttiMV found inil-odl.-.i in the 

pynuniil oi" 

Christian Indian^* pnictiv»o heathen rites... 





Christy, Henry ..h 

Chulpa, igloo and estufa compArt^ 
Circular architecture among ancMJJ 

vians ^ 

of American al>origineft ^ 

— rooms In Ancient Pueblos ^ 

Civilization, Elements of modenvi 

— intenial 

Clan relations^ 

Cla.<*sifloation in museums. 
Clothing, The desire for, a social 
Cohabitation and chlld-roi 
Collett, Jolin, Election of, to mei 
Colored race in the United Stat«i^1 

rative frequency of certain 

eases of the 

Columbian University, Meeting! 

Society to »»e held at the. 
Communism a primitivt* institati 
Companionship, Ivsire for, the 

stinct proper ., 

Competition in human society.... 

— for happiness 

— of arts 

in.>«titutions and opinions... 

Conant, A. J., elected a coi 


Con.'xciousuess as a source of km 
Conscrvatij-m in America.— 
Conv«'ntional character not pei 

the savage 

Coordinations of natural forces] 

kingdom^ of nature -^ 

Copi>er jv« a preservative of moui 

— plate in mounds 

Corbusier, W. H., Account of Yi 

monies bv 

Corresponding meml>ers, Electk 
Coumil Hou^jc, remain<* in moui 
Cousin, Victor, on the sen.<«e of ji 
Cn-ok> as mound builders. 

— , IIouM's of the 

Cross -ymbol amont: A|¥kches.... 


Culture stavres. Various schemes i 
Cumberland .Sound, Inhabitants 
Curator's rei>ort upon public 


Curiosities, Small hcientitic valu«i 
Cu>hinK, Frank H., Remarks by. 
f'utlory. Varieties of. 

I>all, \Vm. H., Remarks by 
I>avi«. .Strait, I>ivi«ion of the sh< 
I'awkins, \V. Boyd, on tlie rel 

Eskimo to the Cave-dwelto"*^ 
I»o Soto's expedition....^. 
l>ostruotioni*t theory of 





yBiy 102 

iDitiM in Dature*9 methods, 51 ; 
>latioD,51 ; in the domain of an« 

>}of3r, 52: not always ^neflcent. &3 

di»tiDgai>bed from inveotion... 151 

Mythical origin of 4 

rrr 57 

>D of knowledge and wealth, 

"•to the 127-129 

r labor 195 

:ioo of animals a step from Sav- 

oDarbarl>>m 185 

i^ Paper rea<l by 3,65 

» by ^ 4, 5, 141, 142 

titer 89 

i. Statical Sociology 64 

nentiation of primitive men 191 

■man U., Election of, to mem- 

) 22 

y ^ ^ 102 

in India 10 

_ lifZ 

rofflcers 21,118 

»f Modern Civilization 57 

Und- 102 


1. ii**<irtze .1., elected a corrps- 

ni*«rnUT » — 

t ii'>t to ^»t* cuifoinnlod v»iih re- 

i.t l:JO 

• ^-ar^-atn- 103 


>tlj« »•( th«' H»7 

Lin. I 05-Hn2 

HfU"*.**. •f th«' 1»M 

* i-thiuK ••f the 1K» 

»li'j*, po«'try, tal^!«,>ijid religion 


ilj-a arul iKl«»<', compare^i i;>8 

'•rrtui'-nal «si 

hu" < la.^^ifjo.ition eotnlomned.., 4S 

un«l- lu «ie«>rgia -3 

•, l'»*tulatesi in li:> 

ivipi.^c-l 14S 

•bj, < •«« foiiini In nioinul*. 21 

«'f th" AijJi^niity '>f Man <»n th«' 

lh«*<.iry<'f Mt-xioo M 

r^n-n* "f, re^iH-rtiu^ man .'51 

, apfly to n»ip<l and "'K-ioty .'i;j 

nmaiiiiie* 17:J 

r iHi 

Ijevil spirit- s:. 

■ Iii«trum»''ni'« r«*pla<'ing jwr- 

^organi-«m in mnn '-J 

tB, CompArative frequency <! 

» fa tlie white and colored 

Igfai «f the r.i 


Farquharson, R. J., Death of, announced... 118 

Feeling vs. Function as sociologic factors . 64 

Feudal system, Ca*t iron polity of the 131 

Fisher, Wm. J., Collections of, for National 

Museum 43, 44 

Fison, Lorimey^ quoted 102 

Flattening in skulls 57 

Fletcher, Rihert, Remarks by 13, 67 

Flint, Weston , Ifemarks by 60 

Flourdust explosion in Minneapolis 1C5 

Food collection in the National Museum... 41 
Foote, J. Howard, musical instruments in 

the National Museum 44 

Forces of society 64 

, Classification of the 64 

Frobii-her Bay, Inhabitants of. 96 

From Savagery to Barbarifm 173 

Function I'A. Feeling as S' ciologlc factors.. 04 

Fury Strait 96 

Gallftudet, E. M., Paper read by 05 

Gatschet, A. S., Letter from C 

— , Remarks by 144 

Genetfij* of inventions 147, H>3 

Gentes of 0.«age«, their relation to the se- 
cret society 3 

Gifts reported »»y the Curator 1, 22, rj 

Gi^liull, Knrico, elected a ('orrcpondinK 

inetnUer ■'><l 

Gil«ler-l«'evo, Hft».il, elected a correvpon.j- 

ItJK mcniltcr •'»1 

Gla>gow, Classes <>i" society in i:J8 

Gore, I. H., Remarks hy 2 

(foiild, K. H. L., Klectionof, to mernhersliip \:V7 

Gf)vernmental seientitic work in Atneiica. U2 

(irainbinder, Invention of the K',.') 

(irave Creek mound 11<» 

(iravcs in West Virginia 1 

(ircffory, J. M., Klection of, to member- 
ship 22 

— , Paper read by r)7, 118 

Habitation?" of the m<Mintlbnildcrs and 

modern Indian* 15 

Hafted celt, Origin of the 110 

Haida carvinK*, etc 40 

Hair, Supcr»-tition about giving away a 

lock of 85 

Hale, Horutjo, electcfl a corresponding 

mem her 51 

— on moiin<l-hnilders 110 

Hall, G. Staidey. electe«l a corresponding 

meriiher 51 

Hamp-hiM' Connty, W. Va., Monn-ls and 

griive- in 1 

Happine-", Com|^tiii<^>n for 'iO 

Harbor Seal U»3 

Harpoon^ of tlie Kskimo 10<j 




Hart, Amos W., Election of, to membership G 

— , Remarks by 130, 107 

Hartt's theory of ornament 114 

Haslibach, the Martyr, Hymn commemo- 
rative of. 83 

Hatch, L. J., Election of to memJ:>er8hip... 147 

Heber'a Travels In India, Quotation from.. 66 

Hecla Strait 96 

Henohaw. H. W., Paper by 142 

— quoted 8 

— ResearchcH of, on mound-pipes 8 

Hilder, H. H., elected a corresponding 

member fil 

Histriophoca fasciata. 103 

Holmes, W. H., Papers read by 7, 08, 112, 137 

— , Remarks by 26 

Home Bay 102 

Homogeneity, Tendency to, in human 

races 1{>4 

Houses of the Mound-Builders 13 

modem Indians 10 

Howitt, A. W., on ceremonies of the Kur- 

nai tribe 57 

— , Paper read by 95 

Human ev(»lution I 

Hunger as a social force GO 

Hut<>hoson, David, Resignation of, as 

Secretary 38 

Igloo, e9tn fa, and chulpa, compared 138 

Iglnlingmiut 90 

Ighimiut 9r», uo 

Iknlualuin 102 

India, Collections from, in National Mu- 
seum 41 

Indians, Number of, greatly overstated Viy 

early writers 19 

Industrialism as a discontinuity in nature. 52 

Institutions, Competi'ion of. 37 

— of savagery 170 

Intellect as a power in civilization 31 

Intellectual appetite 02 

Interdependence of mankind 195 

International ethics 05 

Interrelation of human activities 175 

Intrusive burial 57 

Invention an<i ciiscovery distinguished 151 

— by succession of increments IG7 

— , ditfereut senses in which the word is 

u.«*ed 148 

— generates wants 152 

— , Genesis of 147 

— , Place of accident in 150 

— procoeiis by specialization 153 

— , Survival of the fittest 37 

— . Synchronism of. KW, 

— , The genius of 103 

Inventory of man's possessions in the pro- 

tolithic age ICO 


Isochronous oscillation of pendalum, Dl 

covery of 

Isolation of imp(>rtant inventions 

Jemez. practice mystic rites in... ~ 

Ita- Eskimo 

Jenkins, Thornton A., Election of, to mem 

Johnson, J. Taber, Remarks by 

Jones, C. C, Elected a correspondiDg 
member ~.. 

Jones Sound ». 

Jus gentium 

Justice, Efforts made by savages U* attain. 

— , The sense of, as the foundation princi- 
ple of the state 


Kansas (Indianx) 


KauffVnan, S. H., Election of, to member 


Ream's catalogue of relics 

Kengla, L. A., Paper read by 

Kerr, M. D-, Election of, to membership... 
Kerr, W. C.^ elected a cerresponding mem 




King William's Land 

King's Cape 

Knox, John Jay, Election of, to member 



Kurnai tribe, Ceremonies of the 

Labor-saving devices, Industrial revola 
tion brought about by 

La FlC'che, Joseph 

Laissez faire philosophy condemned ..;.... 

useful against harmful adjust 

ments tn mental and social life 

Lamarckian doctrine expanded by Dar 

Lancaster Sound ~. 

Language of Barbarism 


Languages, Competitions of 

Leak in, George, elected a correspoadioi 

Legislation cannot controyert nataral law 

Lithography, Origin of 

Lorii lard Collection ~ 

Los Novillos, Antiquities from ^ 

Lost arts ^ 




if kaovledfe At a sociologic force... 62 

*Priii|tiiiocioIogio force 61 

-io extension of selMore 61 

r. t*. L, ilwkaa eolleotlon 40 

«ii ot _ 43 

• V J, Election of, to rnem^ienihip.. 21 

««.i.J^ Collections of 40, 43 

»to<iaoted U 

oriJl*. Mound* at 17 

iafftoMOf Apachefl 145 

(irHeoiy.oQ patriarchy 28 

l^len. 1(»2 

Oirriclu Remarks by 141, 142. 143 

itM profre«8 by his endeavor to 

« tttpptnasfi 193 

iMfryof natare a result of the pofl- 

►noi tool* 15U 

t. Count and Baron de, Antiqui- 

»m by 07 

ifivtitation*. Origin of 61 

•nrl. Death of, annoancod 118 

!• T., Remark* by. 2, 3. .% 7, 8. 13, 14, 17 

29, 50, 55, 16,% 106, 114, 137 

lec Indians 1 

rofres*, how distinguished from 

projrre** 124 

le«il''A i»ectli>ii in the Nfitiunal 

m 41 

Wvhinnton, Paper>« l»y 130, 171 

k'ign from Moxiro, Fimiro of a 78 

^jcn-tif* 4 

- \42 

>, •>ngin an«i ruHtornn «>f the.... k'J 

• j<i«*n''e«» of th»' antiquity «»f man 

•:t»* "f the <-ity «>f r>H 

fr-m the rity of 71 

■ "f the Sioiiftn tri>>e.«» Cm 

•f-'tnl fa<'tor 31 

« f.vtor in bii»logy :{l 

• •n«.f :\2 

.' »»»*l«. of 32 

\ "tiir and Cosmos, Kleclion of, 

r.»«»'r«hlp 'j!} 

V%l-^r read \>y 137 

I*. Flniir diift ex|>Ior«ion in hVy 

If* r>.*> 


iMhur, quoted 138 

rtion* m Nation*! Museum 42 

I f-er^moriit'** of 141 

■Unrtic development comfiared 

aterial .^.3 

ly pro|cre*s contrasted 121 

■^ Cmiflicting view!* respect- 
i'>i !•»•» 

^^■HiA**«»**« • •••••••••■•••••■••••■•••••■•■•■••■A^lf m mmm0 

I *2'» 1 '>^ 

character of. 12;) 

Moral progress, All, due to the progress of 

intelligence 120 

, The two kinds of lar, 

Morality, Diverse standards of. 132 

— Relation of, to food supply 133 

Morals, difficulty in estimating those of 

other ages and lands 132, 133 

Morgan's scheme of culture stages 174 

5Iorse, E. S., elected a corresponding 

member 51 

Mosely, Professor H. N 94 

Mound Builders, Antiquity of. ig 

, CherokecM were 24 

. Houses of. 13 

, On the probable nationality of the.... 116 

, proof that ihey were Indians 7, 15, 18, 24 


, status of culture of. 7, is 

.Textiles of. 

— building tril>es no, 118 

Mounds in West Virginia I-3 

~, High antiquity of some 18 

— , Vftst numl)ersof m 

Murdoch, John, Flection of, to member- 
ship los 

— , Papers read by 102, 168 

Muskoki, Houses and villsge* of. 17 

Mytholr»gic«l Pry I'alntlng of the Navajos. 130 

— pwinting of the Zunis 143 

Myths (.f the Eskimo 107 

NailaillHC, Manjuin de, (»ii antl<juity of the 

mounds 27 

Na'chez aM mound buJIdefH nr, 

Naiioiml Museum, .\uthrop<^>|ogi(.-al col|«>o- 

tions ill the .'js 

mc'thods of administrHtion 3,3 

classification and orKanization 4<» 

Natural selection a** applied to min<l 32 

Naullgu KKi 

Navajos, Houses of n; 

— , Mythological dry pnitltiu^ f f l.3;i 

N<'ophytes in Indian Me<licitje 4 

Netchiilik 102 

Net<-hillirmiut lol 

NettilliuK Fiord '.n\ 07 

N.-tyl lai 

NiMack, AIJ)ert, I'aper read l)y 3.> 

NfK.iM allot In I<K» 

Nillson, Sven, I'eath of, announced <• 

Notnad**, American lixlians, n«^tt 27 

Norri-, P. W., r>cath <»f, announce*! 141 

North American Iiulians not nomads 2m 

North Devon I02 

Norton Sound, Seal tishing in lo«'. 

Nugumiut o*'. 

Numbers perceived by '^avagex to a limited 

degree 183 

Xumb*r» MyMlc 

NunlvBk pcn[>le,Sp«aruiied hylhp 

i.H.»ldlftn ItiiltOH of Ihe AiIbo 

<lffloer» elecU'dfor U*S 


Old wtadereaorata M oiir viae 

llJ-hahlimedneu In AmMica. 

i.)m«1i(i ndUos 

— Imllilun of fKcrail pipe;' 

Iini«irp«c, Anili|iiitl(M from 

i>,.^nillve|ju>l9.irdl«idl ghmniu> MClMy 



-(.f miuikiiu] „ Ill 

Urlcnlntion In Ixillillni; mid In prsyvi 

iirnBmsnl, lUrtl'mliiKiryiif 


ii-sm-Mi'nfl Kooiely 

I-adM !"■ 

IMInllnn, Mythi-lnRlt-Al. ..f ilie Ziinl.. 

I-nrmtai^. Anitli-litl. nmimic Itw ZiiItN 

I'nivniBl .l0"ir» » m «H-tal tinv* 

I>airiiin'liy In linrlmrii' wwlely 

IVIly Hsi- 

IViin-ylrnnla. ' 'Id fii-hi.'n. d pmlu.-U of. 


la Ijiki'. M.MI 

Porter. John AddlMD, tlraltouoT,! 


Poilery ttom Mexico, Flniirca of_. 

Powell, J. W., ADimul luldreue* « 

— , Kemiirka by .a, J, 4, S, I'l, X\ 


c ShavDooff, rrom moi 

i'f]iiiitlvr>i\fl>.,peiclM«u» ul . 

— liivi,4>ir.'yt<ifl(iMp:WM*«)iiin ofi 

ProlilemH of Amerloin Anthra 
prnifnff, Htiral »nil maletUI, 


iilliire linag ilip *iun« 

-irf msakindby aweihiiddJ 


IV>indl)l,!l. WeW-iiOnKr.iK Am 

— , Rrmnrk^ liy ....,,....„..,. _,^ 

INyplil-'MiiiltleoiD ••rl-orivm— 

- ..iv™.i,io*,.r MTIfflvy. „ 

I',-^- Ii ..f rlmiilw rttnm- 

-.■( -maei'sy.. . 

ll..Vi f.i-.i-i.v , ... 

i 1.. KiNifoaflCtf 



TelofMDcnt of thi^. ..M 


C^ Pftper read by 

p** •••••• 

••••• ••■••• 

pipcf, Omaha tradition of... 

Miio, N. N^ Indian drawings at 

IB, Pjrramid of 

« lababitants of. 


ry. Arts of. 



Qr ■frteoltarB of 

wMiplijr of ...... ...^. 

dik operatlonii of 

•rfaariiai. From 

ifc mearch condact«d by the Am- 

CM Goiraramant. 

tg «ood« tJrigin of. 

Bci—t nt from Mexico. Figure of a. 
», Samoal H., on dLicoTeries in the 


ilehiag at Point Barrow 

Hm, I'm of, by the Eskimon 

ittated by the Eskimos of Point Bar- 

inritty of the Oxagei< and other 


F. A , Pap«>r reail by 

tituk* hy ♦!, 

«tina of male rneml>erK of a tribe 

-^^b Inrigational Agriculture 

it-rr^t A>« a «oriologic force 

^ an a •ocial force 

inti')uiti4*« from 

li'wj rf » tribe hy «'lAn«, Kei«ult.<* of.. 

*f<f<rtit«* a«> a Miriol'^ic force 

IT*. Origin of th#« 

— name 

♦"Ct of th^ 

a-'viuic* on. in mounds 

, The «lej<ire for, a >KX?ial force 





|rla'*« in (ilaMgow 

tri(^)«^. Migrations of the. 

■eaiftcaiion of the 

Flattening of 

collections for 1S83. 

Election of. to member- 

CiMMiAeation of the. 



























20, 57 

























Sonthampton Island 101 

Spanish glaze 

Spencer, Herbert, on the conditions to 

moral progress 121, 122 

— , Opinion of, on tribal society 28 

~ quoted 32, 68 

Statical and dynamic methods in sociol- 
ogy 04 

Stejneger. L. M., Collections of, from Beh- 

ring Island... 43 

Stevenson, James, Paper read by.. 143 

— ,and Mrs., work of, among the Pueblos.... 93 

Stone carvings in the mounds 18 

^ graves in West Virginia and the Missis- 
sippi Valley 1-1 

— hatchet, the culmination for the time 

of art 155 

Study of invention. Postulates in the 149 

Survival of the fittest does not obtain in 

human evolution 192 

m human society 35 

— , The term, becoming popularly under- 
stood 94 

Swan, JarQes 0., Explorations of. 45 

Synchronism of inventions 106 

Synonomy of tribes of North America 05 

Taenfao ns mound-builders 

Tagoro, Surlndro Mohun. Rajah, Donation 

of musical instrument.s by 

TamenentH Indian in West Virginia 


Temporary home of >»avaKoj« 

Ten Kate, Hormann, fleeted a correnpond 

ing member 

Teotihuacan, Pyramid of 

Tessiujang Fioni 

Texcoringo, Pottory from 

Texc<xjo, Pyramid t)f 

Textile fabricx of mound-builder.'* 

— section in National Museum 

Thirst as a social force 

Thomas, Cyrus Papers read by l;j, i,M, 

— quoted 

— , RemarkH by IH, AI, M, '>7, 117, 

Thompson, A. Harry, Ele<'tion of to mem- 

Thompson, Alton H., Paper read by 

Thompson, (iilberl. Remarks by 


Tools, Invention of 

Tradition, Cherokee, respecting tribal 


Travelers, Degree of confidence to be 

placed in the statement.** of 

Tribal conduct relating to mythical l^ing<* 

— laws regarding marriage 


personal authority 

























TriVml Iawa to preTent ao'l end cuntroTersy 179 

— [M.'oplef, hcrrl.«mcn and nomads. 186 

— priority^ 25 

— state, Natiiro of the 177 

— HtatCH, <^)r^nlzation of 10 

Trlp'xl dinheM from Mexico (figured) 76, 77 

Tndjan 102 

Tiidnlkjiink &8 

Tiidniimirmiiit..^ 96 

Tudniiniro^^irmiiit 96 

Tunnlt 98 

Tfi p^k 103 

Turner, I^ii'-fen M., Collection of, Irom 

rnKAva Bay 44 

— , KIcction of, to memt^entliip los 

~, Kenearcheri of, in Ungava 101 

TuteloM 65 

TwoCrow-H 143 

Tylor, E. B., Addre.MH of 81 

— , liiH flchcmo of culture stagCH usf 

I'^gru 103 

rkUHiknalingmlut 101 

l.'mingmamnuna 102 

Unearned increnMe of land, John Stuart 
MIII'm proposition to prevent, by taxa- 
tion 135 

1 'Ugavu, Tjiruer'j* n'Hcarehos in 101 

Unity of tho human race, Kvidence of an- 
thropology ufHtn 101 

Vondome, t'ollootion of antitiuitioi* from.., 67 

Vii'o-prosidont.H' sectiouM n>>Higii(>d 31 

Vuloanization of India rubber, Origin of... lol 

Wagor River 102 

Wunkol, I»r. Ilrinrifh, (iift.s fnwn 23 

Wnnt** gonoratod by Invention'* \W1 

— , Vital, us h.h'ihI fon-v.** 60, 61 

Wartl, L»'-lor F., Pjun'r"* n-ad by rn, 120 

— , Mind dothuil by i:j2 

— , Kemark." by .m, \i, rd, 1»», 130 

Ward, Lester F- his acheme of t 
•tages ^.~«^ 

Wai-fare the ezprefsion of paUie i 
Tate competition ^ ^.^ 

— the enemy of progreas ..« 

Warren, Charles, EIecti<m of, to wk 

ship ^ » .^ 

Waste of competition.. ^ 

Water impassable to spirita. ....^ 

— supply of arid regions ^^ 

Wealth, Possibility of greatly tai 

production of 

Welling, J. C, Remarks by. 
West Virginia, Mounds and iirai 
White goose. Mystic use of down ' 
Whittlesey, Charles, elected a 

ing member 

Wilson, Daniel, elected a cori 


WilbOD, Thomas, Letter from, <m \ 


— , Election of, to membendiip.... 

Winnebagos. , 

Women in Osage secret society... 
Wood- working by abrasion, 

chanical process 

Worship of animal gods charmol 

savage philosophy. 


Wright, Harrison, Death of, annt 

Yarnall, J. H., Election of, to 
ship , 

Yucatan, Work fk^m mounds 
those of 

Yuma ceremonies. 

Zootheism chaimcteristio of i 


— , High form of, in barbarism.... 
ZuAi collections in National Mi 
Zuilis, Artificial age and parent 
— , Mythological painting of th«. 















M feUowiog ''Index to the Literature of Golumbium" has been pub- 
d spoo the recommendation of the Committee on Indexing Chemical 
istare, of the American AflBOciation for the Advancement of Science. 
■ original draft the word ** niobium " was used in place of " columbium ; " 
■uggeation from members of the Committee the author consented 
It is well known that the name columbium, originally given 
Hatcbettf has clear priority ; while ** niobium/' and its supposed twin 
Ic^om/' grew out of errors made by Rose. Although in European 
Kins the name " niobium " has generally been adopted, no good reason 
the substitution has ever been offered, and all the accepted rules of 
enclmtare demand the retention of columbium. This note has been 
ten at the request of Professor Traphagen. 

F. W. Clarke. 








Discovery of element.. 



Lkon n ARD and Vo- 



H- Bosk 

: H. Bosk 

H. BortB 


H- Bo«i — 

H. Rose 

Identity of columbium 
and tantalum. 


Identity of columbium 

and tantalum. 
Properties of oxide 



Researches on com- 
pounds and miner- 


Acids in columbite 

EtTect of temperature 
on specific weight. 

Niobic and pelopic 
acids in Wohlerite. 

Ilmenic, niobic, and 
pelopic acids. 

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1802, 

xoii, 49. 
Chem. J., Orell, 1802, i, 197, 

267, 862. 
Ann. der Phys., Gren, x, 600: 

XI, 120. 
Nicholson's J., Jan., 1802, 82. 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 1809, 

xoix, 246. 
J. fiir Chem., Schweigger, i, 620. 
Ann. der Phys., Gren, XLii, 60. 
Ann. der Phys., Gren, xxxyii, 

Konigl. Acad, der Wiss., 1817. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., xlyiii, 

J. fur Chem., Schweigger, xxi, 

Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1844. 
J. prakt. Chem., xxxiv, 86. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., LXiii, 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., LXix, 

Berzelius' Jsb., 1846, xxy, 168. 

J. prakt. Chem., xxxyiii, 91. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., 1847, 4. 
J. prakt. Chem., xli, 219. 
J. prakt. Chem., XLiii, 254. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., Lxxii, 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1208. 
Mineralog. Forsch., Ken n., 1849, 

J. prakt. Chem., xxxi, 94; XL, 

Berzelius* Jsb., xxy, 876. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, lxi, 264. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1206. 











H. Rose .. 




H. Rose 

H. RosR 


H. Rose 


Hermann .. 



H. Ross 




Niobic and pelopic 

acids in tantalic acid. 

Niobic and pelopio 

acids in ouxenite 

and polycrase. 

Niobic, ilmenic, and 

pelopic acids. 

Niobic, ilmenic, and 
pelopic acids. 

Ilmenic acid in pyro- 
chlore and colum- 

Identity of ilmenium 
and niobium. 

Properties metal and 



Crystals of niobic acid. 

Researches, identifica* 
tion, and compounds 
chlorides, etc. 


J. praki. Cham., 
Jsb. Chem., U 
Ann. der Phys., 

ucxn, 266, 6( ~ 
Berseliui' Jsb., 


Jsb. Chem., 184a.l 
Jsb. Chem., 1848^^ 

J. prakt. Chei 

Ann. der PhTS^tl 

Ber. d. Chem. 
Rammels. Hi 

Jsb. Chem., 11 
J. praki. Chem., 

129 ; XLIT, 21^ 
Jsb. Chem., I848i|] 
Ann. der Phya., 

167; ucxiii, 4 
Pharm. CentrbLi 
Jsb. Chem., 11 
Ann. der Phya.. 

Ann. Chem., 

Pharm. CentrbL, 
Jsb. Chem., II 
Ann. der Phya.. 

Ann. Chem., 

Pharm. Centrbl.,] 
J. prakt. Chem., 
Arch. ph. nat., 
Jsb. Cnem., II 
J. prakt. Chei 

Jsb. Chem., II 
C. R., XXXII, 
Instit, 1861, 7d, 
Pharm. Centrbl 
Ann. chim. ph; 
J» prakt. Chem., 
Ann. Chem., 
Jsb. Chem., II 
Ann. der Phya., 
Ber., 1868, 604. j 
Ann. Chem.. 

J. pnJCL 


Name ^ «, 







Researches on ilme- 
nium, niobium, and 

Niobium, ilmenium. 


Separation of niobio 
and tantalio acids. 

Remarks on pelopic 


Niobic and niobous 
acids, metallic nio- 
bium, chloride, etc. 



Niobium sulphide. 


Chlorides and fluorides. 


Jsb. Chem., 1854, 8S8. 
J. prakt. Chem., lzy, 64. 

J. prakt Chem., lzyiii, 66. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1856, 788. 
Chem. Oaz., 1867, 10. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., xcix, 

619 ; 0, 840. 
J. prakt Chem., lzx, 120. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 661. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cin, 148. 
J. prakt Chem., Lxxiii, 877, 

Chem. Centrbl., 1868, 165. 
Jsb. Chem., 1868, 149. 
J. prakt Chem., LXXi, 897; 

LXXY, 62. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cm, 148. 

Ber., 1868, 888. 

J. pntkt Chem., LXXiT, 468, 461. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., git, 810. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1868, 698. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, orni, 280. 

Instit, 1868, 864. 

Ann. chim. phys. [8], lit, 426. 

Cimento, yiii, 275. 

Jsb. Chem., 1858, 161. 

Ber., 1868, 408. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxiy, 461. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1868, 681. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, cyiii, 282. 

Instit, 1868, 870. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., ciT, 482. 

Jsb. Chem., 1858, 158. 

Ber., 1868, 446. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxy, 69. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1858, 768. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, cyiii, 285. 

Instit, 1859, 6. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cy, 424. 

Ber., 1858, 448. 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxy, 71. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1858, 754. 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, cyiii, 284. 

Instit, 1859, 6. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., civ, 581. 

Ber., 1869, 549. 

J. prakt Chem., lxxyiii, 188. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1859, 849 ; 1860, 

Ann. chim. phys. [8], lyiii, 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cyiii, 

278, 466. 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 168. 
Ber., 1869, 12. 
J. prakt Chem., lxxyi, 245. 
















H. Bosk 

H. Bosk 

H. Boss 

Von Kobsll 

H. Rose 

H. R06B 

H. Bosk 

H. Rose 



Niobic acid, chloride, 
sulphide, nitrate. 


Dianium and dianio 


Niobous acid 




Nitrate ... 
Niobic acid 

Hkkmanx i Dianium... 

Von Kobell Dianium 


Cbem. Cenirbl., 1860^^ 
Ann. Oheim., Lieb^,^ 
Ann. chim. phjt. ^' 
InsUt, 1869, 227. 
Ann. der Phys., crtf 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 1~ 
Her., 1860. 480. 
J. praki. Chem., 
Chem. CentrbL, 1859^ 
Ann. derVhys.. F _ 
Jsb. Cbem., 1869, 1 
Ber., 1369 627. 
J. pimkt. Chem., 
Chem. Centrbl., 1 
Ann. der Phjs., B 
Bull. d. k. bayr. 

senich., II Claese, 

10; Mat., 1860. 
Ann. Chem., Liebif^, 
J. praki. Chem., 
VierielJahrKhr. pr. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1 
Ann. chim. i^yt. [S^ 
Rep. chim. pure., u^ 
Am. J. 8ci. [2], xi 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 1 
Ber. 1860, 281. 
J. prakt. Chem., 
Chem. Centrbl., 1 
Ann. der Phyi., P< 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 1 
Ber., 1860, 296. 
J. praki. Chem., 
Chem. Centrbl., 1 
Bep. chim. pure., i 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 1 
Ber., 1860, 710. 
J. praki. Chem., 
Chem. Centrbl., 186 
Bep. chim. pure., i 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, I 
Ann. derPhys.,P( 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 1 
Jsb. Chem., 1861, 1 
Ann. der Phys., 

J. prakt. Chem., 

Bep. chim. pare., 
Jsb. Cheni;^ 1861, 
J. prakt OlMm., 


Action of H F on 00 




Action of H F on co- 

Chlorides and acids 


Niobic acid in tin ore _ 

Aoidf and salts. Ilmo- 
nic acid. 

EkOBKLL Dianicacid 


LLK mnd 

Acids, formuIa> atomic 
woigbti ilmenium. 

Vapor density of chlo- 

, I Oxides 



Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 16. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciy, 121. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1864, 990. 
Zeit. Anal. Chem., iit, 899. 
Jsb. Chem., 1864, 686. 
Ofversightaf. Acad. Forh., 1864, 

XXI, 641. 
J. pralct. Chem., xcYii, 87. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxxxy, 

Zeitichr. Chem., 1865, 548. 
N. Arch. ph. nat, xxiii, 826. 
C. K., Lix, 852; LXI, 887. 
Instit., 1864, 282. 
C. 11., LXI, 1064. 
Instit., 1865, 895. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 747. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1866, 174. 
Phil. Mag. [41, xxxi. 142. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 197. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxiii, 167; 

XXV, 5. 
Ann. chim. phys. [4],. yiii, 5. 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1865,654; 1866. 

C. R., LX, 284, 1855. 
Instit., 1865, 220. 
Bull. 80C. chim. [2], in, 871; v, 

Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxxxy,49; 

cxxxvi, 295. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciY, 804. 
Phil Mag. [4], XXX, 445. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XLi, HI. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 209. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciY, 488; 

XCYI, 249. 
Ann. Chem., Liebig, cxxxyi, 

Jsb. Chem., 1865, 208. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcv, 65. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 659. 
Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., iv, 268. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 209. 
C. R., LYI, 891 ; LX, 1221. 
Instit., 1865, 185. 
Bull. soc. chim. [2], v, 119. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxiii, 222. 
Ann. Chem. , Liebig, ex vii, 274 ; 

CXXXYI, 249. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1865, 462. 
Jsb. Chem., 1865, 210. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., XXYII, 167. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1866, 717. 
J. prakt. Chem., c, 117. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 205. 





















Rammellsbero ... 







Flame reactions 

Estimation. Ilmeni- 
um, niobium. 

Constitution of com- 

Niobium, ilmenium 


Compounds, atomic 

Constitution of miner- 

Separation of niobium 
rrom ilmenium. 


J. prakt Chem., xoix, 21. 
N. Arch. ph. nat, xxyii, 87S. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 206. 
J. prakt. Chem., xoix, 80, 279, 

&7, 290. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 205. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1867, 124. 
Ann. Chim., Liebig, cxxxYiii, 

Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., r, 861. 
Phil. Mag. [4], xxxii, 81. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxyii, 26. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxix, 265. 
Ann. chim. phys. [4], xiii, 5. 
J. prakt. Chem., ci, 459: cii, 

Zeitschr. Chem., 1867, 721 ; 1868, 

Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., Tii, 106. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 210. 
Bull, de la soci^tis imp6riale dtt 

Moscow, 1867, 270. 
J. prakt. Chem., c, 885 ; cii, 899. 
ZeiUchr. Chem., 1867, 898. 
Bull. 8oc. chim. [2], viii, 171. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 209. 
C. R., LXVi, 180. 
Instit., 1868,42. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxxi, 89. 
Bull. Boc. chim. [2], ix, 465. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XLY, 898. 
J. prakt. Chem., ciy, 426. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1868, 117. 
Jsb. Chem., 1868, 212. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1868, 178. 
J. prakt Chem., cm, 128, 420; 

CY, 221. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1869, 811. 
Jsb. Chem, 1868, 216. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxxxYi, 

177-197, 862-872. 
J. prakt. Chem., cyii, 884; 

CYiii, 77. 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 288. 
J. prakt Chem., cyii, 189. 
Bull, de la aoc. imp. det Natu- 

ralistes de Moeoow, 1869, 141. 
Chem. News, xx, 119. 
Jahrb. Min., 1870, 629. 
Jsb. Chein^ 1869, 1280. 
J. prakt Ohem.^], u, 108. 
Zeitschr. Anal. Chem., x, 844. 
Jsb. Chem., 1870, 989. 
J. prakt Chem. [2], m, 878, 


427 ; lY, 178-21] 
Jsb. Chem., 1871,287. 

Bull. Soc Chim. r21. xri, 256. 




L.' Raiimkllsbero ... 

L.. Rammellsbkbo 





L.j Bovo 

L. Jolt 


.-J. L. Smith. 

J. L. Smith 

Hkrmanx .. 
J. L. Smith 





I>cnrATH and Mat- 




Composition natural 
niobates and sepa- 
ration of metallic 

Constitution of miner- 

Occurrence of minerals 
in granite. 

Salts, niobates of Mg 
Ca, Fe, Yt, Mn. 



Hydrate, fiuoniobates, 
niobates (K and Na), 
fluoniobates of Zn, 
Cd,Mn,Co, Ni,Cu, 
Pe, Hg. 
Acids, nitrides, and 




Researches, neptunium 
Researches, mosandri- 

Metal and chlorides... 

Action of hydrogen 

peroxide on oxides. 
Method for analysis 

Separation from galli- 

Atomic volume and 

Analysis of a niobate 

Microscopic analysis 

QpR&tltotiTe determi- 

Ber., 1871, 167, 198, 406, 684, 

Instit., 1872, 68, 802. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxliy, 

66, 191. 
J. Chem. Soc., xxr, 189. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1871, 611. 
Jsb. Chem., 1871, 1168. 
Ber., 1872, 17. 

Min. Mittheil., 1878, 224. 

Jahrb. Min., 1874, 806. 

C. R., Lxxxi, 266. 

J. Chem. Soc. (abs.), xxix, 46. 

Jsb. Chem., 1876, 222, 

C. R., LXXXI, 1266. 

J. Chem. Soc., xxix, 883. 

Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], xxiv, 268. 

J. Chem. Soc., xxix, 46. 

Ber., 1876, 864. 

Jsb. Chem., 1876, 280. 

C. R., Lxxxii, 1196. 

Bull. Soc. Chlm. [2], xv, 606. 

Jsb. Chem., 1876, 2i9. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxx, 277. 

Am. J. Sci. [8], XIII, 869; xiv, 

Ann. chim. phys. [6], xii, 255. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., I, 499. 
C. R., LXXXI V, 1086. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc., xxxii. 
Ann. Ch. phys. [6], xii, 263. 
Jsb. Chem., 1877, 288. 
J. prakt. Chem., [2], xv, 105. 
C. K., LXXXVII, 146. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc., xxxvi, 12. 
Chem. News, xxxvii, 26. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xxxvi, 1272. 
Jsb. Chem., 1878, 800. 
Ber., 1882, 2692. 
Jsb. Chem., 1882, 1292. 
Amer. Chem. J., v, 44, 73 
Chem. News, xlyiii, 18, 29. 
C. R., xcvi, 162; xcvii, 780. 
Chem. News, xlvii, 100. 
Jsb. Chem., 1883, 1674. 
Ber., 1888, 1688. 
Jsb. Chem., 1883, 26. 
Chem. News, xlvi, 206. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, xliv, 32. 
Ber., 1884, 182. 
Sitzungsber. hair Akad., xiii, 

Jsb. Chem., 1884, 1661. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], xxx, 829-337. 









Color reaction 

Action of carbon te- 
tmchloride upon ni- 
obic anhydride. 

Crystallization niobic 

C. R., cv, 1074. 




Ber., 1887, 24. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc., 1887, 804. 

C. R., CTY, 111. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc., 1887, 829. 
Zeitschr. Kryst. Min., xii, 610. 



















Thomson . 

H. Rose 













Columbite . 


Researches on miner- 

Researches on miner- 

Euxenite and poly- 

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., xcii,49. 

Chem. J., Crell, i, 197. 

Ann. der Phys., Gren., x, 500; 

XI, 120. 
Nicholson's J., Jan., 1802, 82. 
Magazine £ncyclop.,I>ec., 1805, 

Ann. der Phys., Gren., xxir, 

Ann. der Phys., Gren., xxxvii, 

Phil. Mag., I, 27. 
K. Vet. Acad. Handl., 1828, 167. 
Berzelius' Jsb., 1880, ix, 195. 
Ann. der Phys. , Pogg. , xvri, 488. 
Phil., Mag., X, 187. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., xxiii, 

Records of General Science, nr, 

J. prakt. Chem., xiii, 221. 
J. prakt. Chem., xxxi, 89. 
Berzelius' Jsb., xxv, 871. 
Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxix, 

Berzelius' Jsb., 1846, xxv, 158. 
J. prakt. Chem., xxxviii, 91. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., lxxii, 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1208. 
Mineralog. Forsch., Kenn, 1849, 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., l, 149; 

LXXII, 256, 568. 
Berzelius' Jsb., xxi, 179 ; xxn, 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1206. 






O. Boss .. 





and Daull 

Specific gravity and 
composition of 
Amencan colum- 

Compoeition of Sibe- 
rian columbite. 

Composition of colum- 
bite from Middle- 
town, Conn. 

Composition of colum- 
bite fh>m BaYaria. 



Samankite ^ 

YUroilmenite and la- 

Pyrochlore and colum- 

Aeschynite, columbite, 
polycrase, pyro- 
chlore, etc. 


Columbite and sam^r- 

Bragite, Fergusonite, 

and euxonite. 


Crystallization of co- 

Samankite and colum- 


Ann. der Pbys., Fogg., Lxx, 672. 
Ber. d. Cbem. Ges., 1847, 86. 
J. prakt Chem., xli, 219 ; xlii^ 

Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1207. 
C. R., XXV, 670. 
Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., Lxxi^ 

Ramm. Handw., 8d supp., 118. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1207. 
J. prakt. Chem., xliy, 207. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1207. 

Ann. des Minn. [4], xiu, 887 ; 

[4], xiY, 428. 
Jsb. r 

Chem., 1848, 1208. 
J. prakt. Chem., xxxYiii, 91, 

Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., xlyiii, 

Reise n. d. Ural, n, 72. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1209. 
Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., Lxxi, 

Ber. d. Chem. Ges., 1847, 141. 
Rammels. Handw., 8d supp., 

106, 129. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1209. 
J. prakt. Chem., XL, 476; XLii, 

129 ; XLIY, 216. 
Jsb. Chem., 1848, 1210. 
J. prakt. Chem., l, 164-172, 

Jsb. Chem., 1860, 748. 
Correspondenz-blatt des zoolog- 

isch-mineralogischen Vereins 

zu Regensburg, 1862, No. 8, 

J. prakt. Chem., 1868, lxyiii, 

Jahrb. Min., 1868, 867. 
Am. J. Sci. [21, XIY, 840. 
Fharm. Centrbl., 1868, 841. 
Nyt. Mag. fur Natunridensk, 

Viii, 8, 218. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 962. 
J. prakt. Chem., Lxvi, 444, 446. 
Fhil. Mag., 1866, 62. 
Fharm. Centrbl., 1866, 114. 
Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., XCYII, 

Ann. Min. [6J, yiii, 898. 

Misc. Chem. Researches, Disser- 
tation G^ttingen, 1869. 

Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., OLXXi, 
167; CLXXii, 469; CLXXiii, 








Hugo Mt^LLSB 









Crvstallization of co- 

Composition of colum- 

Minerals ^ 

Mineral ftom Ytterby . 





H. Rose 

Deyille and Da< 


Golumbite, samarskite, 
euxenite, Ferguson- 
ite, tyrite. 





H. Rose . 

Columbite, euxenite 

Columbite, samarskite. 


Columbite, samarskite. 


H. Rose 


Lettson.. ...... .- 



Specific gravity of aes- 

Columbite, samarskite, 

Fergusonite, tyrite. 

Crystalline form of co- 
Bragite, tyrite 


Berg- und Hfittenmmniflchen 

Zeitune, xyii. 
Am. J. &!i. [2], xxn, 849. 
Q. J. Chem. Boc., xi, 2i8. 

Oefversigt af. Ednlgl Vetonscap 

Akademiens ForhaadL, 1800, 

No. 1. 
Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., cxi, 278. 
J. prakt. Chem., lzxxi, 198. 
Jahrb. Min., 1861, 829. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1860, 969. 
Rep. cbim. pure., in, 181. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 778. 
Afhand. i Fisik, Kemi, och 

Miner., nr, 281. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 780. 
Ann. Min. [5], xyi, 229. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 780. 
Materialien zur Miner., Ruas- 

lands. III, 884. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 781. 
Ber., 1860, 296. 
J. prakt. Chem., Lxxxi, 212. 
Chem. Centrl., 1860, 788. 
Rep. chim. pure., in, 116. 
Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., cxii, 468, 

482, 649. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860, 146, 162. 
Instit., 1861, 162. 
Jsb. Chem., 1860. Note, page 

J. prakt. Chem., lxxxiii, 106, 

Rep. chim. pure., iy, 60. 
Jsb. Chem., 1861, 209. 
Wien. Akad. Ber., xliy, 2d 

Abth., 446. 
Jahrb. Min., 1862, 284. 
Ber., 1862, 188, 166. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1862, 262. 
J. prakt. Chem., lxxxy, 488. 
Rep. chim. pure., iy, 466. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], xxxY, 427. 
Jsb. chem., 1862, 768. 
Materialien zur Min. Buss., it, 

Ann. der Fhys., Fogg., CXYIII, 

889, 406, 497. 
Bull. Soc. Chim., y, 491. 
Jsb. Chem., 1868, 827. 
Fhil. Mag. [2], xxv, 41. 
Jahr. Min., 1868, 694. 
J. prakt. Chem., xo, 108. 
Jahrb. Min., 1864, 286. 
Oefversigt af. K. VetanacRpt 

Academien Yerh., 1868, 48l 




fouxysKioLD ... 

VKKirxm and Stk- 









Analysis of pvrochlore. 
Composition of samar- 

Action of hydrofluoric 

acid on columbite. 


Aeschynite, samar- 
skite, Fergusonite, 
pyrochlore, Wohler- 


Specific gravity of co- 

Analysis of columbite. 

Analysis of columbite 

and aeschynite. 
Analysis of euxenite .. 

Ilmenorutile, analysis. 

Analysis and specific 
gravity of aeschy- 
nite, euxenite. 



TUrotantalite, pyro- 
chlore, euxenite. 

FergutoBltey tyrit«, 


Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxxii, 

Jahrb. Min., 1866, 86. 
J. prakt. Chem., xoy, 119. 
Jsb. Chem., 1864, 856. 
Jsb. Chem., 1868, 881. 
Yerhandl. Min., St. Pet, 1868, 

Am. J. Sci. [2], xxxYii, 866. 
Chem. News, x, 87, 49. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1866, 16. 
J. prakt. Chem., xciy, 121. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1864, 990. 
Zeit. Anal. Chem., iii, 899. 
Jsb. Chem., 1864, 685. 
Oefversigt af. Akad. Fdrh., 1864, 

XXI, 641. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcvii, 46. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcr, 108, 108, 

128, 128. . 
Jahrb. Min., 1866, 89. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 898. 
N. Arch. ph. nat, xxy, 24. 
Am. J. Sci. [2], XLii, 248. 
Jahrb. Miner., 1867, 198. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 944. 
Om tantalmetalliana, Lund., 

J. prokt. Chem., xci±, 40. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxvi, 887. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 944. 
J. prakt. Chem., xcvii, 860. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 946. 
Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], vi, 488. 
Zeitschr. Chem., 1867, 94. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1867, 751. 
Jsb. Chem., 1866, 946. 
J. prakt. Chem., c, 100. 
Bull Soc. Chim. [2], viii, 42. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 997. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., xxix, 282. 
Bull. Soc. Chim., viii, 178. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 998. 
C. R., Lxv, 419. 
J. pmkt. Chem., cm, 448. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1868, 896. 
Bull. Soc. Chim. [2], viii, 888. 
Chem. News, xvi, 160. 
Jsb. Chem., 1867, 998. 
Ber., I, 224; ii, 87, 216. 
Zeitschr. Chem., xii, 442. 
Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geolog. Ges., 

XXI, 666. 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 1229. 
J. prakt. Chem., cyii, 129. 
Jml. de 1a soc. imp. des. Natur- 

«Ufias de Momow, 1869, 141. 
Newt, XX, 119. 









Fergusonite, tyrite, 

Jahrb. Min., 1870, 629. 


Jsb. Chem., 1869, 1280. 


Hermann — . 


J. prakt Chem., oyii, 189. 


Hermann _.. 

Aeschynite, euzenite, 

J. prakt Chem., cvii, 168. 


Chem. News, zx, 119. 
Jsb. Chem., 1869, 1280. 



Samarskite, columbite. 

J. prakt Chem. [2], ii, 128. 

Chem. Centrbl., 1870, 651. 
Amer. Chemist [21, i, 286. 
Jsb. Chem., 1870,1811. 


Shepard — — 

Columbite - . — 

Am. J. Sci. [2], l, 90. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1870, 706. 

Jsb. Chem., 1870, 1812. 


Rammellsbero ... 

Fereusonite and tyrite. 

Ber., 1870, 947. 



Ber., 1870, 926. 

^ ^^ ■ *^ ^ ^ 

Chem. Centrbl., 1870, 828. 

Jsb. Chem., 1870, 1818. 


Rammellsbero ... 


Ber., 1871, 167, 406, 584, 874. 
Instit, 1872, 58, 802. 
Ann. der Phys., czliy, 56, 1 
J. Chem. Soc., zxy, 189. 
Chem. Centrbl., 1871, 511. 


Knop - - 

Pyrochlore — 

Zeitschr. Geolog. Gee., xxi 

Jahrb. Min., 1872, 584. 

^^^ • ^ ^ ^ 

Jsb. Chena., 1872, 1166. 



Euzenite — .— — — 

Jenau Dissertation in Jah 

A\/ fl A ^ ^ 

Min., 1872, 819. 

Ann. der Phys., Pogg., cxl 


Rammellsbero ... 

Aeschynite and samar- 

Ber., 1872, 17. 


Jsb. Chem., 1872, 1128. 




Jahrb. Min., 1872, 585. 



Occurrence of minerals 

Min. Mittheil., 1878, 224. 

in granite. 

Jahrb. Min., 1874, 805. 



Crvstalline form of co- 

Jahrb. Min., 1878, 421. 


6 ROTH and Arz- 

Crystalline form of co- 

Ann. der Phys., Poirfl:., cxl 






Hermannolite . 

Am. J. Sci. [8], XI, 140. 
Instit., 1876, 188. 

^ ^^ ■ x^«« ^ 

Jsb. Chem., 1876, 1257. 



Analysis of Hermann- 

J. prakt. Chem. [2], xiii, 88 
Jahrb. Min., 1876, 662. 



E. 8. Dana 

Crystalline form of sa- 

Am. J. Sci. [8], XI, 201. 


J. L. Smith 

Minerals, columbite, 

Am. J. Sci. [81, XIII, 859: X 

samarskite, euzenite, 


Hatchettolite, Rog- 

Ann. chim. phys. [5], xii, S 
Zeitschr. Kiyst., i, 499. 

ersite, Fergusonite. 

Jahrb. Min., 1877, 728. 

C. R., Lxxxiv, 1086. 

Abs. J. Chem. Soc., xxxii, I 



Analysis of Hatchett- 

Zeitschr. Kryst., i, 502. > 

olite and samarskite. 

Jsb. Chem., 1877, 1848. 


Rammellsbero -.. 

Analysis of samarskite 
ana aeschynite. 

Ann. Phys. [2], u, 668. 
Ber., 1877, 656. 


















Analysis of samarskite 
• and aeschvnite. 


Analysis of minerals .. 
Analysis of samarskite. 

Sipylite ... 








Fereusonite .. 






Fergusonite ... 


SMBinkiia ».^ 

Zeitschr. Oeolog. Ges., xxix, 

Jahrb. Min., 1878, 629. 
Jsb. Chem., 1877, 1844. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., Lxiz, 176. 
Am. J. Sci. [8], XIII, 890. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., i, 608. 
Jsb. Chem., 1877, 1846. 
Zeitschr. Krvst., i, 608. 
Jsb. Chem., "1877, 1846. 
N. Petersb. Acad. Bull., xxiii, 

Zeitochr. Krvst, i, 284. 
Jahrb. Min.* 1877, 647. 
Am. J. Sci. [8], XIV, 897. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., ii, 192. 
Jahrb. Min., 1878, 208. 
Chem. News, xxxvi, 168. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc., xxxii, 868. 
N. Arch. ph. nat., lxix, 176. 
C. R., Lxxxvi, 988. 
Jsb. Chem., 1878, 261. 
Zeitschrift Kryst., iii, 481. 
Jsb. Chem., 1879, 1288. 
Verhand. Geol. Reichs aust., 

1879, 248. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., iv, 638. 
Chem. News, xli, 244. 
Am. J. Sci. [8], XIX, 181. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., iv, 616. 
Wicn. Acad. Ber., lxxx, 84. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., v, 400. 
Ber. XIII, 139. 

Min. Petr. Mitth. [2], in, 94. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., iv, 624. 
Jsb. Chem., 1878. 

Am. J. Sci. 
Am. J. Sci. 
Am. J. Sci. 
Am. J. Sci. fs' 

, XX, 66. 
3l, XX, 67. 

, XX, 67. 

, XXII, 28. 
Jsb. Chem., ISBl, 1409. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXI, 412. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., vi, 208. 
Am. J. Sci., XII, 62. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., vi, 208. 
Am. Chem. J., in, 180. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., vi, 112. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXIV, 872. 
Jsb. Chem., 1882, 1678. 
Am. J. Sci. [3], XXIV, 476. 
Jsb. Chem., 1882, 1673. 
Chem. News, xlvi, 206. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc., XLiv, 82. 
Monit. Scientif. [8], xiii, 246. 
Jsb. Chem., 1888, 861. 
Chem. News, xlix, 269. 
Jib. Chem., 1884, 1994. 













Golumbite, oocuirence. 

Columbite, analysis 

Golumbite - 

Am. J. Sci. [81, XZYIII, 840. 
Am. J. Sci. [8j, xxTin, 840. 
Zeitschr. Kryst., xii, 266-274. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc., 1887, 20. 
Gazzetta. xvii. 81—87. 


Golumbite from Gra- 

Mineral associated with 

Golumbite from Colo- 



Abs. J. Chem. Soc., 1887, 646. 
Zeitschr. Kryst. Min., xiii, 802. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc., 1887, 1066. 
Zeitschr. Kryst Min., xii, 61S. 
Abs. J. Chem. Soc, 1887, 847. 




TKft namlMni refer to the years, the part 18 being dropped. When preceded by M it refers to 





Bli)U8TRAXD .. 
















Dajiour I-_ 










DKVlLLEftnd Damouk 

jJKViLLE and Troost 


KifATHand Maykruofkk. 

DlX!«r3C0TON ._ _.. 


^'iXKKNER and Stephens.. 

FoKBEs and Dahll -— 





Analysis Hatchettolite and samarskite M., 

Mineral from Ytterby _" M., 

Occurrence of columbite M., 

Chlorides and acids . 

Columbite M., 

Analysis columbite J M., 

Polycrase M., 

Separation from gallium 


Crystallization of columbite M., 

Aeschynite M., 

Composition Siberian columbite M., 

Aescnynite M., 

Flame reactions 

Niobic acid in tin ore ' 

Samarskite and columbite If., 

Analysis pyrochlore - M., 

Analysis euzenite i M., 

Columbite M., 


Columbite from Graveggia M., 

Composition of columbite from Bavaria M., 

Analysis samarskite M., 

Crystalline form samarskite M., 

Columbite M., 


Hermannolite M., 

Samarskite M., 

Sipylite M., 

Action of carbon tetrachloride on niobic anhy- 

Crystallization of columbite M., 

Wohlerite __ BI., 


Columbite and euzenite M., 

Vapor density of chloride 

Samarskite M., 

Atomic volume and affinity 

Micr«)Iite M., 

Crystals of niobic acid 

Composition of samarskite M., 

Bra^ite, Fergusonite, and euzenite M., 

Action of hydrofluoric acid on columbite 

Columbite M., 

Specific gravity and compoBition Americftn co- M., 







Oroth and Arzruni 



Hatchktt . 












Do _.-. 















Do - 


Hoffmann, G. G. 













Crystalline form of columbite 


Fergusonite and aeschynite 

Discovery of element 


Microscopic analysis 

Columbite from Colonido 



Minerals, researches 

Ilmenic, niobic, and pelopic acids 

Composition of columbite from Middletown, 

Niobic and pelopic acids in tantalic acid 


Pyrochlore and columbite 


Aeschynite, columbite, polycrase, pyrochlore, 

Researches on ilmenium, niobium, and tanta- 

Researches on niobium and ilmenium 

Separation of niobic and tantalic acids. Re- 
marks on pelopic acid. 

Dianium . . 

Columbite and samarskite 

Acids, formulee, atomic weight, ilmenium 

Aeschynite, Fergusonite, samarskite, pyro- 
chlore, Wohlerite. 



Analysis aeschynite and columbite 

Constitution of compounds 

Analysis ilmenorutile 


Constitution of minerals 

Fergusonite, tyrite, and bragite 


Aeschynite, euxenite, and polycrase 

Separation of niobium from ilmenium 

Analysis of samarskite and columbite 

Resenrches __ 

Analysis of Hermannolite 

Researches, neptunium 





Columbite and samarskite 



Crystalline form of columbite * 

Salts, niobates 


Acids, nitrides, and carbides 


Pyrochlore . 

Dysanalite | 




















MD mod 








Crystallization niobic anhydride 


Specific gravity ae^chynite 

laentity of columbium and tantalum 

Crystalline fonn of columbit- 


Aesfhynite . 

Color reaction 

Sipylite — 

Acfds and salts 


Estimation ilmenium and niobium 

Analysis and specific gravity, aeschynite and 



Bragite and tyrite 


Composition of columbite 


Niobic acid 



Analysis minerals 



Quantitative estimation 

Niobic, pelopic, and ilmenic acids 


Mineral associated with columbite 

Compounds^, atomic weight 

Yttrotantalite, pyrochlore, and euxenite 


Fergusonite and tyrite 

Composition of natural niobates and separation 

of metallic acids. 


Aeschynite and samarskite 

Analysis samarskite and aeschynite 







Acids in columbite 

Effect of temperature on specific weight of 


Niobic, ilmenic, and pelopic acids 

Identity of ilmenium and niobium 

Properties of metal and oxides 



Researches, identification, compounds, etc 

Niobic and niobous acids, metal, chlorides, etc- 



Fluorides and chlorides 

Nitrate i 


M., '60 
M., '62 

M., '68 
M., '27 
M., '81 

M., '81 

M., '66 

M., '67 


M., '68 

M., '62 

M., '68 



M., '68 

M., '72 

M., '77 





M., '67 

M., '87 


M., '69 

M., '70 





M., '77 


M., '48 




M., '46 



M., '48 




X, J^^ra 

> .. ''^a- 

J^ -^ \mxx* 

2^ --...... J-' /^-.a- 

> Tra» 

^ .^^ _ .. 1. .iirr..;i 

^ ^ l.>f.un:M&:. 

V^»a«&.<.^. ^ X'TUilic K=afr n 

^^.tm.'.f . ', ■ 

/^\*t ^ .^JUti -"•«*• ir & liuMK 

^ ... ^ J:_1aL""-rr ilf S'lixminis 

,. ^^r:di' zmr^rr sunmnOM 

'. -tiiniiun* 

^ , S'TTitinni -iw 

3Kr;»?* • ^ 2.»»^3rr'j«* 

^l^ ^ ... 5^uiii» 

^Vv ,. ^. .-■"■im.Tn*. 

M^ . ., i^*-»ft.— ai«L "Xi'im 

i>i JC-rji'.L tTinu.T^ui 

^cCKft^. . .. •,*"-:ir-*nir* :if 3LLiiifflai»3r 

JZ^'M^.^t C«.'-i3l.llC* 

T4i«ry:je 0:-1l3i:'.:l* 

*•' •^» 

V",-* Xv^a:::. I^-ir-.: 13. i^ii i-ai ir 

/>•, Cr^ 131 

l>v, I>.a:i>: iiiiii 

Wt^^uat Afjs^za 'A ij-irirrta 

'Wfmvt.x — . P-«>p!r:ifti :V 

W'>ttAJ»7V^ liAZ.iJlJ * ^.Iz. 





Specific gravitv 

and specific gravity. 


Columbite _ 

Siberian Columbite 

Columbite from Middletown, Conn. 
Columbite from fiavuria 








Columbite and Aoschynite ... 

Eoienite .. '_ 


Aefcbvnite and Euxenite 


Hatebettolite and Sumarskite 
Aetcbynite and Samarskite... 




, C4»lumbite from 


idir, Ci^lumbite. 

Specific gravity and composition. American 









, •«! 










i( ^^ 
































Rammellbbero .... 














Valentine -._ 




Grewinck . 








H. Boss 














Composition ._ 


Action Hydrofluoric acid on 

Specific gravity. 




Composition. See Analysis. 
Crystallization, Columbite .. 





Euzenite, Analysis 


•* specific gravity 



HUHT .^ 


Chandler ^ 

Brxithaupt ^ 

M0LLXR . ' 

H. RosB 

Dbtillb and 




H. Rose 






Shepard . 

Blomstrand ^ 


Shepard ^ 

Jbremejew !i 


Smith ..^ 

scbarizbr ^ 

comstock 4 

Hallook J 

Hidden ^ 

Blake — . 






Breithaupt , 



Grotb and Arzri 

Dana ...^ 





Forbes and Dai 

H. Rose 

Deville and 



Hermann .« 

Jehn .... 

Smith .... 
Marion AO, 
Hartwall ta 





Bit* ColombitA.. 
ittolite, Analjrsii. 

BUMlito, AnalysU. 

rie Add, Action on Columbite 


Ilk 8tt Colambite. 
li - 


Mioenls in Granite 


JMt on Minerals 


le - 


dtt, Analjtis 





H. Rose ..- 































H. Rose 



























H. Rose 













FiNKENER and Ste- 



G. Rose 










H. Rose 


















u .„«_...„» «. 

a ^ 

(C ^^ 


C( ^ ^^ 

Specific gravity Aeschynite 
(( i( (I 

" " Columbite- 

" " Euxenite— 

a _ 

(( ^ 

a ^_ _ __^ _^ 

a ^___ ».«.»«_ 

Wohlerite — 

li ^_^ 


Yttroilmenite ^ 

Ytterby, mineral from 













Marion AC 


H. Rosx 

(( _^ 











icidiin Columbite 

Add, Ilmenic, in Columbite ... 

" Niobic, in Wohlerite 










in Tantalic Acid 

in Euxenite 

Ilmenic and Pelopic 




Ilmenic, in Pyrochlore and Columbite 

Crystals of 

and Tantalic, separation of 

and Niobous 

Acid, Pelopic 

" Niobic 

** Dianic 

** Niobous 

•* Niobic 


Acid, Niobic, in tin ore 


Acid, Ilmenic 

♦' Dianic 





Action of Hydrofluoric Acid on Columbite 

'* *' Hvdroficen Peroxide on oxides 

•* '* Carbon Tetrachloride on Niobic Anhydride. 


Analysis of a Niobate . 

Meth(Kls for 

Separation ._ 



*' of Metallic Acid 

'* from Gallium 

" Microscopic 

Quantitative determination 

Color reaction 

Flame *' 

Anhydride, Niobic, action of Carbon Tetrachloride 


" Niooic, crystallization of 

Atomic Volume 








Cadmium Fluoniobate 


Kobe, H... 



Rose, H 





Rose, H 


Rose, H 

Von Kobell — 

Rose, H 





Von Kobell 
Hermann ... 







DoNATH and Mat- 















DoNATH Hnd Mat- 











































Cobalt Fluoniobate 

Copper " 

Calcium Niobate 


Carbon Tetrachloride, action on Niobic Anhydride — 



Vapor density of 

Columbite, Acids in 

" Action of Hydrofluoric Acid upon. 
Color reaction 


(I ^ ^ 

" Constitution of 

Constitution of minetals 

Composition of natural Niobate 

Constitution of minerals ' 

Crystallization of niobic anhydride 

Dianic Acid 

i( It 



Determination f Quantitative 

Discovery of element 

Efiect of temperature on specific weight . 


Euxenite, Niobic acid in 


Flame reaction 



Granite, occurence in 

Gallium, separation from . 

Hydrofluoric Acid, Action on Columbito 


Hydrogen peroxide, Action on oxides.. 
Identity of Columbium and Tantalum. 




Ilmenium and Niobium. 


Ilmenic Acid 


in Pyrochlore and Columbite 

Acid '- 


** Identity with Niobium 







** - - -—- . - .. 


Rose, 11 




D RVTLLE and Troost 

Rose, H 




Rose, H. ._ 



ti _.„« . 




Von Kobell 




Von Kobell 



Rose, H 





Rose, H 









Leonhard and Vo- 


Rose, H 


Hermann .. 
Rose, H. ... 


Hermann . 
Marion AO .. 
Hermann .. 
Rose, H. .. 
Hermann .. 






























































Ilmenium, Researches. 



Separation from Niobium. 

Hioganeae fluoniobate 

" niobate 

Mercury fluoniobute 

Method of analysis 

Metal _. 


Mjcroecopic analysis _. 
Minenils, coustituti<in. 








id in Wohlerite. 


in Tantalic ^cid 

Euxonite and Polycraso 


Scpanition from Tantalic Acid 

in tin ore 

29iobic anhydride crystallization 

" " Action of carbon tetrachloride upon - 




Niobous acid . 



Xiobium, Discovery 

Identity with Tantalum 



• • 

Identity with Tantalum 

Identity with Ilmcnium 




Metallic .,.'."111111111 



Atomic weight 

Separation from llmenium. 



Separation from Gallium... 









Rose, H. 



h aushofbr 

Hermann -._.. 









Rose, H. 




Rose, H. 








Rose, H. 



Rose, H. 




II . 

Leonhard and Yo- 


Rose, H. 




Rose, H. 





Hermann _. 



RoscoE -, 

















































Niobiumi Atomic volume and affinity 

" Microecopic analysis 

" Quantitative determination 

** Color reaction 

*• Plame reaction 

Nickel fluoniobate 


(( ^ ^ 


Neptunium • 

Occurrence in granite w 

Oz^fluorides j. 





" Action of hydrogen peroxide upon 

Pelopic acid 

{{ It ..„».^ 

(( ii 

(I ti 

(( ** 


Peroxide of hydr«»gcn, Action on oxides 

Properties of oxide 

" '' and metal 

Polycrase, Acids in »_ «_ 

Pyrochlore, Acids in 

Quantitative determination 

Reaction, Color 

" Flame _ 

Remarks on Pelopic Acid 


ti ^ 

(t ^_ 


It .»«_. 


It ._.. . 


II ^__ 

n ^ 


Salts - — - — _1 

li ^__ 

Separation niobic and tantalic acids 

" Niobium fn»m Ilmenium 

" Metallic acids 

" from Gallium 

Sodium niobato 

Specific weight, effect of temperature upon 


ii ._._«.-..«.».. .--- .-......_. 

Tantalum, Identity with Niobium 


Do.VATH and UaM 




Lett ^ 



Rose, H 




Stelzkeb ^ 



Hermakv .^ 

Rose, H._ .-,; 

Dblafoktaive -.^ 

Hermanv J 

Welleb J2 

scheebsb «; 

Rose, H. . 

Hebmank ^ 

Rose, H 1 

Welleb .^ 

WOhleb .^ 

Hebmakn ^ 

Scheebeb ^ 

Hebmank ^ 


Lett ^ 


Hebmank ^ 

Rose, H. ^ 










Rose, H 



Hermann T 


Rammellsbebo . 


Rose, H 






talniB, Identity with Niobium 

■pcratore, elfect of, upon specific weight 

ow%9 nlobiom in 

por denutT of chloride 

4|^hiy atomic 

ri^hft, ^pacific, eftect of temperature upon. 

riOcrita, Niobie acid in ' 

BrHnn alobate 


Lkonhabd and Vo- 


KosK, H 


Dbyillb and Troost 
Donate and Mat- 



Ross, H 















rMTH'OsoHnt tneiTsn ktatb havav ookilvai 












mnmiD ahd stbrbottpbd bt 





The following subject-index of astronomy for 1887 was originally compiled as an 
ppendix to a general review of the progress of astronomy during that year, and 
boogh not exhaustive, it may, perhaps, be found a useful reference list. Important 
ontribatlonB to astronomy published during 1887 in scientific journals and trans- 
ictioiis of societies, as well as all more elaborate publications that have come to the 
ioiii|»il0r'8 notice, have been included — a few titles being taken from reviews, or book- 
ealmlof^ea. Observations of asteroids and comets, except those of the comets of 1887, 
hftT* generally been omitted. 

Tlie prices quoted are usually from Friedlander's Naiurce Novitatea, in German 
**BMria'' (1 Mark = 100 Pfennige = 1 fhtnc 25 centimes z= 25 cents, nearly.) 

Tbe abbreviated titles will probably be readily understood by those familiar with 
■dcatific periodicals without special explanation, beyond the following list of less 
0MOIIS contractions. 

Abftr. = Abstract. 
Am. =r American. 
Bd. •= Band, 
d. = die, der, del, etc. 
ed. == edition. 
Hit. = Heft, 
hrsg. = herausgegeben. 
il. = illustrated. 
j., jour. = journal. 

k. k. = kaiserlich kdnig- 

Lfg. = Lieferung. 

M. = marks, 
n. d. = no date, 
n. p. = no page, 
n. F. = neue Folge. 
n. s. = new series, 
not. = notices, 
obsns. = observations. 
Obsr}'. = Observatory, 
p. = page. 


pt. = part, 
r. = reale. 
Bev. = review, 
s. = series, 
so. = science, scien- 
sh. = shilling, 
sup. = supplement. 
- vol. = volume. 

pi. = plates. 

In the references to journal articles the volume and page are simply separated by a 
^olon, thus : **Bull. astron., 4 : 94-98," indicates volume 4, pages 94 to 98. 


ICiCHKLSOV (A. A.) & MoRLET (£. W.) Relative motion of the earth and 
the luminiferous aether, il. Am. j. sc, 134 : 838-345. 

Thxwis ( — .) Sur la thSorie de I'aberration de M. Seeliger. Bull, astron., 4: 

kb^irmtion (Constant of). 

CoscflTOCK (G. C.) New mode of determining the constants of refraction and 
aberration. Sid. mess., 6: 810-817. (Abstract of Loewy's method.) 

— > Note on the determination of the constant of aberration. Astron. jour., 

7: 167. 








The following subject-index of astronomy for 1887 was originally compiled as an 

tppen^z to a general review of the progress of astronomy during that year, and 

^Mmgh not exhaustive, it may, perhaps, be found a useful reference list. Important 

contributions to astronomy published during 1887 in scientific journals and trans- 

•etio&ft of societies, as well as all more elaborate publications that have come to the 

compiler's notice, have been included — a few titles being taken from reviews, or book- 

c^ofCues. Observations of asteroids and comets, except those of the comets of 1887, 

^▼« generally been omitted. 
The prices quoted are usually from Friedlander's Naiurce Novitates, in German 

•*iniPb" (1 Mark = 100 Pfennige = 1 franc 26 centimes = 25 cents, nearly.) 
The ibbreviated titles will probably be readily understood by those familiar with 

*Qe&Uflc periodicals without special explanation, beyond the following list of less 

•^▼iotti contractions. 


Abitr. = Abstract. 
^- = American. 
W. ^ Band. 
^- = die, der, del, etc. 
^ = edition. 
Hft. = Heft. 

^^- = herausgegeben. 
il. = illustrated, 
j., jour. = journal. 

k. k. = kaiserlich kdnig- 

IAww. = Abstract. Lfg. = Lieferung. 

^- = American. M. = marks. 

n. d. = no date, 
n. p. = no page, 
n. F. = neue Folge. 
n. s. = new series, 
not. = notices, 
obsns. = observations. 
Obsry. = Observatory, 
p. = page. 

pt. = part, 
r. = reale. 
Bev. = review, 
s. = series, 
sc. = science, scien- 
sh. =r shilling, 
sup. = supplement. 
v., vol. = volume. 

pi. = plates. 

In the references to journal articles the volume and page are simply separated by a 
Crtlon, thus: **Bull. astron., 4 : 94-98,'' indicates volume 4, pages 94 to 98. 


M1CHKL8ON (A. A.) & MoRLET (£. W.) Relative motion of the earth and 
the luminiferous aether, il. Am. j. sc, 184 : 838-845. 

Thxwib ( — .) Sur la th6orie de I'aberration de M. Seeliger. Bull, astron., 4 : 

.bermtioii (Constant of). 

CoxsTOCK (G. C.) New mode of determining the constants of refraction and 
mberration. Sid. mess., 6: 810-^17. (Abstract of Loewy's method.) 

■ Note on the determination of the constant of aberration. Astron. Jour., 

7: 167. 



Aberration (Constant of )^C6niinued. 

HouzBAU (J. 0.) Note sur une m6thode pour determiner In constant^ 
ration. 4 p. 8vo. Bruxelles, 1887. 

Ball, de Tacftd. roy. de Belg., 3. s. 13, no. 2. 

M^thode pour determiner la constante de Taberration. Coal 

104: 278. 

— Note additionelle sur la mesure de Taberration. Ibid., 668. 

LoswT (M.) Nouvelle m^tbode pour la determination de la conatantd 
ration. Compt. Rend., 104 : 18-26, 896. ^ 

Determination de la constante de Taberration. Premier prodJ 

vation. Ibid,, 455-461. ] 

— ^ Same. Premier et seconde procedd d 'observation. Ibid,, 5884 

Same. Conclusions. Ibid., 61&-621. 

Reponse & la Note additionelle de M. Houzeau. Ibid., 727. 

Metbode generale pour la determination de la constants de V 

Ibid,, 1207-1214, 1898-1406. 

— Same. Calcul de Pazimut de la direction borizontale du moai 
restre. Ibid., 1650-1656. 

— Same. Procede particulier pour rendre la recherche ind^i 

tour de vis, et conclusions. Ibid., 105 : 11-17. 

NouvcUes metbodes pour la determination de la constante de V 

57 p. il. 4to. Paris, 1887. (/2«/)r./rom.- Compt. Rend., 104, 
LoBWT'8 method of determining the constant of aberration, il. 

TatPiED (C.) Sur Tapplication de la pbotograpbie aux nouvelles 
• M. Loewy pour la determination des elements de la refraction et 
tion. Compt. Rend., 104: 414-417. 

Almanaoa. See Epbcmerides and almanacs. 


Chandler (S. C.) jr. The almucantar : an investigation made at the< 
[of Unrvnrd college] in 1884 and 1885. 9 + 222 p., 1 pi. 4to. 

[Results of latitude work.] Sid. mess., 6: 87. 

Amerioan aatronomioal aooiety. 

Papers ... no. 2. 55 p. 8vo. Brooklyn, 1887. 

Amerioan ephemeria. 

American ephcmcris and nautical almanac for . . . 1890. 1 ed. 6 

4to. Washington, 1887. 

Astronomical papers . . . Vol. 2, pts. 3 and 4. Velocity of li| 
refracting media. 152 p., 8 pi. 4to. Washington, 1886. 

Rev. by Wngnar (A.) Vrtljschr. d. Mtron. OeMlIsch., St: ne Ml, 

Report of the superintendent of the nautical almanac for tlM f 
80, 1887. 7 p. 8vo. 'Washington, 1887. 


(J. L. E.) Electric illumination of the Armagh refractor. Month. 
not., 47: 117. 

pB«port for 1886.] Ibid., Ibl, 

HoAd S. 

GaI-lk (A.) (tber die im September, 1888, stattflndonde Annaherung der Pliin- 
eten (5) Astraea und (8) Flora. Astron. Nachr., 118: 78. 

aaraid 17. 

C«Ami.lBR (C. T. L.) Untersuchung uber die allgcmcinen Jupitcr-Storungcn 
d«t Planeten Thetis. 08 p. 4to. 

Kongt. iT^apka VetenH'Akad. hnndl. 22, no. 2. 

[KftSUTZ (H.)] Neucr Planet Luther vermuthlich identisch mit (G9) Hesperia. 
Aition. Nachr., IIG: 885, 865. 

DHKtad bf Lather 1887« Apr. 11, and by Coggia 18^7, Apr. IC, and announced as a 
new aalerold. 

(I.) Photographic search for the minor planet Sappho. Month, not., 

Ball (L.) Becberches sur I'orbit de la plan^te (181) EucharLs. 44 p. 4to. 
Braxelles, 1887. (M. 2.50.) 


-Blancat (D.) [Elements from observations 1884-1886.] Bull, astron., 
4: ld8. 

Xl2xa»XTicn (E.) [Elements from normals 1886, Dec. 20; 1887, Jan. 22, and 
obserration of Feb. 24.] Atti d. r. nccad. d. Lincei, s. 4, Rend., 3: 476-480. 

isroid 265. Anna. 

INMorered bj J. Palisa at Vienna, 1887, Feb. 25. Giro. Bcrl. astron. Jahrb., 
AUo: Astron. Nachr., 116: 223. 

(O.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Feb. 25, Mar. 25, Apr. 17.] Circ. 
Bcfi. aatron. Jahrb., 296. 

torn (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Feb. 25, Mar. 11, 25.] Ibid , 294. 

M^tLijomMTirB (E.) Sul pianetino (265). Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4, Bend., 

mnU 266. Aline. 

AMov«ted by J. Palisa at Vienna, 1887, May 17. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 

[ 296. AUo: Astron. Nachr., 117: 47. 

{|bB»S (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, May 17, 29, June 11.] Circ. Berl. 
r Mlnm. Jmhrh.y 299. 

, by A. Chariots at Nice, 1887, May 27. Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 
Atm>: Aftron. Nachr., 117: 68. Also: Bull, astron., 4: 260. 


Asteroid 267. Tintk-^OmtinuetL 

CHAmLOis (A.) [Elements firom obans. 1887, M«y 27, June 9, 22.] 0| 
astron. Jahrb., 801. Also: Compt. Rend., 105: 58. 

[Elements from obens. 1887, May 27, June 25, July 23.J Ok 

astron. Jahrb., 803. 

Asteroid 268. Adorea. ^ 


Discovered by A. Borrelly at Marseilles, 1887, June 9. Circ Berl. aitroi|i 
299. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 108. 

Lan'gk (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, June 9, 28, July 18.] 
astron. Jabrb., 301. 

Asteroid 269. 

Discovered by J. Palisa at Vienna, 1887, Sept.* 21. Circ. Berl. 
805. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 359. 

Bkrberich (A.) [Elements from normals 1887, Sept 28, Oct. 18, 
tion Nov. 12.] Circ. Berl. astron. Jahrb., 808. 

Asteroid 270. Anabita. 

Discovered by C. H. F. Peters at Clinton, 1887, Oct 8. Circ. Berl. 
306. Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 15. 

Lakoe (H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Oct. 11, 26, Not. 13.] 
astron. Jahrb., 308. 

ViENNET (E.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Oct. 11. 18, 26.] 
105: 1002. 

[Elements from normals 1887, Oct. 12, 27, Nov. 16.] /6«rf., V 

Asteroid 271. Penthcsilca. 

Discovered by V. Knorre at Berlin, 1887, Oct. 13. Ciro. Berl. 
306. Also: Astron. Nachr., 118: 81. 

Knopf (O.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Oct. 13, 25, Nov. 18.] 
astron. Jahrb., 308. 


[Asteroids discovered in 1886.] Month, not, 47: 172. Also: Bi 
4: 15. 

Glauber ( — .) Lage dcr Asteroiden-Buhnebenen. Astnm. Nachr, 

Kirk WOOD (D.) The asteroids or minor planets between Mars 
00 p. 12mo. Philadelphia, 1887. 

Distribution of the minor planets. Sid. mess., 6: 116. 

-^—^^ Eccentricities and inclinations of the asteroidal orbits. 

Lriimann (P.) Zusammenstellung der Planeten-Entdeckimgeii im 

Vrtljflcha. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 0-14. 

P A RK II u RsT ( II . M . ) Photometric observatloni of sfteioidk 

Astronomlsche Oesellschaft. 

Ucricht ii)>er die Versammlung . . . m EWy 1887^ A 
d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 264-284. 



db«r die Beobachtung der Sterne bis zur neuDteo Grosse am ndrdlichen 
HimflML /Md, 860-868. 

betreffend die VorbereitungeD der 2U>Den-Beobachtungon zwischeo — 29 
and — SS^'KK. /H<f., 868-861. 

(A.) Zwolfte Yersammlung der aBtronomischen Gesellschaft . . . 
Kiel, 1887, Aug. 29^1. Astron. Nacbr., 117 : 199, 297-806, 891. See, also, 
lUi.^ 116: 388. AUo: Obuy., 10: 887-889. 

\JUfon of Kiel meeting, 1887, Aug. 29-81.] Obsry., 10: 387-889. 

tljmhmcbrijft der astronomischen G^ellscbaft. Hrsg. von £. Schoenfeld und 
f.SeeUger 22. Jabrg., 1887. 417p.,pl.,por. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M.8.) 

(B. W.) Astronomy and tbe ice-age. Sid. mess., 6: 117. 
(W. H. S.) Aitronomy and the ice-age. Ihid,, 67, 194. 

(Bibliography of). 

(J. C.) dc Lancastbr (A.) Bibliograpbie gen6rale de I'astronomie. 

TooM premier. OuTrages imprim^ et manuscrits. Premidre partie. 7 + 

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Mtm. by Hooseaa (J. C.) k LAocMter (A.), Ciel et terre, 8: 153-l«1, 187-193; Faye (H.), 
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Ball (R. S.) Tbe story of the heavens. 2ed., il. 8vo. London, 1887. (M. 

(W.) Sammlung von Vortragen und Abhandlungcn. 2 ed. 360 p. 
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( — ) dc Hermes ( — .) Grundri»3 der Experimental physik und Ele- 
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a (F. G. J.) Memorial to the representatives of physical astronomy 
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(S. H.) Unfinished worlds : a study in a.stronomy. il. 8vo. London, 
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(R. A.) Half hours with the stars. New ed. 12 pi. 4to. New York, 

— Other luns than ours : series of essays on suns, old, young, and dcud. 
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Comets and meteors, il. Ibid,, 389-355. 1887, Feb. 
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|J.) CooDOgnipbie stellaire. 278 p., 4 maps. 12mo. Bruxelles, 1887. 

(M. 3.) 

Biotlons: handy book of aitronomy. 5 ed. 12mo. 

fM. 2.20.) 



Astronomy (Descriptive) — Continued. 

Mbtsr (M. W.) Die Lebonsfi^eschichte der Oestirne: oine populin 
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NiKSTSK (L.) Le ciel, son aspect, ses curiosit6s: atlu ^l^mentaire . 
texte explicative . . . 4to. Bruxclles, 1887. 

TON Seefeld (F. S.) Astronomische Aufsdtze eines Amateurs der 
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Serviss (G. p.) Astronomy with an opera glass. 11. Pop. sc. moi 
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Yalentinsr (W.) Der gestirnte Himmel : eine gemeinrentandliche j| 

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ABtronomy (History of). Sce^ ahOy Astronomy (Progress of). 

BoNNEL (J. F.) Etude sur Thistoire de I'ustronomie: la d^ourerte 4iq 
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Clerks (A. M.) History of astronomy during the 19tb centur}'. 8 
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LooFF (F. W.) Die Himmelskunde in ihrer geschichtUchen Entwlcl 
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Aatronomy (Progress of). 

Allen (Grant.) Progress of science from 1836 to 1886. Pop. sc. mi 
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Klein (H. J.) Fortschrittc dor Astronomic. Nr. 12, 1886. 112 
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Swift (L.) Astronomical progress and phenomena [1886]. AppU 
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Aatronomy (Spherical and practical). See^ also^ Azimuth; Illuminatii 
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Goodwin (H. B.) Problems in navigation and nautical astronomy. 
London, 1887. 

HsRR (J. P.) & TiNTER (W.) Lehrbuch der spharischen Astronomie 
Anwendung auf geographische Ortsbestimmung. 644 p. il. 8i 


Jeans (H. W.) Problems in astronomy, surveying and mivij 
Part 1. 244 p. 8vo. London, 1887. 

Oliver (J. A. W.) & others. Astronomy for amateurs: pmctical 
telescopic research . . . adapted to moderate . . . instrumcntf. 
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Aatronomy (Theoretical). See, also, Lunar theory; Mechanici (CeU 

Israel-Holtzwart (K.) Supplement zu den Elementen der tht 
tronomie. Insbesondere, analytischo Theorie der Ansiehniig # 
von konstanter und veranderlichcr Dichtigkeit. 100 p. 8«0b< 


(Carl Heinnch August) [1813-1886]. 
WmmE (L.) [Biographical sketch.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Oesellsch., 22: 6-0. 

:b (A. M.) The aurora borealis. Nature, 35: 433-436. 

(S.) Anrores bor^les, com^tes et Stoiles filantes. GicI et terre, 7 

(B.) Noises accompanying aurorae. Obsry., 10: 803. 

ITbbbbb (H. J.) Noises accompanying aurorse. Ibid., 10: 161. 

Tkaio (J. E.) Azimuth: a treatise on this subject, with a study of the astro- 
Bomical triangle, and of the effect of errors in the data. 4 -{- 107 p. +. 
4to. New York, 1887. 

Iaktvio (E.) ttber die Bamberger Sternwarte. il. Yrtljschr. d. astron. Ge- 
a«lbch., 22: 829-385. See, aUo, Obsry., 10 : 279. 


for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Oesellsch., 22: 75. 

(Joaepb) [181&-1887]. 
(T. E.) [Biographical notice.] Astron. Nachr., 118: 175. 
(B.) [Biographical notice.] Nature. 36: 585. 

(W.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gcsollsch., 22: 75-B5. 

'K fO.) IJber die Bicgung des Rohres und des Krciscs des kleincren Mcrid- 
iso-Instrumenten der Berliner Sternwarte, sowie uber die Bicgung der l>ei 
iiM«cr Bestimmung benutzten Collimatoren. Astron. Nachr., 117: 33-10, 


for.1886.] Month, not., 47: 160. 

(SUr of). 
(J. T.) [Hypotheses in regard to the star of Bethlehem.] Sid. mess., 6 : 
»ATVS ( W. W.) Star of Bethlehem. Sid. mess., 6 : 265-260. 

r«aaa \nutaken for] the star of Bethlehem. Nature, 37 : 169 ; Obsry., 11 : 96 ; 
;. mec., 46* 888, 890. 

for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 160. 

|gfc— ■■tniy. 

bftCTmLD (E.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 89-92. 

% UlHMiVBtOrj. 

■ 4b Vvibmi vitoire de Bordeaux, publi^os par O. ITavot. Tome 2 159 4* 
Sr- 4^ P^rU, 1887. 




di Brera obaenratory. i 

Pubblicazioni . . . No. 81. Azimut assolutu del tegnftle trigoiM 
monte Palansone suIP orizsonte di Milano, determinato nell 1( 
Rajna. 125 p. 4to. Milano, 1887. 

Pubblicazioni . . . No. 32. Nuova triangolazione della citta di Mil 
da F. Borletti. 16 p., 4 pi. 4to. Milano, 1887. 

Breslan observatory. 


Galle (J. G.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. 4- astron. GeMllsch., ^ 

Bmaaela obaervatorj. 

FoLiif (F.) [Report for 1885 and 1886.] VrtlJBchr. d. astron. 

[Removal to Uccle.] Nature, 36: 41. 


Abetti (A.) Nozioni sul calendario dei Cofti e degli Abiaiini 

4to. Roma, 1887. 

Eepr. from : Attl d. r. aocad. d. Lincei, s. 4, Rendic, 3 : 396-404. 
GfcBiGNT (P.) Reforme du calendrier: rapport sur les projett pi 

cours. L' Astron., 6 : 212, 260, 298, 889, 884. 

PoNCET (G.) Pourquoi I'ann^ commence-t-elle le l*'Jaii¥ier7 

Cambridge [Bng.] obaenratory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 151. 
Cambridge [XT. 8.] observatory. See Harvard college obaervatory. 
Cape of Oood Hope observatory. 

[Repi>rt for 188*5.] Month, not., 47: 164. 

Carleton college observatory. 

[Patxe (W. W.) Description of the Repsold meridian circle, etc] 
moss., 6: 3l>U-306, 319. 

Chromosphere. *S^^, a/jk), Prominences (Solar). 

Pehht (S. J.) [Ol^servations of ] the chromosphere in 1886. Obsry, 

Verbesserung de# Chronodeik. Sinus, 20: 108-112. 


BiTKNEY ( — ) & of hers. [Romurks on chronof^ph of Helboai 
torv.] Ob5r\-., 10: 49. 

Hkrz iN.^ Streifen-Ableseapparat. Astron. Nachr., 117: 268. 

VON Kebki'r-P ASCII wiTZ [YiA Registrirapparat mit CentriAigal-] 
il. Ztfchr. f. Instrmknd.. 7: 171. 


Celi.krieh yG.^ Etude numerique det concoats de eom] 
motrtwi fait* A I olworvatoire de Gendveen 18M et 18M 46 
1SS7. ^Mi-in. j^(X\ phy». et d'hitt. nat. O saif S, 10^ ar 

Elleet ^R. L. J.^ [Rreak-^'ircuit cl 
in 18tU).l Obsry.. 10: 427. 



GAtmn (S.) Rapport sur le concoun pour le r^lage des chronomdtres, 188d. 
[II3 p. 8to. [n. p., 1887.] 

HlBtm (A.) Rapport du directeur de Tobeervatoire cantonal de Neuchatel 
. . . BUT le conooars des chronomdtres observes pendant Tann^ 1886. 
28 + 12 p. 12mo. Locle, 1887. 

(C. F. W.) Einfluss der Luftfeuchtigkeit auf den Gang der Chronome- 
itr. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 284-292. 

of chronometers on trial ... at the Royal observatory, Greenwich. 
7 p. 4to. [London, 1887.] 
In : Gr0«nw. oImos. 188S. 

•ur les chronomdtres et les instruments nautiques. 123 p. 8vo. Paris, 
1887. (M. 1.60.) 

Torjio (C. A.) [First use of] break-circuit chronometers. Obsry., 10: 140, 

O b — r r a tory. 

PablicAtioni of the Cincinnati observatory, 9. Zone catalogue of 4,050 stars for 
the epoch 1886 ... by J. G. Porter. 104 p. 8vo. Cincinnati, 1887. 


Rbpm>u> (A.) Schreib-Apparat fur Tbeilungs-Beyifferung il. Ztschr. f. In- 
strmknd., 7 : 896. 

(AWan) [1804-1887]. 

For Biography, «« Am. j. sc., 134: 822. AUo: Eng. moc.,45: f»08. Also: Na- 
tl* ^n, 40: 149. Also: Nature, 36: 476. Also: Science, 10: 90. Also: Sc. 
Amer., 67: 146, 213. Also: Sid. mess., 6: 250-253. Also: Sinus, 20: 241. 

F«r Portrait, ive Science, 10: 96. Also: Sc. Amer., 57: 198. 

(D.) Freie Schwerk raft- Hem mung der Nonniil-Siern-Uhr zu Princeton. 
Zticbr. f. Instrmknd., 7: 29. 

(T.) Note on the performance of the Westminster clock. Month. 
not., 47: 619. 

Cbkutik (W. H. M.) Method of regulating clocks. Obsry., 10: 320. 

CoKsrr (A.) Synchronisation des horloges de pr<Scision ct la distribution de 
Ilieare. Compt. Rend., 105: 110f;-1112, 1209. 

FoLtB fF.) Sur Tenregistrement par microphone des battements d'une pcndule. 
Ball, de Tacad. roy. de Belg. [1887?] Notice: Bull, astron.. 4 : 291. 

Uabj»vxx (H. D.) Fifty years' progre^is in clocks and watches, il. Nature, 
86: 4S4. 

Wox.r (C.) Comparaisun des divers systdmes de synchronisation electriquc des 
borlofcea astronomiques. Compt. Rend., 105: 1155-1159,1211. 

(T. W.) Proposed nomenclature for star-colors. Obsry., 10: 234. 
• fO. F.) [Golor of Achernar.] Obsry., 10, 301. 

nomenclature for star-colors. Obsrv., 10: 276. 





Colored atari — Continued, ', 

Frakks (W. S.) Report from colored atar section. J. Liverp. asteon. aocsa 

vox ROvESLiQETHT (R.) Neue Methode der Farbenbestiminung dor SM 
Sirius, 20 : 219, 271. Also, Reprint. (M. 0^ 

MoxK (W. H. S.), Colors of the stars and solar heat Ohary., 10: 104. * 

Williams (A. S.) Color of Achernar. Obsry., 10: 272, 884. z 

Comet Gibers = Comet 1887 V (/). 

Detected by Brooks at Phelps, N. Y., 1887, Aug. 24. Astron. Jour., 7: 
Also: Astron. Nachr., 117: 279. Also: Sc. Amor., 47: 181, 192. 
Sid. mess., 6: 289. 

Comet Olbere (Elements of). 

EoBKRT (H. V.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 26, 28, 80.] Astion. Jour., 7: 
Aiao: Sc. obsr. circ., 79. See^ also, Sid. mess., 6 : 294. 

[Correcting Ginzcl's elements by obsns. 1887, Aug. 27 to Sept. 28. j 

tron. jour., 7: 136. 

Franz (J.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, 28, 29.] Astron. Kachr., 117 : 

GiNZEL (F. E.) [Elements corrected by obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, Sept. 
Astron. Nachr., 117: 890. 

Grukt (L. J.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, 80, Sept 2.] Astron. Kl 
117: 818. 

KRt^QKR (A.) [Ginzol's elements corrected by obsns. 1887, Aug. 27.] 
Naohr., 117: 809. 

Lebkuk (A.) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 27, 80, Sept 2.] Astron. Nuchr., 
848. i4/«o.- Bull, astron., 4: 427. 

llAMnAUD (A. A.) & Sy (— .) [From obsns. 1887, Aug. 29, 81, 
Conipt Rend., 105: 487. 

Tktkns (O.) [Ginzol's elements corrected by obsns. to Sept. 20.] 
Nachr., 117: 858. 

Comet Olbers (Observations of position of). 

Albany, Aug. 2(i-30: Astron. joum., 7: 128. Sept 23; Tbid., 18G. 
Nov. 1 ; IhuL, 152. 

Algiers, Aui;. 29, 81, Sept 2; Astron. Nachr.. 117: 325. Aug. 29, SI ; 
* Roml., 105: 480. Sept 10, 12. IS. 14, 16; Ibid., 511. Sept 17, 
22: Bull. n!«tn>n., 4: 466. 

Rwan^vn. Aus;. 29. 30, Sopt. 1 ; Astron. Xachr., 117: 841. Al^o: Compt.' 
105: 481. Sopt 14-17. 21, 22, 26, 80. Oct 1 ; Compt Rend., 105: 

Ikmloaux. S«pt. 8. 9. 10: Compt. Rend., 105: 456. Sept 8, 9, 10, 1&, 18* 
2a, 24. 25; ihUt, 1001. .4/3o: Astron. Xmchr., 118: 109. 

Rothkamp. Sopt 18, 2l>. 21. 23. 24: Astron. Xachr., 117: 387. Oct. 
/M., US: liV5. 

O^neva, Auis. 2i>: .\Mron. Xachr.. 117: 293. Sept 6; idwL. S07. 
85. 37. Nov. 4: !M>i,. US: 109. 

Bambttrf, S^pt SO; Astr^^n. Naohr.. 117: 


Olbns (Obiervfttions of position of) — Continued. 
XWl, SepC 14; Attron. Nftchr., 117: 827. Sept. 15, 18; Ibid,, 841. Sept. 20; 

Kteigtbefi^, Aug. 27, 28, 29; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 295. Aug. 27, 28, 29, Sept. 
10, 12; Jbid,, 841. Sept. 21, 27; Ibid,, 887. Oct 8, 12, 14; Ibid., 118: 42. 
Oct. 26, 27, Nov. 11 ; Ibid., 118 : 94. 

Kremsmunster, Aug. 28 ; Afitron. Nachr., 117: 298. Aug. 28, 80, Sept. 6, 10^ 
17; i6uf., 118: 107. 

LjoM, Aug. 80; Compt Bend., 105: 482. Sept. 9, 10; Ibid., 487. Sept. 18^ 
21,22; i6ui., 512. 

lUneillM, Aug. 27,29; Bull, astron., 4: 462. Aug. 29, 80, 81, Sept. 18, 15,. 
16, 18, 20, 22, 28, 26 ; Ibid., 404. 

Milan, Aug. 80,81; Astron. Nachr., 117: 807. 

2?«shTiIle, Aug. 27, 28; Astron. jour., 7: 127. AUo: Astron. Nachr., 117: 327,. 

», Aug. 29-Sept. 2; Compt. Bend., 105: 456. Also: Bull, astron., 4: 407. 
Sept. 6, 0; Bull, astron., 4: 467. 

iSept. 18, 14, 15, 24; Astron. Nachr., 117: 390. 

[,Sept.6; /6u2., 827, 891. 

Polkowa, Sept. 25, Oct. 10, 15, 22, Nov. 18, 15; Ibid., 118: 109 

Aug. 27; Astron. Nachr., 117: 298. 

;, Aug. 27; IbuL, 298. Aug. 27, Sept. 14; Ibid., 841. 

ToTin. Aug. 29; Ibid., 298. Aug. 29, 81 ; Ibid., 827. Sept. 10, 13, 15, 16, 17, 
20; Ibid., 118: 75. 

Tienna. Aug. 27; Ibid., 117: 294. Oct. 21; Ibid., 118: 42. 

Wttbhington, Aug. 29, 30, 81, Sept. 16, 10; Astron. jour., 7: 134. 

01b«rB (Orbit of). See, al9o. Comet Olbers (Elements of). 

(A.) Wiederkehr des Olbers'schen Cometen. Astron. Nachr., 117: 

SXAKLB (G. M.) Becent approach of the Olbers comet to Mars. Astron. jour., 
7: 184. 

TMBple. See Comets and Meteors. 

Tosf HlKDTL (E.) Bestatigen die neuesten Beobachtungen das Besultat Prof. 
TOO Uppolzer's : dass auch bei dem periodischcn Cometen Winnecke, Encke's 
Hjrpothese des Widerstand leistenden Mediums Geltung zu haben scheine? 
Vrtliscbr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 818-819. 

E890 and Comet 1075. 
rzEL (F. K.) [Apparition of two historical comets, 890, Mny 28, and 1075, 
Jolr-Aug.] Astron. Nachr., 118: 47. 

tmw (L.) Orbites des comdtes 1457 I et 1818 I. Bull, astron., 4: 51-54. 

Der Comet des Jahres 1672. Astron. Nachr., 118: 50-72. 


Comet 1680. i 

Ltnk (W. T.) Comet of 1680 and Its supposed previous eppearaneei. 4 
10: 818. ;. 

Comet 1780 H. 

Ltnk ( W. T.) The comet discovered bj Montaigne and Olbert In 1780. 
10: 855. 

Comet 1818 I. See Comet 1457 I. 

Comet 1825 IV. 

Ltvk (W. T.) [Erratum in Carl's Repertorium.] Obsry., 10: 282. 

Comet 1840 I. 

* Galle (J. G.) Berichtigung zu den Angaben uber die Zeit des Peril 
ganges . . . Astron. Nachr., 117: 167. 

Comet 1846 IV. 

Yoy Hkppebqer (J.) Bahnbestimmung des Cometen 1846 IV. 42 
Wien, 1887. (] 

Abttr. : A«tron. Nachr., 117 : 246. 

Comet 1846 VI. 

BEaBEHicH (A.) Bahn des Cometen 1846 VI, Peters. Astron. Nacl 

Comet 1848 I. 

BiDscHOF (F.) Bestimmung der Bahn des Cometen 1848 I. 17 p. Svo. 
1887. (Abstr.: Astron. Nachr., 117 : 247.) (J 

Comet 1863 IV. 

SvEDSTRUP (A.) Definitive Bahnbestimmung des Cometen 1868 IV. 
Xaohr., 117: 222-242. 

Comet 1865 I. 

KOrbeh (F.) Uber den Cometen 1865 I. 58 p. 8vo. Breslau, 1887. (] 
Tebbutt (J.) Note on the tail . . . Astron. Nachr., 117: 885. 
Comet 1877 VI. 

LARiwfeN (R.) Bahn des Kometen 1877 VI. 24 p. 8vo. Stockholm, 
Bihang. till k. sTeDivka vet. akad. Handlingan. Bd. 12. Afd. I, No. S. 
Comet 1882 I. 

Yoy Rebeur-Paschwitz (E.) Uber die Bahn des Cometen 1882 I. 
Nachr., 117: 281-287. Rev.: Bull, astron., 4: 448. 
Rev. : Bull, antron., 4 : 448. 

Comet 1883 II. 

BRTAyr (R.) [Elliptic elements from normals 1884, Jan. 19, Jan. 25, 

Month, not., 47: 434. 
Texicant (J. F.) [Note on the orbit.] Ibid., 520. 

Comet 1884 III. 

Berbericu (A.) Elcmente . . . aus den Strassburger Beobeel 
Astron. Nachr., 117: 251. 

Thraen (A.) Definitive Bahnbestimmung dei Oometen 188# 
tron. Nachr., 117 : 65-98. 


[Mttiao9 (J.) [Hjperbolic elemenU from obsns. 1885, Dec. 7, to 1886, June 
6.] Jfonth. not, 47 : 487. 

(6.) [ElemenU from nonnals 1886, May 4, 10, 22.] Astron. Nachr., 
117: ». 

Wwuov (H. C.) The comeU of De Vico, 1844 I, and Finlay, 1886 V. il. Sid. 
BMM.. 6: 121-126. 

(I*.) Orbit of the periodic comet 1886, «, Finlay. Astron. Jour., 7 : 23, 48. 
Am. mlm, Aftron. Jour., 7 : 7. 

(W. H.) [Elements firom nonnals 1886, Sept. 28, Doc. 15, and observa- 
Oct. 21, Not. 18, Dec. 27. Month, not., 47 : 802. 

(J.) [ElemenU from obsns. 1886, Sept. 26, Oct. 14, Oct. 29, Nov. 
1} Astron. Nachr., 116: 47. 

CsftoBB (A.) [ElemenU Arom obsns. to 1887, Feb. 28.] Jbid.^ 835. 
Sm^ mUo, Astroo. Kacbr., 116 : 77, 127. 

(W. H. S.) [Resemblance of elemenU to those of comet of 1585.] Sid. 
■., 6: 222. 

(H.) ElemenU from obsns. 1886, Oct. 1, Nov. 1, 7, 27.] Astron. 
Srnchr.,116: 45. 

(G. M.) [ElemenU from obsns. 1886, Sept. 26, Oct. 16, Nov. 4.] As- 
Jour., 7: 15. 
[EleooenU from obsns. 1886, Sept. 26, Nov. 4, Dec. 14.] Ibid., 52. 
nU = Comet 1887 c. 
bv Barnard at Nashville, 1887, Jan. 23. Astron. jour., 7 : 56. Also: 

Astron. Nachr., 116, 143. Also: Sid. mess., 6: 114. 
rm (ElemenU of). 

(A.) [ElemenU from obsns. 1887, Jan. 26, 29, Feb. 1.] Bull. 
ailn>n 4 z 5o. 

(H. V.) [ElemenU from obsns. 1887, Jan. 23, 24, 26.] A.stron. jour., 
fl " o4. 

[ElemenU from obsns. 1887, Jan. 23, 26, 80.] Ibid., 71. 
[ElemenU from obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, Feb. 18, Mar. 20.] Ibid., 87. 
IKIM (H.) [ElemenU from obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 2{», Feb. 3.] Astron. 
Nachr.. 116: 175. Also: Obsry., 10: 144. 

(E.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 26, 20.] Astron. Nachr., 
IK: IW. 

[ElemenU from two normals 1887, Jan. 24-30, and observation Feb. :*>.] 

, 191. 

• IZ- 

^ ML} [ElemenU from normals 1886, Oct. 8, Nov. 3, Dec. 2, Dec. 10] 


Comet 1886 IZ — OjHtinued. 

Bredichix (T.) [DUcuuion of obeeiraUoiis of the taiL] 7 p., 1 pla 

M(»scuu. 18ST. 

MoRKihON (J.) [Elements from obens. 1886, Oct. 7-Dec. 2.] Month, afl 


SvEDSTBUP (A.) [Elements from nonnals 1886, Oct 8, 28, Nov. l&J J 
Xachr.f 116: 15. 

Wendell (O. C.) [ElemenU from obtna. 1886, Oct. 7, Not. 6, Dec. la] ;: 

117: 59. 

Comet 1887 I = 1887 a. 

Discovered by Thome at Cordoba, 1887, Jan. 18. Aitron. joar., 7 : 6Su ^ 
Astron. Nachr., 116: 1-13. Also: Obsry., 10: 112. 

Sm, alio (independent diMorery near Cape Town), Month, not., €7 : 
Comet 1887 I (Elements and Orbit of). 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. [ElemenU from obsns. 1887, Jan. 20-29.] 
7: 93. 

[Elements from Cape and Adelaide obtns. combined into n< 

Jan. 22, 25, 27.] Ibid., 100. 

FiNLAT (W. H.) [Elements from obsns. 1887, Jan. 22, 25, 28.] Jli 
47: 304. 

Oppenueim (H.) Uber die Bahn des grossen Sudcometen 1887 I. 
Nachr., 117: 18. 

K. (A. W.) The present southern comet. Nature, 85: 488. 

Comet 1887 I (Observations of position of). 1887. 

Adelaide, Jan. 21, 22, 25, 26, 27; Month, not, 47: 805. 

Cape of G<K>d Hope, Jan. 22-25, 27, 28; Ibid,, 808. 

Ci»rdubu, Jan. 21, 22, 24, 25, 27; Astron. jour., 7: 91. Aiso: Attion. 
117: 259. 

MoLONY (£. J.) [Observations with sextant Jan. 21, 22, 25.] Month. 

Comet 1887 I ( Physical appearance of). 

Bi<s<is ( A. B.) [General description.] Eng. m«»c., 45: 174. 

P*[lammakion] (C.) La grando comcte australe de 1887. il. t,\ 

[Kio Janeiro observations, with sketch.] Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 17. 

Tebbl'tt (J.) [Description of a large southern comet] Obsry., 10: 14 

Thome (J. M.) O grande cometa austral. Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 85. 

Comet 1887 II = Comet 1887 6. 

Discr»vered by Brooks at Phelps, N. Y., 1887, Jan. 22. Astron. Jour^ 
Also: Astron. Nachr, 110: 143. AUo: Sid. mess., 6: 118. 
Comet 1887 II (Elements of). 

Bkkukricii (A.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 26, 28.] Astron. V 

Booh (L.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 26, 29.] Ibid,, 116: 16QL 


ZI (Elements of) — Ooniinued, 

(L*.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 24, 29, Feb. 9.] Astron. jour., 7 : 63. 
[Frum oUns. 1887, Jan. 24, Feb. 15 (4 obsns.), Mar. 12.] Ibid., So. 

OrPKVBXllc (H.) [From ob^ns. 1887, Jan. 25, 27, 29.] Astron. Nachr., IIG: 
174. Ai9o: Obsry., 10: 148. 

[From obens. 1887, Jan. 25, 27, 29, Feb. 11.] Astron. Nachr., 116 : 221. 

[From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, Feb. 11, Mar. 11,28.] /6u/., 317. 

SriTAt.KR (R.) [From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 27, 29.] Ibid., 178. 

[From obsns. 1887, Jan. 25, 26, Feb. 12.] Ibid., 206. 

•^..^— [From normals 1887, Jan. 24, Feb. 11, and an observation Feb. 25.] 
Ibid.^ 258. 
»t XSar n (Observations of position of). 1887. 
Albany, Jan. 24, 26, 27, 29, Feb. 9 ; Astron. jour., 7 : 56, 61. Mar. 12 ; Ibid., 85. 

Al^en, Jan. 27, 28; Compt. Rend., 104: 848. Jan. 27, 28, Fob. 19, 21, 28, 
20, if mr. 14; Bull, astron., 4 : 186. Mar. 18, 21-25, Apr. 18, 14; Ibid., 423. 

lio, Feb. 11; Astron. Nachr., 116: 189. 

m, Feb. 24, 26, 28, Mar. 1, 2, 18, 29, Apr. 10, 18, 20; Compt. Rend., 105: 

I, Feb. 9, 18, 19; Astron. Jour., 7 : 80. 

laz, Jan. 29; Astron. Nachr., 116: 157. Also: Compt. Rend., 104: 277. 
Jan. 80, Feb. 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11 ; Compt. Rend., 104 ; 417. Jan. 29, 30, Feb. 
4. 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 18, 15, 16, 17, 24, 26, 27, Mar. 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 17, 18, 25, 28, 
SCI; Aatron. Nachr., 117: 99. 

Bothkamp, Mar. 19, 20; Astron. Nachr , 118: 105. 

Cambridge (Uarv. coll. obsry), Jan. 24, 27; Ihid.,U(i: 191. 

;en, Feb. 13, Mar. 16; Ibid., 118 : 73. 

I, Feb. 15; Astron. Nachr., 116: 208. Feb. 19; Ibid., 249. Mur. 11; 
., 267. Mar. 24; Ibid., 317, 327. 

I, Feb. 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 21-24, 26, 28, Mar. 18, 29-31 ; Astron. Nachr., 
116 : 883. Apr. 18, 20; Ibid., 117 : 55. 

Gottingen, Feb. 15; Astron. Nachr., 116: 203. Feb. 14, 17, 24; Ibid., 240. 
Mar. 11, 15; Ibid., 116: 267. Feb. 14-18, 24, 28, Mar. 1, 11, 15; Ibid., 
117: 149. 

Grecflwicb, Feb. 27, 28; Month, not., 47: 275. Mar. 13, 16, 18, 23, 24, 27; 

Hambarg, Feb. 18, 15; Astron. Nachr., 116: 208. 

Kiel, Jan. 27; Ibid., 157. Feb. 10, 11; Ibid., 189. Feb. 15; Ibid., 2a3. 

KremsmaDsier, Jan. 24-30; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 149. Feb. 12, 14, 15-18,24, 
Mar. 1, 2, 4, 21 ; Ibid,, 118: 105. 

Xnan, Jan. 27; Ibid., 116: 178. 

MmhriUt^ Jan. 28; Astron. jour., 7 : 68. AUo: Astron. Nachr., 116: 203 

Jan. 27-29; Bull, astron., 4 : 185. 

Fkrk, Feb. 12, 18, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24-28, Mar. 1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 
9, li. S7t 9B, 80, Apr. 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 20, 28; Month, not, 48 : 58. 

S B A 


Comet 1887 H (Obsenrations of position of). 1887— CbnftftifadL 

Padaa, Jui. 27-80; Astron. Nachr., 116: 171. 

Palermo, Jan. 29-81; Ibid., 219. Feb. 15, 24; Ibid,, 265. 

Paris, Jan. 27 ; Attron. Nachr., 116 : 178. Jan. 27, 28, 29 ; Compt. 

Plonsk, Feb. 11, 14, 17, 20, 25 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 805. 

Strassburg, Jan. 25-28; Ibid., 116 : 148, 157. Feb. 11; Ibid., 206. ^ 

Toulouse, Jan. 27-81, Feb. 4; Compt Rend., 104 : 487. 

Vienna, Jan. 28, 29; Astron. Naohr., 116 : 178. Fbb. 12; Ibid., 206. 4 
Ibid,, 208. 4 

Washington, Jan. 24, 25; Astron. Jour., 7: 62. Feb. 12, 16, 18; lA 
Mar. 11, 12; Ibid,, 86. 

Oomet 1887 HI = Comet 1887 d. 

Discovered by Barnard at Nashville, 1887, Feb. 16. Astron. Jour., 7 : 
Astron. Nachr., 116: 207, 251. See, aUo, Sid. mess., 6 : 161. 

Comet 1887 HI (Elements of). 

Barnard (E. E.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 18, 22.] Sid. men., 6f 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 28, Mar. 8.] Astron. Jour., 7 : 96. 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 28, Mar. 12.] Astron. Nachr., 117 

Boss (L.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 18, 20.] Astron. Nachr., ij 
AUo: Obsry., 10: 144. 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 16, 19, 22.] Astron. Jour., 7 : 72. 

iron. Nachr., 116 : 228. 

Oppsnheim (H.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 17, 28, 26.] Astion. NmA 

[From obsns. 1887, Feb. 17, 28, Mar. 11.] Ibid., 271. - 

Palisa (J.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 17, 28, 28.] Ibid., 256. J. 

Wendell (O. C.) [From obsns. 1887, Feb. 22, 25, 28.] Ibid., 817. J 

Comet 1887 III (Observations of position of). 1887. i 

Albany, Feb. 19, 22, 25 ; Astron. jour., 7 : 84. i 

Algiers, Feb. 24, 26; Compt. Rend., 104: 671. Feb. 24, 26, Mar. 1|| 
Bull, astron., 4: 187. Mar. 21-26; Ibid,, 424. ^ 

Berlin, Feb. 28; Astron. Nachr., 116 : 251. 

Cambridge (Harv. coll. obsry.), Feb. 17, 19,25, 28; Astron. Jour., 7j| 
Aleo: Astron. Nachr., 116: 267. 

Copenhagen, Mar. 16; Astron. Nachr., 118: 78. 

Dresden, Feb. 24; Ibid., 116: 221. Mar. 11; Ibid., 267. Mmr. 34; 

Geneva, Feb. 24, 26; Ibid,, 116 : 251. Mar. 18; Ibid., 816. 

Gottingen, Feb. 24; Ibid., 116:. 221. 

Greenwich, Feb. 28; Month, not., 47 : 275. 

Hamburg, Feb. 26; Astron. Nachr., 116: 221. 

Kremsmanster, Feb. 24, 25; Ibid., 117 : 149. 

Nashville, Feb. 16, 18, 22 ; Astron. Jour., 7 : 79. ^<to: AitiOD. l 


nz (ObteiTfttioiis of position of ). 1967 ^Continued. 

Siet^Fcb. 28, Ifar. 1 ; Bull, astron., 4 : 194. 

OnreO Pkrk, Feb. 28, Mar. 18, 14, 16, 18, 19, 28, 27, Apr. 10; Month, not, 48: 

P^>«BK>, Feb. 27 ; Astron. Nachr., 116 : 267. 

P^ Feb. 17; Astron. Nachr., 116 : 207. Feb. 17, 24, 27 ; Compt. Rend., 104: 

, Feb. 24; Astron. Nachr., 116 : 261. Feb. 26; Ibid., 117 : 270. 

SKmsbo^, Feb. 28; Ibid., 116 : 221. Mar. 14; Ibid., 267. 

rMBBs, Feb. 24 ; Ibid., 221. Feb. 28 ; Ibid., 261. 

Wsibiaftoii, Feb. 24; Astron. jour., 7 : 78. 

la&f XT = Comet 1887 e. 

Dkeortnd bj Barnard at Nashville, 1887, May 12. Astron. jour., 7 : 96. AUo: 
Astran. Nachr., 117 : 81. AUo.- Sid. mess., 6 : 220. 

Bit latT nr (ElemenU of). 

AMtm (A.) [From obsns. 1887, May 14, 18, 21.] Astron. Nacbr.,J17 : 102. 

(F. H.) [Three normals Arom obsns. 1887, June 12>22.] Sid. mess., 
<: S21. 
(L.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 14, 16.] Astron. jour., 7 : 96. 

Cbajtdlkr <.S. C.) jr. [From normals 1887, May 14, 19, 24, 30.] Astron. jour , 

T: 104. 

[From normals 1887, May 14, 30, June 12, July 12.] Ibid., 121. 

[Elliptic elements from normals 1887, May 14, June 12, July 12.] Ibid., 

.AMF (£.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 14, 16.] Astron. Nacbr., 117 : 81. 
FrurBKlM (H.) [From obsns. 1887, May 12, 16, 17.] Ibid., 46. 

[From normals 1887, May 14, 19, and an observation May 28.] Ibid., 61. 

[From obsns. 1887, May 14, 19, 28, June 16.] Ibid., 119. 
KIM (8.) [From obsns. 1897, May 12, 14, 16, 17.] Astron. Nuchr., 

117 : 46. 

[;From obsns. 1887, May 12, 17, 22, 29.] Ibid., 62. 
[From normals 1887, May 16, 22, 29, June 24.] Ibid., 166. 
X9i»KLi. (O. C.) [From obsns. 1887, May 13, 19, 25.] Ibid., 119. 

^ jjB07 XV (Obaervations of position of). 1887. 

ij, Kaj 13, 16, 18, 28; Astron. jour., 7 : 108. 

16, 18-21, 28, 24; Astron. Nachr., 117: 67. AUo: Compt. Rend., 
HM : 1493. May 26, 26, 28, June 9, 10, 16, 16, 20, 22, 28 ; Bull, ustron., 4 : 
Aag. 8, 9; Bull, astron., 4 : 466. 

; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 48. June 16, 24, 26; Ibid., 117 : 385. 
18. 14, 16, 17, 18, 20-24, July 8, 12, 16, 28; Compt. Bend., 105: 



Comet 1887 IV (ObMrvations of position of). 1887— OmfuMMi. 1 

Bordeaux, Maj 22, 26, 27, June 8-18, 21, 22; Astron. Nachr., 117: M 
Gompt Bend., 104 : 1822. June 28-Jul7 2, 6, 7, 11, 12, 18, 19, i 
27, 29, Aug. 6, 8, 10; Aatron. Nachr., 117 : 807. AUo: Oompt A! 
408. j 

Bothkamp, June 15, 16, 24 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 188. June 28, JolX ^ 
216. > 

Cambridge (Chandler), May 80, July 12; Astron. Jour., 7 : 162. 

Cambridge (Harr. coll. obsry.). May 18, 14, 19, 25, 80; Aation. JoOl 
AUo: Astron. Nachr., 117: 248. June 7, 8, 18, 14, 16,25; Aj^ 
7: 119. AUo: Astron. Nachr., 117: 248. J 

Cape of Good Hope, May W, 21, 28, 24, 27, June 8, 9, 11, 18* 14, 16, 13^ 
Nachr., 117: 839. i 

Dresden, May 19; Ibid.,iS. May 22; Ibid.j 69. June 18; TbitL^lSS. 1 
Ibid., 215. H 

Geneva, May 19; Ibid., 48. j 

Gohlis, June 13, 14, 16-19, 22, 25; Astron. Nachr., 117: 214. 

Gottingen, June 15-17, 22; Ibid., 183. 

Greenwich, June 12, 18, 19; Ibid., 215. 

Hamburg, June 16, 17, 19 ; Ibid., 119, 188. 

Harrow, June 12, 15, 17, 19, 22. Month, not., 47 : 550. 

Kiel, May 14 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 81. May 16, 21 ; Ibid,, 48. 

Rremsmunstcr, May 15, 26, June 18, 15, 18, 19, 28, 24, 25, 27, Jaly 
118: 107. 

Marseilles, May 14, 18, 22, 23, 24, 27, June 8-18, 15, 16, 17, 22, 28; 
4: 462. 

Nashville, May 12, 13, 14; Astron jour., 7: 99. AUo: Astron. Hadii 
May 12, 13, 14, 18, 24, 25, 26, 28, June 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, », 
jour.» 7: 111. AUo: Astron. Nachr., 117: 248. July 8, 9, 11, 
20, 26, Aug. 10, 11 ; Astron. jour., 7 : 126. AUo : Astron. Nachr.,! 

Nice, May 14; Astron. Nachr., 117: 43. May 14, 17, 18, 20-28; Bl 
4 : 225. May 27, July 7, 11, 18, 28 ; Ibid,, 880. 

Nicolaief, May 14, 15, 17, 18, 21 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 65. 

Orwell Park, June 9, 10, 12, 18, 15, 17, 18, 20, 22, July 11, 12, 18, 14, 

27, 28; Month, not, 48: 61. 

Padua, May 14 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 48. May 18, 21 ; Ibid,, 101. 
Palermo, May 15, 21 ; Ibid., 81, 59. May 28, 80, 81 ; Ibid,, 101. 
Paris, May 14; Astron. Nachr., 117: 48. AUo: Compt. Rend., 104: 
Prague, May 27; Astron. Nachr., 117: 59. 

Rome, May 14, 15 ; Astron. Nachr., 117 : 43. May 17, 19, 27, 80, Ji 
Ibid., 270. May 14, 15, 17, 19, 27, 80, June 7; Atti. d. r. 
8. 4. Rendic, 3 : 481. July 8, 10-17, 21, 22, 24, Aug. 6, 7 1 ii 
117: 275. 

Scarborough, May 20, 21, 29; Month, not, 47 : 498. 


TV (Obtervations of position of). 1887 — Continued. 

ibargi lifty 16; Astron. Kachr., 117 : 81. 

na, Umj 16, 17 ; Ibid,, 48. 

hini^Um, Hay 14, 19, 21; Astron. Jour., 7 : 101. 

1887 y = Comet 1887/. See Comet Olben. 

L See, oito, Comets and meteors ; Comets (Orbits of). 

tBXfticB (A.) Hethode sonnennahe Cometen bei Tage aufzufinden. Astron. 
Kaehr., 118 : 71. 
XTUtan (S. V.) Optical appearances of comets. Sid. mess., 6 : 89-95, 120. 

B-axrvn (J.) Sur les distances des plandtes au soleil, et sur les distances des 
eonitei periodiques. Ahatr,: Compt. Rend., 106: 616. 

>nLUifui(A.) Lesoomdtes. 12 + 287 p. il. 8vo. Paris, 1887. (M. 1.20.) 

BftUncBEK (J.) ttber die Frage nach der existenz von Cometensystemen. 

Anittigsr der Wiener Alcad. 1887, Nr. 16. 
hn.: Astron. Nachr., 117 : «e. 
^wooD (D.) Note on the origin of comets. Am. j. sc., 188 : 60. AUo: 

Sid. men., 6 : 77. 

^^o>CK (W. H. 8.) [Connection of comets and asteroids.] Obsry., 10 : 230. 

UnuwiQiB (J.) Zur Rometen-statistik. [Comets and the periodicity of sun- 

'poti.] K. Akad. d. Wissensch. in Wien, sitsng. d. math.-naturwissen. CI. 

^JoUe 1887. AUo: Mem. soc. spettroscp. ital., 16: 99-101. AUo^ abstr.: 

Srini,20: 227. 
WiLLuiu (G. O.) [Cometary phenomena reproduced by reflections from spher- 

Miliarfisces.] il. Sc. Am. sup., 9732. 
■•ti ia4 metoon. 

"^"cznsci (B.) Sine wahrscheinliche Periodicitat von hellen Meteoren und 
ibvihncheinlicher Zusammenhang mitdem periodischen Cometen Tempel. 
AKion. Nicbr., 116 : 263, 309. See, also, Ibid., 116 : 101. 

^''KilA.) Les m^t^res de Biela, 27 nov., 1886. Bull. soc. sc. nat. de Neu- 
<^,16: 186-189. 

IlttwooD (D.) fiiela's comet and the large meteors of Nov. 27-30. Proc. 
Att.phil.soc., 24: 242. 

-*— Note on the possible existence cf fireballs and meteorites in the stream of 
Bididf. /6uf., 486. 

UousoB (E.) Aurores bor^ales, comdtes et ^toiles fllantes. Ciel et terrc, 7: 

bleoroe de 18-14 de Novembro. il. Rev. d. obsrio., 2 : 168. 

V NiniL (6.) ttber die grossen Meteore im Juni und ihre vermuthete Bezie- 
hnagaam periodischen Cometen Tempel. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 97-102. 

•CfOB (R. A.) Origin of comets and meteors. Knowl., 10: 64, 186. AUo: 
Fop. ic month., 81 : 60-^. 

(O. C.) [Radianto of the comeU of 1886.] Astron. Nachr., 118 : 176. 
fid. BMM., 6 : 869. 

r] (O.) Comdtes et plandtes de 1886. Bull, astron., 4 : 16. 



Comets of 1886 — dmiinued, A 

KftBiTTZ (H.) Zusammeostellung der Cometen-Eracheinungen did 
Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 14-28. AhOy trand,: Sid. ■ 
210. AUoj Beprint. « 

P. (W. E.) Comets of 1886. Month, not., 47 : 172. 

WiMLOCK (W. G.) [List of the] cometo of 1886. Sid. mess., 6 : 

Comets (Orbits of). See^ aUoy Orbits. 

Evans (W. G.) Motion of a comet when perturbed and resisted^ 

Harknkss (W.) Representation of comets' orbits by models 

6: 829-849. | 

HoLBTSCHEK (J.) Kichtungen der grossen Achsen der Kometld 
8«. Wien, 1887. ; 

Hoover (W.) Gometary perturbations. 18 p. 8vo. Wooster, QJ 

Kreutz (H.) Bericht uber Gometen. Yrtljschr. d. astron. G^eselw 

866. 3 

MoKCK (W. H. S.) Inclinations of cometary orbits. Month. 

OrbiUofcomeU. Obsry., 10: 824. 

Searle (G. M.) Method of computing an orbit from three o1 
tron. jour., 7 : 140-144, 158-155. 


Lynn (W. T.) [Babylonian origin of the constellations.] Obsry^l 

Copenhagen obsenratory. 

Thiele (T. N.) Bestimmung der Langen-Differenz zwiscfaen Lui 
hagen. 56 p. 4to. Lund, 1886. 

Cordoba observatory. ^ 

Gould (B. A.) Gorrections to the Uranometria Argentina andl^ 
catalogues. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 879. 

Resultados del observatorio nacional Argcntino en Gdrdoba bajo 
B. A. Gould. J. M. Thome, director. Vol. 5. Observacioneip 
180 -f- 559 p. 4to. Buenos Aires, 1886. "^ 

Same. Vol. 6. Observaciones del aflo 1875. 44 -f 649 p. % 

Aires, 1887. j 

Same. Vol. 9. Observaciones del aflo 1876. 22 + 261 p. | 


»1. I 

Aires, 1887. 

Corona (Solar). 

Enkis (J.) Golors in the solar corona. Sid. mess., 6: 278-281 

Wesley (W. H.) The solar corona as shown in photographs takfl 
eclipses. Month, not., 47: 499-510. 
IHseutaed : Obsry., 10 : 25L 

Cosmogony, See, cUso, Nebular hypothesis. 

Braun (G.) Uber Gosmogonie vom Standpunkt christUdMr 
einer Theorie der Sonne. 167 p. 8vo. Munster, 1887. 
Bev. bj Clarke (A. M.) Nature. 36 : 3Sl, Ml. Sm^ slis^ I 
Alto: Obsry., 10: 801. 


€Ma(i|uiiy— CbfififiiMef. 

FuiucAiioir (C.) L'univen mnt6rieur. L'Astron., 6 : 41-48. 

G^na (A.) Die Entstehung der Bewegung : eine Kosmogonie. 16 p. 8vo. 

Om, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Uouxoi (C.) Uiie rSflexion au si^et de la conception purement m^mnique de 

iHuiTon. Ciel et terre, 8 : 845-868. 
Zdqii(C. y.) L'^volution sid^rale. Compt. Bend., 105 : 1289. 

[P^poied transfer of instruments, etc.] Sid. mess., 6 : 81, 324. 

i^Ofti (Annual) of the board of directors of the Chicago astronomical society, 
tOfoUier with the report of the director of the Dearborn observatory for 1886 
and 1886. 60 p. il. 8vo. Chicago, 1887. 

l^OD (D. P.) Best device for revolving a dome. il. Month, not., 47 : 272* 


JHtctuttd: Obfry., 10: 90. 

(Alamndro) [1825-1886]. 

Suoci (F.) Alessandro Doma. Commemorazioni e catalogo delle sue puhbli- 
ctikmL 8 p. 8vo. Torino, 1887. 

Bsobaehtongen der kaiserlichen dniversitats-Stemwarte Dorpat. 17. Bd. Redu- 
cirte Beobachtungen am Meridiankreise von Zonensternen und mittlere 
Orter durselben f\ir 1875-6, . . . von L. Schwarz. 89 -f- 151 -f- 47 p. 4to. 
Dorpat, 1887. 

(W. S.) Magnitudes of double stars. J. Liverp. astron. soc., 5 : 44-47. 

GomK (J. E.) Masses and distances of the binary stars. Ibid.^ 47. 

Hall (A.) Nomenclature of double stars. Astron. jour., 7 : 120. 

himov (B.) Moyen facile d'observer les ^toiles doubles avec une grande ap- 
ptoximation sans Equatorial ni micromdtre. L'Astron., 6 : 187-191. 

(J.) Nachtrag zu dem Artikel, ** Die Auflosbarkeit der Doppelsteme in 
F«rDrohren von verschiedener Grosse." Sirius, 20 : 38-44. 

(W. H. S.) Brightness and masses of binary stars. Obsry., 10 : 96. 

— .— Farther notes on binary stars. Obsry., 10 : 134. 

P^risc of the royal Danish academy.] Bull, astron., 4 : 164. 

(F.) Sur la force qui produit les mouvements des 6toiles doubles. 
Boll, action., 4 : 5-15. 

(Measures of). 

(E.) Misure micrometriche ... 2 v. Boma, 1883, 1884. 

r. by Sebnr (W.) Vriljschr. d. astron. G«»ellsoh., S8 : 200-236. 

(B.) Milcrometrische Beobachtungen von C Cancri. Astron. 
117: 278. 

le Messungen von Struve'schen weiten Doppeliternen. 


ComeU of 1886— OmftniMtf. 

Kbectz (H.) Zusammenstellan? ./m^i 17-80. 

Vrtljschr. d. aftron. Gewlf - . ..;« aUn dUcoTered with th« 

210. i4^«o, Beprint. . .^,y. Aitron. Xachr., 116: 

P. (W. E.) ComeU of! 

WxKLOCK (W. C.) [T ' ,rfiAriques d'Moiles doubles, [18844 

ComeU (OrbiU of). S .^ 

Evans (W. C.) ** ' j^ Beobachiangsfehler bei der Bestimi 

130~1S4. -;J'(7oinponente dcs Doppelstcrns 2' 2398. 

Harkse88(V •..-/ 512-845. 

C: 329- . .. * /wper motion of Lai. 4219.] Sid. mess., 6 

HoLB'nci' . V ^ i^ULlJ'* (P-) ^cw double stars discovei 

8©^ • *' ^observatory. Astron. jour., 7 : 90. 

HooT^ -'^-'^Mfoz^ ^^ southern double stars made at the ol 

^ '^- ■-. If. Month, not, 47: 473-477. 

,~«'V' * ificrometrical measures of 25 double star?. J. Livf 
> l;]-- i/W 201. 229. 

^) Xuova determinazione dell'orbita dclla stella doppi 
'^-^.^J Jfachr., 117: 379. 

',j^^P (S*) Bahn des Doppelsterns <f Equulci. Ibid.^ IIG : 

'^ XjT) Orbit of 12 Lyncis {1 948). /A.W., 117 : 2I»0. 

^ Orbit of 14 (t) Orionis (O. Struve, 98). Month, not., 47 : 2t5«. 

''^^ Orbit of V 1757. /^/c/, , 478. 

^^ Orbit of ;? Eridani. Ibid., 48 : 2G. 

^j^sfB (A.) Formulae for correcting approximate elements of tlM 
binary stare. Ibtd.f 47 : 480-494. Also^ Reprint. 

A observatory (Engclhardt^s). 

ro>' ExuELUARDT (B.) [Report for 188G.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gen 

Ilf«flden observatory (K. math. Sulon). 

Drecusler (A.) [Report for 188G.] IbULy 100. 

Onnecht observatory. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 158. 

Dansink observatory. 

Astronomical observations and researches . . . Ft. 6. 99 p. 4tQ 


[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 153. 
Dnsseldorf observatory. 

Luther (R.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. OeselUch., S| 

Baling observatory (Common's). 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 158. 


Abvkt (W. de W.) Transmission of sunlight through the earth's atmosphere. 
88 p. 4to. London, 1887. (M. 1.30.) 

AsDBBSOK (A. A.) Terra: on a hitherto unsuspected second axial rotition of 
our earth. 8vo. London^ 1887. (H. 6.30.) 

LocKTSB (J. N.) The movements of the earth. 130 p. 12mo. New York, 
1887. ($0.60.) 

PABXBtrBST (H. M.) The earth's temperature. Papers Am. astron. soc, 1 : 

ScHWAHN (P.) Anderungen der Lage der Figur-und der Rotations-Axe der 
Erde sowie einige mit dem Rotationsproblem in Beziehung stehende geo- 
physiche Probleme. 51 p. 4to. Berlin, 1887. (M. 2.) 

WiLBiNO (J.) Mittheilung uber die Resultate von Pcndelbeobachtungen zur 
Bestimmung der mittleren Dichtigkeit der Erde. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. 
Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Berlin, 1887 : 327-834. AIbo^ Reprint. (M. 1.) 


Albbbcht (T.) Uber eine durch Erdbeben veranlasste Niveaustorung. Astron. 
Nachr., 116: 129-134. 


Lakbnicachbb (E.) Osterformeln. Astron. Nachr., 116: 325-328; 117: 135. 

Schmidt (R.) Noch einige Beraerkungen zu den Lakenmacher'schen Oster- 
formeln. Ibid. ,117: 51 . 

ScBBAic (R.) Bemerkungen zu Herrn Lakenmacher's Osterformeln. Ibid,^ 116: 

^lipte of the moon 1887, Aug. 8. 

Baubchingbb (J.) [Obsn. at Munich.] Astron. Nachr., 118: 122. 

C. (M.) [Obsns. at La Tour de Peilz.] Nature, 86 : 413. 

H. (H.) [Peculiar distortion of earth's shadow observed.] Nature, 86 : 367. 

JoHJTSOK (S. J.) Color of eclipsed moon. Obsry., 10: 325. 

Klein (H. J.) [Obsns. at Cologne.] Sirius, 20 : 193. 

VON KoNKOLY (N.) [Obsns. at O'Gyalla.] Ibid., 285. 

Liscabbault (E.) Eclipse . . . visible A Orgires. Compt. Rend., 105: 370. 

Malbt (H. P.) [Obsns. at Killin.] Nature, 86 : 418. 

RiTET (O.) [Obsns. at Bordeaux.] Compt. Rend., 105: 305. 

[Resum6 of observations.] il. L 'Astron., 6 : 848-851. 

8cbub (W.) [Obsns. at Gottingen.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 888. 

Wbinek (L.) [Obsns. at Prague.] Astron. Nachr., 117: 881. 

^Olipte of the lan 1884, Oct 4. 

^OsTNBB (F.) Bestimmung der Orter der vom Monde wahrend der totalen Fin-> 
stemiss 1884, Oct 4, bedeckten Sterne am grossen Meridian kreise lu Berlin. 
Astron. Nachr., 116: 225-240. 

^UpM of the Sim 1886, Aug. 28-29. 

Johnson (S. J.) [Photographs of partial phase at sea.] Obsry., 10: 224. 


Solipse of the sun 1886, Aug. 28-2^^ Continued, 

Pkrbt (S. J.) Report of the observation ... at Carriaooa. Proe. i^ 

47: 816. j 

PicKERiKO (W. H.) [Account of his observations.] Science, 10: tj^ 
abstr.: Obsry., 10: 806. Also, nhstr,: Bull, astron., 4: 408. j 

[Schuster (A.) Preliminary account of observations.] Ahstr.: Ohay^^li 

Stock WELL (J. N.) [Obsn. of last contact] Astron. jour., 7 : 8. ^ 

T[urneb] (H. H.) [Results of the English expedition to Granada.] | 
not., 47: 176. '^j 

SoUpse of the eun 1887, Auf;. 18. ) 

Albrecht (T.) Die totale Sonnenflnstemiss am 19. August, 1887, 
sichc uber die hcrvorragendsten Sonnenfinstemisse innerhalb 
im 19. u. 20. Jahrh. 32 p. 8vo. Berlin, 1887. (] 

Darstellung der totalen Sonnenflnstemiss . . . auf carton rait vei 
Mondscheibe. Berlin, 1887. (] 

Ennis (J.) The total solar eclipse of August next. Sid. mess., 6 : M 

Flamm ARiON (C.) L'^lipse totale de soleil du 19 aoAt 1887. it. 
6: 241-262. 

Garkier (P.) L'^lipse de soleil du 19 ao(it 1887. il. Ihid.^ 806. 

[List of stations and observers.] Obsry., 10 : 207. 

Niesten (L.) [Circumstances, path, etc., of the oclipse.] Ciel et tei 

ScHURio (R.) Karte der grossen Sonnenflnstemiss am Morgen des 19. 
fol. Leipzig, 1887. 

Todd (D. P.) On observations of the eclipse of 1887, Aug. 18, in 
with the electric telegraph. Am. j. sc, 183 : 226. 

WoEiKOF (A.) [List of stations in Russia desirable for meteorologi< 
tions.] Nature, 36 ; 77. 

Zenker (W. ) Sichtbarkei t und Verlauf der totalen SonnenflnstemiM imi 
land. 29 p., 1 pi. 8vo. Berlin, 1887. 

Bolipae of the aan 1887, Aug. 18. (Observations of.) 

Abetti (A.) at Padua. Astron. Nachr., 117: 279. 

Albrecht (T.) at Goldap. Ibid., 280. 

Belopolsky (A.) at Jurjewctz. Ibid., 118: 45. 

DE BoHDAXOViTHZ (G.) at Irkoutsk. L'Astron., 6 : 426. 

CoPELAND (R.) A Perry (S. J.) near Kineshma. Month, not., 48: 

DuNiR (N. C.) at Lund. Astron. Nachr., 118: 26. 

Galle (J. G.) [Report of observations at Breslau; also, at Frankfort! 
mann, and at Kolmar by Korber.] Astron. Nachr., 117 : 811. 

Garnier (P.) at Wilna. L'Astron., 6 : 364. 

GouRDET (P.) L'dclipse et le tremblement de terre en Ruatie. iL 

Herz (N.) at Wicn-Ottakring. Astron. Nachr., 118: 26. 

Janssen (J.) Note sur T^lipse du 19 aoikt dernier. Compt. 

KoHOirowiTscH (A.) at Petrowsk. Astron. Nachr., 118: Si. 


mUfm d th« mm 1887, Aug. 18. (Observations of )-~Ckmi%nu^. 

I iwIOtblioitbt (R.) at Bromberg. Ibid,, 117 : 295. 
f IiC«n (A.) at Ki^l. Ibid., 263. 

Kfimnn (F.) at Berlin. Ibid., 268. 

Uxp (£.) at Goldap. Ibid. , 268. 

^ LifClOBKB (F.) at Pola. Ibid., 118 : 23. 

txtms (L.) at Juijewetz. Ciel et terre, 8: 297, 389. Also: L'Astron., 6: 
i M-Mi. AUo, iransl,: Sid. mess., 6 : 262-265. 

Ckn (H.) Die Sonnenflnsterniss am 19. Aug. beobachtet in Upsula. Photo- 
gr^ihitehe Auftiahme in 6 verschiedenen Momenten. 1 sheet, 2.5 X 15.5cm. 
UpMlm, 1887. (M. I.) 

(J.) at Constantinople. L*Astron., 6 : 391. 

(F.) at Turin. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 279. 

[PinltBioAry reports from various stotions.] Nature, 36 : 398, 430, 4S2, 455. 

Iiyoit of the solar eclipse of 19th August, 1887. Naval observatory in the hy- 
dio^rmpliic office, Tokio. No. 11. 38 p., 2 pi. 4to. Tokio, 1887. 
lapsDete eharaeters. 
wrSrxcaaxv ( — ) near Berlin. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 295. 

PBfTAiCA (M.) Photographs taken at Yomeiji-yama, Echigo, Japan. 1 p. 
4fto. Tokio [1887]. 

of observations at various stations.] Sirius, 20 : 207, 229, 258. 

(D. P.) [Account of the expedition to Japan.] Obsry., 10: 871-376. 

(M. L.) The eclipse expedition to Japan. Nation, 45 : 137,169,220,554. 

(J.) at £lpatievo Narischkinc. L' Astron., 6 : 353. 

fSBsm (L.) Photometrische Beobachtungcn wahrcod der Sonnenflnsterniss 
1877, Aug. 18-19 [Breslau]. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 17-22. 

Xdipset (Lea) du dix-neuvi^me sidcle. il. L'Astron., 6: 252-260. 

(F. K.) tJber einige von persischen und arabischen Schrifisiellen or- 
wihnte Sonnen-und Mondflnstcmisse. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. 
WiMenach., 1887. Also, Reprint. (M. 0.50.) 

(S. J.) Notes on a manuscript eclipse volume. Month, not., 47: 430. 
firlipMs in Eoglalid A. D. 53S— A. D. 230(). 

on the " Canon der Finsternisse." Obsry., 10 : 302. 

fK.) trber die bei totalen Sonnenflnsternissen auftretenden Er^chcin- 
der ^'iliegenden Schatten " und der *< Baily's beads" (Perlcnreihe). 
. Nachr., 116: 321. 

(F. K.) Uber die geringsten Phase welche bei der Beobachtung von 
nftemiesen mit freiem Auge noch gesehen werdcn kann. Astron. 
., 118: 119. 

fftar Mnige hittorische besonders in altspanischen Gesichtsquellen er- 

temirae. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu 
: 98i-M0, 2 pi. AUo, Reprint. (M. 1.50.) 


Eolipias of the san — Continued, *\ 

Mahlbr (E.) Eine in einer syrischen Grabintchrift erwihnte SoniMl 
8 p. 8vo. Wien, 1887. j 

Bdinburgh obierratory. i 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 158. <^ 

Ephemeridas and almanacs. 1 

Almanaque nautico para el alio 1889 ... 11 + 669 p. 4to. 

American ephemeris and nautical almanac for . . . 1890. 1 ed« 
4to. Washington, 1887. 

Annuaire de I'observatoire royal de Bruzelles. Ann^ 56. 1888. 
elles, 1887.] 

Annuaire pour Tan 1888, public par le bureau des longitudes. 19-4- 
[Paris, 1887.1 

Annuario del observatorio de La Plata para el aflo 1887. 424 p. 

Annuario publicado pelo imperial observatorio do Rio de Janeiro 
1888. 12mo. Rio Janeiro, 1887. 

Anuario del observatorio astron6mico nacional de Tacubaja pam j 
. . . Aiio 8. 299 p. 16mo. Mexico, 188T. 

Astronomisch-nautische Epheraenden fur das Jahr 1888. Hng. too i 
meteorologischen Observatorium der. k. k. Handelt and naal 
emie in Triest unter Redaction von F. Anton. Jahrg. I. 88 -(«) 
Triest, 1887. 

Berliner astronomisches Jahrbuch fur 1889. 8 + 496 -{- 86 + 26 p. 

Charrier (A.) Effemerdi del sole, della luna et dei prinoipali 
per I'anno 1888. 29 p. 8vo. Torino,.1887. 
Repr.froin: Atti d. r. Accad. d. sc. d. Torino, 22. 
Companion (Annual) to the Observatory. 55 p. 8vo. London, II 

Repr.from : Obsry., 11 : 1-65. 18S8. 

Connaissance des temps pour I'an 1888, public par le bureau 
5 _j_ 829 -f- 126 p. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 

Same. Eztrait & I'usage des ^ooles d'hydrographie et des 

mcrce. 100 p. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 

DOllek (W.) Stem-Ephemeriden auf das Jahr 1888 zur Beatii 
und Azimut mittelst des tragbaren Durchgangsinitruments im! 
Polarsterns. 24 + 27 p. 4to. St. Petersburg, 1887. 

DuBOiB (E.) EphemSrides astronomiques et annuaire det 
12mo. Paris, 1887. 

Ephemerides astronomicas calculadas paro o meridiano do ol 
sidade de Coimbra . . . para o anno de 1888. lS-{- 
Coimbra, 1887. 

Flaicmabiok (C.) Annuaire astronomique pour 1887. 1^ 

LorwT (M.) Ephemerides des etoiles de culminatSofi.l' 
pour 1888. 41 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 



and wlauLumo*— Continued. 

(The) almaiuw and astronomical ephemeris for tho year 1891 . 10 -|- 
€14 -h 1^ P- 8vo. London, 1887. (2 a.6d,) 

hm Jahrbuch oder Ephemeriden und Tafein fur das Jahr 1890 zur Bes- 
tiaamuDg der Zeit, Lange und fireite zur See nach astronomiachen Beobach- 
Hrfg. von Reichsamt des Innern. Berlin, 1887. (M. 1.50 ) 

See^ aho, Illumination. 

(M.) Einfache Methodc den Gang cines Triebwerks zu prufen. Astron. 
Kachr., lltf: 117. 

See Obaervationi (Errors of). 

In Mtronomica, qualis in charta segyptica superest. Denuo edita a F. Blass. 
fip. 4to. Kiliac, 1887. * (M. 1.) 

% mleOf Sun (Statistics of faculse, pn>minences, spots, etc., for 1886). 

(A.) Latitudine eliograflche o frequenza dei gruppi di facole brillanti 
diumnte il Mfaennio 1881-1886. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 80-85. 

of positions and areas of spots and faculie ... on photographs taken 
mt Greenwich, in India, and in the Mauritius. Greenw. spectrscp. 
1886: 84-104. 

(P.) Faoole solari osservate al regio osservatorio del collegio Romano 
I 1888. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 4-7. 

Obeerratlons solaires du deuxidme semes tro 1886. Compt. Rend., 104 : 2lfi. 

Ciwerrazioni di macchie e facole solari. [4* trimestre, 1886.] Atti d. r. 
id. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 14. 

S»me. 1* trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 265. 

Observations solaires faitcs h Rome pendantie premier trimestre do Tunn^e 
1««>7. Compt. Rend., 104: 1082; 105: 210. 

— Seme. 2* trimestre. Ihiii.,105: 211. 

8* trimestre. Ibid., 1002. 

Xaochie e facole solari osservate al regio osservatorio del collegio Romano 
nri 1* trimestre del 1887. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 88-86, 54-57. 

Ssune. 2* trimestre. Ibid., 87-90. 

Seme. 8* trimestre. Ibid., IIS. 


Obitnerf, aee L'Astron., 6 : 892. Also: Nature, 35 : 806 

(Kegmand) [18167-1887]. 

( — ) Todes-Anzeige. Astron. Nnchr., 117 : 391. 

XS (J. M.) Horizontal flexure of vertical circles. Astron. Nachr., 
118: 147-152. 

MtdMod for measuring the astronomical flexure in zenith distance for nil 
of the instrument. Ibid., 147. 

r (JMph) [1787-1826]. 

(O. M.) (3edachtnissrede auf J. von Fraanhofer sur Feier leines 
80 p. 4to. Munchen, 1887. 'H.a80.) 


Fraanhofer (Joseph) [1787-1826]— Cbntintieci 

Feetbericht uber die Gedenkfeier sur hundertjihrigeii Wiederkehr dtf 
stages Josef Fraunhofer'i am 6. Mars, 1887, im Berliner Rathhanat^, 
f. iDstrmknd., 7 : 114-128. [Portrait] 

VoiT ( — ) [Biographical notice.] 20 p., portr. 8to. Munch«n, I8l| 


See, also, Obsry., 10 : 230. AUo : Biriat, 20 : 40-M, IIS. 

Geneva obaerratory. 

Oautisr (E.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljachr. d. attron. Oeaellach., ttl 

Rapport sur lo concours pour le rSglage dee chronomdtrea pendant 1^ 
. . . par E. Gautier. [11] p. 8vo. [n. p., 1887.] ^ 

Qlaaa (Optical). See^ also^ Objectives. *• 

Dallinoer (W. H.) Value of the new apochromatic lensea. •^tMh| 
36: 467. ? 

Gill (D.) [Remarks on (he new optical glass.] Obsiy., 10: 214. 
Bull, astron., 4 : 801. 

N1SL8KM (Y.) Schott and Abba's new optical glass. £ng. mec, 4 
also J Ibid.f 668. 

ToRKOW (E.) Relative Preise der Rohglasplatten fur Femxohr-oliji 
oinem Yorschlage zu deren systematischer Normirung. il. Zt 
strmknd., 7: 247. 

Ootha observatory. 

Becker (£.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. €ksellsch.| 

GOttingen observatory. 

ScHi{R (W.) Festlegung des siidlichen Endpunktes der Oani 

sung auf der Stemwarte in Gottingen. Astron. Nachr., 11^: M^ 

[Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellich., 22: 104->] 

Gravitation. See^ also^ Mechanics (Celestial); Planets. 

Rethwisch (E.) Die Bewegung im Weltenraum. Kritik der Seh^ 
Analyse der Axendrehuog. 146 p. 8vo. Berlin, 1887. 

Stekneck (R.) Untersuchungen uber die Schwere im Innem der 
theil. d. k. k. militar-geogr. Inst. Wien, 1886. 
Rev. : Ball, astron., 4 : 234. 

Greenwich observatory. 

Astronomical and magnetical and meteorological observations made 
observatory, Greenwich, in the year 1886, under the direction of! 
Christie. [966] p. 4to. London, 1887. 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 148-161. 

Report of the astronomer royal . . . 4to. [London, 1887.] 

Turner (H. H.) Yariations of level and azimuth of the traatit 
not., 47 : 826-888. 

Grignon observatory. 

Lamet (F. M.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. 


piipori for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 161. 

. . . vol. 17. The almucantar : an investigation made at the observatory 
IB 1884 and 1885, bj 8. C. Chandler, jr. 9 + 222 p., 1 pi. 4to. Cambridge, 
1887. (M. 18.) 

. . . vol. 18, [no*. 1 and 2.] 27 p. 4to. [Cambridge, 1887.] 

9o. 1 : Magiiitiides of start employed in various nautical almanacs. No. 2 : Di»cas- 
•ioB of the Uranometria Oxoniensis. 

ftend [circular no. 1]. 8 p. 4to. [Cambridge, 1887.] 

Same. No. 2. Meteorological observations. 6 p. 4to. [Cambridge, 

Ibnd and preliminary experiments in Colorado. Sc. Am. sup., 9715. 

[DiBKripiion of the instruments and of the methods of astronomical photogmphy 
■ft Herrmrd college observatory.] il. Sc. Am., 67 : 289, 278. 

(Heniy) memorial. First annual report of the photographic study of 
ilelkir spectra ... . [by] E. C. Pickering. 10 p., 1 pi. Cambridge, 1887. 

Aim: Mom. toe. spettrtcp. Ital., 16 : 93-96. Alao^ Bev. : Obsry., 10 : 231. Alto : Nuturo, 
91: 81,41. 

(4Sd Annual) of the director . . . E. C. Pickering . . . Dec. 2, 1887. 
13 p. 8vo. Cambridge, 1887. 

(A.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. oslron. GeselUch., 22 : 116-117 
Nsy obMnrmtory. 

;1iv GirrBAKD (E.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., 118-120. 
Um (Sir William) [1788-1822]. 

CkavBBBB (G. F.) [Note concerning his life at Bath.] Obsry., 10 : 166. 
in Sottf obeerratory. 

fur 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 171. 

(J. L. E.) Electric illumination of the Arinagh refractor. Month. 
W)C,47: 117. 

(O.) Telescopic illumination. [Electric] Sid. mess., 6: 73. 

^ See Chronometers ; Clocks ; Circle-divisions ; Equatorial ; Illumina- 
; Objectives. 

iV (R.) Sur un probldme d'interpolation. Bull, astron., 4: 515-519. 

(T. N.) Ausgleichung und Interpolation von Zeitbestimmun^. Vrtljschr. 
4. aatron. Gesellsch., 22 : 302-313. 

(6. D. E.) Interpolation bei periodischen Functionen. Jbid.j 292. 

laScrpolation fur die Mitte bei periodischen Functionen. Astron. Nacbr., 
17: tl»-S22. 

at Grinnell, Iowa.] Sid. mess., 6: 322. 


Journali (Astronomical). 

Astronomical (The) journal. Edited by B. A. Gk)uld, Cambridge, Mass. [Sen::- 
monthly.] v. 7. 4to. Boston. ($o.00 ) 

L 'Astronomic. Revue d'astronomie populaire . . . publi6e par 0. Flammarion. 
[Monthly.] 6. Ann6e, 1887. 488 p. 4to. Paris, 1886. (14 fr.) 

Astronomische Nachrichten. Hrsg von A. Kruger. Bd. 116 [Nr. 2761-2784]. 
7 + 402 p. 4to. Kiel, 1887. (M. 16.) 

' Same. Bd. 117 [Nr. 2786-2808]. 7 + 407 p. 4to. Kiel, 1887. (M. 16.) 

Bulletin astronomique, publiee sous les auspices de Tobservatoire de Paris pai 
T.TissQT^nd [and others], [Monthly.] Tome 4, 1887. 667 p. 8vo. Paris, 

Bulletin des sciences math^matiques et astronomiques. R6dig6e par I>arboux, 
Houel, et Tannery. Ann^ 1887. Serle 2. Tome 11. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 

(M. 18.) 

Ciol et terre. Revue populaire d'astronomie de m^t^rologie et de physique du 
globe. [Semi-monthly.] 2. serie, 2. ann^ (7. annee de la collection). 
8vo. Bruxelles, 1887. 

Memorie della society degli spettroscopisti italiani, raccolte et puhblicate . . . F . 
Tacchini. 6 + 220 p. 4to. Roma, 1888. 

Monthly notices of the royal astronomical society . . .' Nov., 1886, to Nov. , 
1887. Vol. 47. 8vo. London, 1887. 

Observatory (The); a monthly review of astronomy. Edited by E. W. Maun- 
der, A. M. W. Downing, and T. Lewis. Vol. 10. 7 + 440 p. Svo. Lon- 
don. 1887. (14*.; 

Rcvista do observatorio. Publica^&o mensal do imperial observatorio do Rio de 
Janeiro. Anno 2, 1887. Red. L. Cruls [and others]. 8 -{- 198 p. 4to. Rio 
de Janeiro, 1887. 

Sidereal (The) messenger ; a monthly review of astronomy. Conducted by W. 
W. Payne. Vol. 6. 868 p. 8vo. Northfleld, 1887. (12.001) 

Sirius. Zeitschrift fiir populare Astronomic . . . Hrsg. von H. J. Klein. 
[Monthly.] 20 Bd. oder n. F. 16 Bd. 288 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. la) 

Vierteljahrsflchrift der astronomischen GesellschafL Hrsg. von . . . E. Schon- 
feld und H. Seeliger. 22. Jahrgang. 7 -f- 417 p., 2 pi., portrs. 8vo. 'Leip- 
zig, 1887. (M. 8.) 

Wochenschrift fur Astronomic, Meteorologie und G^graphie. Hng. von H. J. 
Klein. Jahrgang 80. 8vo. Halle, 1887. (M. 10.) 


Dknnino (W. F.) La tache rouge&tre de Jupiter, il. L'Astron., 6 : 880. 

Motion of Jupiter's red spot. Obsry., 10: 229. 

Laiist (F. M.) Periodicity moyenne des taches de Jupiter. Compt. Bend., 
104 ; 279. See, also, Ibid., 618. 

Ltnn (W. T.) [Rotation time.] Obsry., 10: 481. 

Mabth (A.) Ephemeris for phvsical observations of Jupiter, 1888. Month. 
not., 48: 68-76. Also, Repnnt. 

NoBLB (W.) Engraving (An old) of Jupiter. Month, not, 47: 616. 


^te— (WiiiiMxf. 

Taiuvt (K. J.) and others, [ObtervatioDS of Jupiter, 1885-86.] J. Liverp. 

iitrun. ioCm 6: 68-66. 
TmrTT (J.) [Near approach to Lai. 26797, 1887, Apr. 21.] Obsry., 10: 278. 
TUBT (F.) Tache rouge de Jupiter. Obsry., 10 : 107. 

[OUn.ofred spot, 1887, May 10.] Ibid., 2Sh 

WauAiia (A. S.) [Oban, of red spot, 1886, Dec. 20.] Ibid., 71. 

[Motion of red spot from obsns. 1886, Dec. 20, to 1887, Apr. 21. j IbUL, 

piUr (SauUitea of). 
Baceluitd (O.) 8ur la tbtorie des satellites de Jupiter. Bull, astron., 4 : 321- 

Ball (R. 8.) Notea on Laplace's analytical theory of the perturbations of 
Jupiter *s satellites. Proc. roy. Irish acad., 2 s., 4 : 667-567. 1886. 

SociLLABT (— ) Th^rie analytique des mouveroents des satellites de Jupiter. 
Ftftia 2. Induction des formules en nombres. 200 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

(M. 12.) 
Smra (M. J.) Appearances presented by the satellites of Jupiter during transit, 

with a photometric estimation of their relative albedos, and of the amount of 
lifht reflected from the different portions of an unpolished sphere. Month. 
ML. 48 : 82-48. 

riorTBLOT (E. L.) Duplicity de Torobre du premier satellite ... il. L'As- 
tron., 6: 414. 

Wf obmmrwBtorf, 

Description of the observatory and instruments.] il. L'Astron., 6: 821-380. 

Baport for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 154. 

AroBB ( A.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 120-122. 

Ikoff (GosUv Robert) [1824-1887]. 

AJT (P. 6.) [Biographical sketch.] Nature, 36 : 606. 

AGBI. (H. C.) Todes-Anzeige. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 47. 

iMMtml obaerratory. 

>3i KOvcHLiGKTHT (R.) Stcmwarte des Baron Greiza von Podmaniczky in 
Kit Kartal, Ungarn. il. Sirius, 20 : 146. 

flBBsnatar obaerratory. 

rAOJtKm (C.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 122. 

(A. S.) Most probable value of the latitude, and its theoretical weight 
fram entangled observations occurring in the use of Taloott's method. Ann. 
BBtb.,8: 172-185. ^/«o. Reprint. 

See, also, Latitude : Observations (Errors of). 
<C. F.) Abhandlungen zur Methode'der kleinsten Quadrate. In deutscher 
hng. TOD A. Borsch und P. Simon. Berlin, 1887. 

8 B ▲ 



Leipsig obMrratory. 1 

Bruns (H.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljachr. d. astron. Q«ellieh.vl 

Ziaipmig obierratory (Engelmann's). \ 

Engelmann (R.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., 124. 

Zianias. See Glass (Optical); Photography (Astronomical); SphenMij 

Zilok observatory. ^ 

Appsl (D.) Der grosse Refraktor der Lick-Stemwarte. Sirioai I 

[Description of instruments, progress of work, etc.] Eng. iiM0| 
619; 46: 821. Also: Nation, 44: 283; 45: 506. AUo: Of 
168. Also: Sc. Am., 57 : 880. AUo: Sid. mess., 6 : 86, 87, a 
Sirius, 20 . 285. | 

Kbblsb ( J. E. ) Time service of the Lick observatory. 16 p. Stoi 
1887.] I 

Repr,from: Sid. mess., 6 : 283-248. 

Pboctor (R. a.) The great Lick telescope. Knowl., 10 : 205, 

Publications of the Lick observatory of the university of Call 
S. Holden. Vol. 1, 1887. 8 + 812 p. il. 4to. Sacramen 

Todd (D. P.) [Lecture on] the Lick observatory. 8c. Am., 66 
Li^ge obiervatory (Ougr^). 

DK Ball (L.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Getei 
Light. See^ also. Earth ; Sky-glows ; Spectrum analysis. 

Bell (L.) Absolute wave-length of light. Am. j. sc., 188: 1 

MiCHELsoN (A. A.) Velocity of light in air and refracting 

sup. 9331. 

. I 

MiCHELsoN (A. A.) & MoRLEY (E. W.) Relative motion of tM 
luminiferous sather. Am. j. sc, 134 : 388-845. t\ 

— Method of making the wave-length of sodium light the tjj 
tical standard of length. Ibid., 427-430. 4 

Liverpool observatory. y 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 155. j 

Loavain observatory (Terby's). j 

Pauwels (G.) L'observatoire particulier de M. F. Terbj A L^ 

terre, 8 : 13-16. 

Lanar theory. 

Airt(G. B.) Numerical lunar theory. 10 -|- 178 p. 4to. Loi 

Rev. by R[a(lau] (R.) Bull, astron., 4 : 275-286. AUo: OlMry., 10 1] 
Ob8ry..lO: 175. 

CoLBEBT (E.) Motion of the lunar apsides. Sid. mess., 6 : 49^ j 

Glaishbr (J. W. L.) Address ... on presenting the gold 
astronomical] society to G. W. Hill. Month, not, 47 : 

Hall (A.) Note on Mr. Stoclcwell's "Analytical determii 
ties in the motion of the moon arising from the o1 
Astron. jour., 7 : 41. 

Nbibon (E.) On G. W. Hill's paper on Delaunaj't metf^ 


*^^^ ( R. ) Remarques compltoientaires reUtiTOS & la throne do la lune. Bull, 
"tmn., 4 : $88. 

^'^^ILL (J. N.) Inequalities in the moon's motion produced by the oblate- 
**« of ibe earth. Astron. jour., 7 : 4, 17, 25, 86. 

*"~^ Certtin inequalities in the moon's motion arising from the action of the 
PWto. Ibid., 106, 118. 

""^ Inequalities of long period in the moon's motion arising from the action 
•'VsoM. /«rf., 146-160. 

^'^K (S. J.J Obseryations of the moon made at the Raddiffe observatory, 
1886, tad comparison of the results with the tabular places from Hansen's 
loBir tables. Month, not., 47 : 79-86. 

monibr 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Oesellsch., 22 : 127. 

(Uuid) [1816-1887]. 

hAn{J.) Todes-Anaeige. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 81. 

Bifia obMrratofy (Peek's). 

[iipoti for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 160. 

o lm m r w mt ory. 

itfoH of the director ... for the year ending June 1, 1887. 4 p. 4to. [n. p., 

liMiiM obMnratory (Noble's). 

XoiLB (W.) Latitude and longitude of Maresfleld observatory. Month, not., 
48 : 67. 

Iabsb (J. G.) [Observations 1886, Apr. 28, 26.] Month, not., 47 : 496. 

JCasTB (A.) Ephemeris for physical observations of Mars. Ibid., 48: 78-88. 
AUOf Reprint. 

Mmvwiem (S.) Recent phenomena on the surface of Mars. il. So. Am. sup. 
9(84. AUo: Pop. sc. month., 81 : 682-684. 

PomsTZKi (P.) Mars-opposition im Jahre 1877 beobachtet . . . zu Kasan. 
Aftron. Kachr., 116 : 241-246. 

Same. 1879. Ibid., 869. 

Same. 1886. Ibid,, 187. 

m (SsstellHes of). 

JfoKmnos (J.) Ephemerides of the satellites of Mars during the oppositions of 
1888 and 1890. Month, not., 47 : 489-442. 

gtaaics (Celestial). See, aleo, Gravitation; Lunar theory; Orbits; Perturba- 
. tloMs; Planato. 

ptannra (H.) ttber die integrale des Vielkorper-Problems. Ber. u. d. Vcr- 
m kaadl. d. k. sach. GeselUch. d. Wissensch. zu Leipz. Math.-phys. CI., 98 : 

tliwwmi (O.) Sur le calcul des integrales . . . Bull, astron., 4 : 192. 
B&(A.) 8|Meial eaeeof the Laplace coefficients 6'!^ Ann. math., 8: 1-11. 



Meohmnios {CelesiiBl)— Continued, i 

Hill (6. W.) Coplanar motion of two planeti, one h*Ting a uaoi 
math., 8 : 66-73. AUo^ Reprint. i^ 

Differential equations with periodic integrala. Ann. matlk^ 

JouKovsKT (N. E.) [Sur le mouvement d'un eorpo solide qui ^ 
remplies par un liquide homogdne.] 8to. St. Ptonbourg, Ut 
Btn. : Bull, astron., 4 : iSB. 

Lakos (L.) Die geschichtliche Entwickelung des Bewegongtbi^ 
141 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1886. I 

Reo, by Seeliger (H.) Vrtytohr. d. aatron. GaMllMh., S3 : SSS-Ot. 1 

ti^ber das Beharrungsgesetz. Ber. n. d. Verhandl. d. k. liq 

d. Wissensch. zu Leipzig. Hath.-phys. KL, 1886: 888-851. i 

Rev, by Seelicer (H.) Vrtljsohr. d. astron. OeMllioh., 22 : 2S»-28Q. ^ 

TissBRAND (F.) Note sur un passage de U " M^canique c^este." 
4: 467-462. 

Iff elboome observatory. % 

Report (22nd) of the board of visitors . . . with the annual report 
ment astronomer. 12 p. 4to. Melbourne, [1887.] 

Mateora. See^ aUo, Comets and meteors. 

Dknnino (W. F.) I>etermination of meteor-paths and radiants 

[HiRN ( — )] Explosion of meteorites. Abair, : Nature, 86 : 808. 

Kirk WOOD (D.) Relation of aerolites to shooting stan. Sid. mflii| 

Kleiber (J.) Les ^toiles filantes et la temperature. Ciel et tennj 

Laqranoe (£.) L'origine des m^t^rites. Ibid., 8: 81-92. 

LocKTER (J. N.) Researches on the spectra of meteorites. Piv| 
soc.,43: 117-156. ^ 

Recherches sur les m^t^rites. Conclusions g^n^ralat. 0| 

105: 997-1001. J 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) Meteors and meteorites. J. LWerp. attroi^ 
140. H 

Prinz (W.) L'origine des m^t^rites. Ciel et terre, 8 : 188-187^^ 
Mateora (Observations of). 

Denxino (W. F.) Meteors with curved paths. Month, not., 47i 

[Observations of April meteors.] Nature, 86 : 806. 

The meteor of May 8, 1887. Ibid,, 86 : 68. 

August meteors of 1887. Ibid,, 407. 

■ October meteor shower of 1887. Ibid,, 87 : 69. 

Meteor notes. Obsry., 10: 66, 102, 129, 169, 188, 227, 

884, 417. 

[Observations 1886, Nov. 17— Jan. 26.] Sid. mait., I 

[Observations 1887, Mar. 18— July 81.] Ibid., 287 

Recent showers [1887, Aug. 6— Oct. 21.] /ML« 


(ObittTiiUons of) — Qmtinued. 

l^OTfOQ (W. F.) & others. [Observations during Jan., Feb., and Mar., 1887.] 
J- Uirtrp, soc., 6 : 193-196. 

[Obwrations 1887, Apr. 6.] Ibid., 228. 

Bau(A) [ObMnrations of] the Perseids, 1887. Astron. jour., 7 : 126. 

Bmxna{B. J.) Note on an erratic meteor. Month, not., 47 : 78. 

il«(E, B.) [Two meteors 1887. Jan. 18.] Obsry., 10 : 107. 

Laicbobib (F.) Stemschnuppenfalle am 10. und 11. Aug., 1885. Astron. 
Kachr., 118: 88-40. 

— * Beobachtung der Stemschnuppenfalle am 10. und 11. Aug., 1887. /6u2., 

JLUTTABD (A. C.) Evidence with respect to the form of the area in the heavens 
fton which the meteors of Nov. 27, 1885, appeared to radiate. Month, not., 
47 : 69-78. 

Iwnrirable (A) meteor. Nature, 86 : 93. 

jAgmEM (J.) Note sur les travaux r^ents ex^utds k I'observatoire de Meudon. 
Conpi. Rend., 105 : 82&-828. 

SOUAFABBLLI (O. V.) [Report for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Geselbch., 22: 

■•pos otMerratory (von Lade's). 

Wot.w (M.) Privatstemwarte Monrepos bei Oeisenheim. 1 pi. Sirius, 20: 

BL See, mUo, Eclipse of the moon ; Lunar theory. 

i^BB (T. O.) The moon surveyed in common telescopes. J. Liverp. astron. 
, 5: 18,124, 155, 179,212. 

Stdenofcraphical notes. Obsry., 10 : 67, 100, 127, 157, 187, 226, 263, 298, 
S16, 954, 886, 419. 

U^MM (T. O.) A otAeri. [Observations of lunar objects 1886-87.] J. Liverp. 
•oc., 5: 16,60, 116,221. 

.Kiov] (C.) Grande vall^ des Alpes lunaires. il. L' Astron., 6 : 448- 

(C. M.) Carte g^ndrale de la luno dressee sous la direction do C. 
Flammajion. Paris, 1887. (7fr.; 

rrXAtr (J. C.) [Influence de la lunesur les 6I6ments m^teorologiques.] Ciel 
«B ttfre, 8 : 869-876. 

(W. H. S.) Effect of terrestrial heat on the moon. J. Liverp. astron. 

>) mad the weather. Eng. mec, 45 : 187. 
(SL) Molidphotographie. Sirius, 20: 75,101. 
(A* 8.) AooQiant of fUrther obaervations of the lunar cratar Plato. 


Morriflon obaanratory. 

PublicationB of the HorrisQH obtervatoiy, Glssgow, Jiisfonri. No. 1 . ^ 
Carr Waller Pritchett. 1886. 7 + HI p*i 6 pl« ^to. Lynn, 1887. 

Munich obaanratory. 

SxxLiOKR (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljichr. d. attron. Gesellieh., 22: 4 

Natal obaarratoxy. 

Report of the superintendent, 1888. 26 p. 4to. [n. p., 1887.] 

NaTigation. See^ tUso, Astronomy (Spherical and practical); Sextant. 

Caillau (T.) Instrument servant i la determination de la poaition da 
par deux reldvements d'un m6me point et Pintenralles, et des probl 
s'y rattachent. il. Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 188-41. 

Types de calcals nautiques. Navigation par 1 'estime et navigation 
fol. Paris, 1887. 

NebnlM. See^ aUo^ Nova AndromedsB. 

BiGOUBDAN (G.) N^buleuses nouvellei d6oouvertes k I'obeervatoira da 
Ck>mpt. Rend., 106: 926, 1116. 

DaxTKR (J. L. E.) Some nebula hitherto suspected of variability or 
motion. Month, not, 47 : 412-421. 

YOK Enoxlhardt (B.) Relative E. B. des Nebels G. C. 8268 gesan 
nachbarten Stem 11. Grosse. Astron. Nachr., 117: 278. 

Harbinoton (M. W.) Structure of 18 M. Herculis. 11. Ajitron.Joiir.,T 

IvoALL (H.) Notes on nebula, il. Eng. mec., 46 : 818. 

Johnson (R. C.) Photography and 42 M. Obtry., 10 : 99. 

LxAVXNWORTH (F. P.) [Notes on nebula.] Sid. mess., 6 : 293. 

Ltnn (W. T.) First discovery of the great nebula in Orion. Obsry., H 

MiLLOsxvicH (E.) A Barnard (E. E.) itber Nr. 14 und 16 dea 3 
Nebelcatalogs Nr. 6. Astron. Nachr., 118: 178. 

MoucBXZ (E.) Photograph ie de la ndbuleuse 1180 du catalogue j^nerat 
schel par MM. Paul et Prosper Henry. Compt R«nd., 104 : 394. 

MULLXR (F.) [Errata in Swift's catalogue no. 6.] Sid. mess., 6 : ^. 

'■^— Corrections to catalogue no. 6 of new nebula discovered at the 
observatory. Ibid., 828 

[Method of observing nebula at the McCormick oliservatory.] 


RoBXRTs (I.) Photographs 'of nebula in Orion and in the Pleiades. 
not., 47 : 89-91. 

-^-^ Photographs of the nebula 67 M. Lyra, 27 M. Vnlficciila, the 
M. Herculis, and of stars in Cygnus. Ibid., 48 : 29-81. 

Spitalxr (R.) t)ber den Ringnebel in dcr Leyer. Astron. Nackr., 

Stkuvx (O.) La n^buleuse prds de e Orionis. 1 pi. Bull. d. I'l 
d. St. P^tersb., 81 : 640-644. 

BwiJT (L.) Catalogue no. 6 of nebulss diieovand at the W: 
Aitron. Nachr., 117 : 217-222. 


ll«bii]jtf hypothesis. See^ dUo^ Cosmogony. 

BiGBLOW (F. H.) The phenomena of cooling envelopes. Sid. mess., 6 : 170- 

Kkrz (F.) Weitere Ausbildung der Laplace'schen Nebularbypothese. 2. Aus- 
gabe der '* Brinnerungen an Satze aus der Physik und der Mechanik des 
Himmels.*' 16 + 884 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1886. (M. 12.) 

-^.— t^ber die Bntstehung der Kdrper welche sich um die Sonne bewegcn . 
Auch als Nachtrag 2u, *' Weitere Ausbildung der Laplace'schen Nebular- 
bypothese. 8 -h 79 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 1.80. J 

— Beitrag zur Nebularbypothese. SiriuSj 20 : 266. 
(Satellite of). 

LoHSK (J. Q.) [Observations 1886, Dec. 2—1886, Nov. 4.] Month, not., 47 : 

PsftBOTiK (J.) [Observations 1886, Nov. 22—1887, Jan. 28.] Bull, astron. 4 : 

Heoohitsl observatory. 

Bapport da directeur . . . 1886. 27 + 28 -f 12 p. 12mo. Locle, 1887. 

Vies obssrrstory. 

Annales de Tobservatoire de Nice, publi^es sous les auspices du Bureau des longi- 
tudes, par [J.] Perrotin. Tome II. [481] p., 7 pi. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

(M. 25.) 

Fats (H.) Note sur les premiers travaux de Pobservatoire de Nice. Compt. 
Bend., 106: 7-10. 

-^-^ [Inauguration de Tobservatoire de Nice.] Ibid., 780-784. 

Hots Aiidromsd» nsbiil». 1885. 

Ball (R. S.) [Observations for parallax.] Proc. roy. Irish acad., 2. s. 4 : 641. 

CoPSLAVD (R.) On Hartwig's Nova Andromeds. [Complete series of observa- 
tions.] Month, not., 47: 49-61. 

Franz (J.) [Parallaxenbestimmung.] Astron. Nachr., 118 : 128. 


FoLix (F.) Nutation diume du globe terrestre. Compt. Rend., 104, 86-88. 

Praktischer Beweis der taglichen Nutation. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 118. 

-^-^ ijber einige in den Peten'schen Formeln unberiicksichtigte Glieder der 
jahrlichen NuUtion. Ibid., 167. 

-^-^ Stundliche Nutation der firdkruste. Vrtljschr. d. astron. Qesellsch., 22: 


Laosanos (C). Nutation diume. Ciel et terre, 7 : 489-494 

Ob()octiTS8. Ste^ aUOf Glass (Optical); Telescopes. 

GsuBB (H.) A others. [Transforming an ordinary object-glass into a photo- 
graphic objective.] Obsry., 10: 268-266. 

MoaxB (C.) Femrohrobjective. Ztschr. f. Instrmknd., 7: 226-288, 808-828. 

PiCKKXiHO (E. C.) New form of construction of object-glasses intended for 
stellar photography. Nature, 86 : 662. 

Tatlox (J. T.) Photographi<^ lenses. Eog. mec., 44 : 496, 617 


Obaarvations (Errors of). See^ aUOf Latitude ; Transit obsenrations. 

Bertrand (J.) 8ur une loi singulidre de probability des erreurs. Gompt. Rend., 
105: 779. 

Th^rdme relatif auz erreurs d 'observation. Ibid.^ 1048. 

Surcequ'on nomme le poids et la pr^ision d'une observation. Ibidt 


— Sur la loi des erreurs d 'observation. Ibid.^ 1147. 

— Sur les ^preuves r^p^t^es. Ibid.f 1201. 

Hall (A.) Rejection of discordant observations. Sid. mess., G: 297-301. Af9o: 
Obsry., 10: 414-417. 

Lehmann-Filh^s (R.) Tiber abnorme Feblervertheilung und Verwerfung 
zweifelhafter Beobachtungen. Astron. Kachr., 117 : 121-132. 

Stadthaoen (E.) Zur zweiten Grundannahme der Fehlertheorie von Laplace. 
Astron. Nachr., 118: 27. 


Lancaster (A.) Liste genSrale des observatories et des astronomes, des joci^tds 
et des revues astronomiques. 2. ed. 114 p. 12nio. Bruxelles, 1887. 

LoEWY (M.) Rapport sur les obsorvatoires de Province. 88 p. 8vo. Paris, 

O'Oyalla observatory. 

Beobachtungen augestellt am astrophysikalischen Observatorium in O'Oyalla. 
Hrsg. von N. von Konkoly. Bd. 8. Theil. 1. Beobachtungen vom Jab re 
1885. 68 p. 4to. Halle, 1887. (M. 6.50.) 

Same. Theil 2. 5 + 41 p. 4to. Halle, 1887. (M. 4.) 

voir Konkolt (N.) Mittheilungen der Stemwarte zu O'Gyalla. Sinus, 20: 
166, 169. 

[Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 185-188. 

von Oppolser (Theodor) [1841-1886]. 

LoxwT (M.) Notice sur la vie et les travauz de M. Oppolzer. Bull, astron... 
4: 42-48. 

[Obituary discourse, Vienna academy; with bibliography.] Obsry., 10: 8C>i> ~ 

Pasquier (E.) [Biographical notice.] Ciel et terre, 7 : 546-549. 

ScHRAM (R.) [Biographical notice, with bibliography and portrait.] Vrt]j«<*%. "^^ 
d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 117-208, 266. 

TissERAND (P.) Notice sur les travauz de M. Oppolzer. Compt. Rend., IC^ ^ 

Wkiss (B.) Nekrolog uber Theodor von Oppolzer. Astron. Nachr., 116 ^ 


Andoter (H.) Remarques sur les Equations diff&rentielles que Ton rencoift 
dans la throne des orbites interm6diares. Bull, astron., 4 : 177-188. 

GTLDtK (H.) Determination of the radius vector in the absolute orbit of tb^ 
planets. Month, not., 47 : 228-244. 



(N.) 0€tcbichte der Bahnbestimmung von Planctcn und Conieten. I 
Tbeil. Die Theorien des Alterthums. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 5 ) 

LFUas (W.) Bestimmung der mittleren Anomalie' in Ellipsen und Hy- 
perb^n deren Excentricitat der Einheit sehr nahe kommt. Astron. Nuchr. , 
118: 166-172. 

IaDai: (R.) Calcul d'une orbite parabolique. Bull, astron., 4 : 40fM22. 

Fonnulet diffSrentielles pour la Tariation des ^16ments d'une orbite. 
Compt. Rend., 105 : 432-485. 

— Calcnl appTOximatif d'une orbite parabolique. Ibid., 457-460. 

(H. G.) The true doctrine of orbits : an original treatise on central forces. 
7 4- 188 p. 8vo. Lancaster, Pa., 1887. 

>«*»t-» (G. 31.) Method of computing an orbit from three observations. As- 
tron. Jour., 7: 140-144, 158-155. 

«D Park obasrratory (Tomline's). 
^tpoft for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 161. 

■rt «aivOTalty otMarratory. 
[liport for 1886.] Ibid,, 166. 

f^hMirarlnni del real otservatorio di Palermo. Anni 1883-85, vol. 3. 6. Cac- 
iiafora. direttore. 420 p. 4to. Palermo, 1887. 

CacciATOKB (G.) [Report for 1886. J Vrtljscbr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 138- 

Adc f Solar). See, aUo, Venus (Transit of). 

ClU'Xjt(Li.) Valeurdela parallaxe du soleil deduite des observations des mis- 
fiont brftsiliennes, i I'occasion du passage de Venus sur le soleil en 1882. 
Coropt. Rend., 105: 1235-1237. 

(J. A.) Sur une nouvelle methode permettant de determiner la paral- 
laxe du aoleil i Taide de Tobservation photographique du passage de Venus. 
I^id,, 104: 560-563 

(Stellar). See, aUo, Nova Andromedss. 

(L.) Determination de la parallaxe relative de I'^toile principale du 
coaple optique ^ 1516 A B. 38 p. 4to. Bruxelles, 1887. (M. 2.) 

LaLL (A.) Parallax of a Tauri. Astron. jour., 7 : 89. 

CCmhxli. (C. H.) Can the parallax of the fixed stars be made perceptible ? 
Astron. Nachr., 117 : 247. 

tAftKAsros (C) Methode pour la determination des parallaxes par des observa- 
tloBt continues. 

Mt9. : CUl et terra, 7 : 907. 

(K-) ParalUx von -2398 (P. M. 2164). Astron. Nuchr., 117: 361-380. 

(C.) Application of photography to the determination of stellar 
; [of 61 Cygni]. Month, not., 47 : 87-89. 

K -«C 61^ and 61' Cygni as obtained by the aid of photography. 


Parallax (Stellar)— Cbn^inutfif. 

Pbitchard (C.) Further researches on stellar parallax by tha pWi 
method. Ibid.,4S: 27. 

»— — Nature of the photographic star-disks, and the remoral of a dl 
measurements for parallax. Abair.: Nature, 86: 628. 

Ravtard (A. C.) Photography and the determinatioii of aiMu 
Obsry., 10: 167. 

Paris— £cole militaire. 


BioouRDAK (6.) Histoire des ohserratoires de P6oole militaire. 

4: 497. ^ 

Paria— Soci6t6 astronomique de France. See Soci^t^ J 

Paris obaanratory. See, aUo, Photographic congrett. j 

Annales de Pobservatoire de Paris public sous 1^ direction de [E. aJ 
Chez. Observations 1882. 1082 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. I 

Catalogue de Vobservatoire de Paris. £toiles obserrees aux instniaiB 
iens de 1887 k 1881. Tome 1. <^ k ^. 7 + 112 + 296 p.^ 
1887. I 

. Same. Positions observe des ^toilet. 1887-1881. Toma S 

22 + 886 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. j 

LoswY (M.) A others, £tude de la flexion horizontale de la huMfl 
m^ridien Bischoffsheim de I'observatoire de Paris. Compt. ■ 
154-160. I 

Pearson {Rev. James) [1826-1886]. 

For Biography, see J. Liverp. astron. soc., 5: 26. AUo: Month. a4 


YON Rxbeub-Paschwitz (E.) ttber das ZoUner'sche HoriaoataH 
neue Yersuche mit demselben. 25 p. 8vo. [n. p., n. d.] 1 

Versuch die Veranderungen der Horizontalebene mit Holfti^ 

ner'schen Horizontalpendels photographisch zu registriren. Altai 
118: 10-16. 

VooxL (H. C.) Isolirende Wirkung verschiedener Substanzen 
Warme. Ibid., 98-104. 

Personal equation. 

Cbbistie (W. H. M.) Description of the personal equation macbii 
observatory, Greenwich, il. Month, not., 48: 1-4. 

HiLriKER(J.) Uber eine personliche Gleichung bei Durchg^i 
gen. Astron. Nachr., 118: 99-104. 

Sexlioer (H.) Uber den Einfluss dioptrischer Fehler des Augea 
tat astronomischer Messungen. Abhandl. d. math.-phya. 
Akad. d. Wissensch. Munchen, 16: 666-704, 1886. 

TuRXXR (H. H.) Besults obtained with the personal 

royal observatory, Greenwich. Month, not., 48: 4-18. 
IHicutMd: Olwry., 10: 408. 


8m, aUo, Mechanics (Celestiiil}. 

iAOUVD (B.) Sur le calcul dei fonctions Ri* de M. Tisserand. Ball, astron., 

Oboi (J.) Allgemeine Hethode sur Berechnang der speciellen Elementenstor- 
angn in Babnen Ton beliebiger Excentricitat. 

ABMlfltff d«r Wtoatr Akademto 1B87, Nr. 19. AUo^ abetr. : AstroD. Naobr., 117: 327. 

Hitt(!f.) Notia £ur Stdrangtrechung. Astroii. Nachr., 118: 118. 

fltmmillhi oongiMS. Paris, 1887. 

Coflgris astrophotographique international tenu i robserratoire de Paris pour le 
krl de la carte da ciel, avril, 1887. 8 + 106 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

fiiilMAftiov (C.) Le congrds astronomique poar la photographie da ciel. 
L'JUtron., 6: 161-169. 

Xm9BEL (B. B.) ft o/Aerj. [Report to Royal astronomical society on the Paris 
coagNM.] Obtry., 10: 210-2ia 

XtfVOlBS (E.) La photographie astronomiqae i Tobservatoire de Paris, et la 
cart* dn del. il. Ann. de bar. d. long., 1887 : 755-842. 

[Bapoit of the proceedings of the Paris congress.] Bull, astron., 4: 129-184. 
Aim: Nature, 85: 684; 86: 7, 54. 

[BasohilioiMi adopted.] Aitron. Nachr., 116: 888. AUo: Obsry., 10: 190. 

fBommmry of resolotions and photograph of members of the congrftss. ] Sc. Am. 
■op. 9621. 

Z. (K. ) Beschlusse der astronomisch-photographischcn Versummlung in Paris 
nod deren Folgen. Sinus, 20: 281-285. 

(Astronomical). See^ aUo, Aberration (Constant of): Nebulse; Ob- 
jectives; Photographic congress; Photography (Stellar); Spectra (Stellar); 

rvT (W. de W.) Atmospheric transmission of visual and photographically 
MCiva light. Month, not., 47 : 260-265. 

Oux (D.) The applications of photography in astronomy. Obsry., 10: 267, 
38S. AUot ^rofu.; Bull, astron., 4: 861-380. 
L«*etiir» bcfort Rojftl inttitutt, 1S87, Jane 8. 

T<at GoTBABD (B.) tf ber Himmels-und Spectral-Photographic. Vrtljschr. d. 
MUon. Geeellsch., 22: 836-841. 

<yojr KonoLT (E.) Praktische Anleitung zur Himmelsphotographie nebst 
ciAcr Anleitong aur Spectralphotographie. 8vo. Halle, 1887. (M. 12.) 

X« CLt.) Ligeiio historico da photographia celeste. Rev. d. obsrio., 2: 87-92. 

I (E.) La photographie astronomique k robserratoire de Paris et la 
da ciel. il. Ann. de bur. d. long. 1887 : 755-842. 

(W.) La photographic astronomique par les petits appareiU. il. Ciel 
•lt«m, 8: 201-206. 

(C.) Remarks on some of the present aspects of celestial phi'tog- 
Month. not, 47 : 822-324. 

(6.) Bocae sar Thistoire de la photographie astronomique. Bull, as- 
., 4 : 166, S62, 807, 844, 449. AUo, Reprint (2 fr.) 



Pliotosraphy (Astronomical) — Continued, 

R0BXBT8 (I.) Photographic search for the minor planet 8appho. Moi| 
47 : ^66. 

Spitaler (B.) Mondphotographie. tiirius, 20 : 75, 101. , 

Taylor (J. T.) Photographic lenses. Eng. mec., 44: 495, 517. 

Valektiner (W.) Entwicklung der Photographie in ihrer Anweoli 
die Astronomic. 16 p. 8vo. [c. p., 1887.] 

YouNO (C. A.) Astronomical photography. New Princeton rev., 8: 1 
Also,ab8tr.: Obsry., 10: 239. AUo^abatr.: Nature, 36: 118. J 

Photography (Stellar). See, also. Parallax (Stellar); Spectra (Stellar). K 

Backhouse (T. W.) Examination of stellar photographs [with a >ton 
Obsry., 10: 196. j 

Barnard (E. E.) Becent stellar photography. Sid. mess., 6: 59-65. j 

Crihwick (6. S.) [Photographs of star groups taken at Greenwich ■ 
mining distortion of the plate.] ^6«^. ; Obsry., 10 : 407. 

Dreter (J. L. E.) Effect of refraction in stellar photography. MoJ 
47:421. ' J 

Espix (T. E.) Stellar photography: the Liverpool astronomical 
search . . . Eng. mec., 44: 475. 

Grubb (H.) Choice of instruments for stellar photography. Men 
809-322. AUo, abstr.: Nature, 86: 523. 

Kkobel (£. B.) Examination of stellar photographs [with a s* 
Obsry., 10: 231. 3 

MoucHEZ (£.) Preparatifs d'execution de la carte du del. Compt. BH 
631. t 

Egberts (I.) Measurement of celestial photographs. Month, not., 48^ 

BooERS (W. A.) Determination of the coefficients of expansion of | 
plates used for stellar photography at Cordoba in the years 1872 to I 
1880 to 1883. Astron. jour., 7 : 123. B 

ScHSiVKR (J.) Einfluss verschiedener Expositionsseiten auf die Hxahd 
tographischer Stemaufhahmen. Astron. Nachr., 118: 158-156. « 

Wolf (M.) Astrophotographisches Okular. il. Aitron. Nachr., 11% 


CoRNU (A.) Sur quelques dispositifs permettant de r6aliser sans 
lumiere des photomdtres birefHngents. Bull, astron., 4 : 89-94. 

YON GoTHARD (E.) Keilphotometer mit Typendruck-ApparaC il. 
Instrmknd., 7 : 347-349. 

Lanolbt (S. p.), Touwo (C. A.) A PicKERiyo (E. C.) .Prit 
photometer. Mem. Am. acad. arts & sc., 11 : 301-324 (▼. 11, 
Also, Beprint. 

Spitta (E. J.) Pritchard's photometer. Obsry. 1 10: 889. 


CxEAflKi (W.) Photometrische HeUigkriten toa 68 StsoM 
116: 868. 



hnnHun (B. ) OrottenclasBeD der Bonner Durchmusterung. Astron . Nacbr. , 
118: 128. 

1^B(J.) Abhingigkeit der Helligkeit der Sterne von der Pupillenoffnuni;. 
10 p. 8to. Halle, 1887. (M. 0.40.) 

'teuio (JB. C.) Magnitudes of stars employed in various nautical almanacs. 
Ana. Harv. coll. obsry., 18 : 1-13 (v. 18, no. 1). AUo, Reprint. 

*— *• Discussion of the Uranometria Oxoniensis. Ann. Harv. coll. obsry., 18 : 
lS-27 (v. 18, no. 2). AUo, Reprint. 

- Magnitudes of circumpolar stars determined at the observatories of Mos- 
cow and of Harvard college. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 139. 

lifAJUK (A.) Lichtwechsel einer Anzahl von Stemen aus der Bonner Durch- 
raustening und aus den Katalogen rother Sterne von Schjellerup und Bir- 
ffllogham. 16 p. 8vo. Prag, 1887. (M. 1.20.) 

0caiuiim (J.) Yergleichung der Orossenangaben der sudlichen Durchmuster- 
mig mit denen anderer Cataloge. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 81-94. 

Wolff (T.) Photometrische Arbeiten uber die Sterne der Bonner Durchmus- 
tcning. Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 866-886. 

m (Giovftuni) [1781-1864]. 

(S.) Oiovanni Plana, n6 k Voghera le 8 novembre, 1781, mort h Turin 
k 20 Janvier, 1864. 10 p. 4to. Roma, 1887. 

See, iU^o, Gravitation ; Solar system. 

BsmBSKicH (A.) Sternbedeckungen durch Placeten im Jahre 1888. Astron. 
Nachr., 118: 81-90. 

Caxxakdrkau (O.) Sur la th^rie do la figure des plandtes. 84 p. 4to. 
[Paris, 18877] 

Ann. d. Tobs. d. Paris. M^m. 10, £. AUo, abitr. : Compt. Rend., 104 : 1600. 
, Becberches sur la thSorie de la figure des plaiietes ; dtude sp^iale des 

plandtes. Abatr.: Compt. Rend., 105: 1171-1178. 

(G. H.) Figures of equilibrium of rotating masses of fluid. Proc. roy. 

■oc., 42: 869. Also^ abstr.: Bull, astron., 4: 524-526: 

(P.) Comment on pdse lea mondes. il. L'Astron., 6: 81-92, 866- 

(M.) £tude sur la figure des corps c61estes. Paris, 1887. 
( W. H. 8.) Periods of the planeU and satellites. Obsry., 10 : 822, 425. 

(H.) Zur theorio der Beleuchtung der grossen Planeten insbesondere 
des S«tum. Abhandl. d. math.-phys. CI. d. k. bayer. Akad. d. Wissensch. 
Monchen, 16: 405-516. 

(C. V.) Periods of the planets. Obsry., 10: 391-395. 

(lDtr»-Hercurial) . 

VUt (T. W.) Search for Vulcan. J. Liverp. astron. soc., 5 : 8. 
V (X.) Smteh for Vulcan. Ibid., 146, 197. 

'X.} The Swift-Watson intra-Mercurial observations. Sid. mess., 


Plan^ta (Intra-Mercurial) — Continued. 

[Review of original observations of Swift and Watson.] 11. IbidL^ 196. 

YouNO (C. A.) The Swift- Watson intra-Mercurial observations. Ibid.j 617. 

Plan^ta (Minor). See Asteroids. 

Plan^ta (Ultra-Neptunian). 

Lynn (W. T.) Suggested mean distances of ultra-Neptunian planets. Obsry., 
10: 819. 


FsNET (L.) Planisphdre celeste mobile donnant les ^toiles visibles k toute heure 
audessus de nos tdtes, dress^ sous la direction de C. Flammarion. Paris, 
1887. (8fr.) 


D0R8T ( — ) Destimmung der Helligkeit der Plejaden nach den photograph- 
iscben Aufnahmen der Gebruder Henri in Paris. Sirius, 20 : 88. 

Elkin (W. L.) Determination of the relative positions of the principal stars in 
the group of the Pleiades. 105 p. 4to. New Haven, 1887. 
Trans, astron. obxry. Yale univ. ▼. 1 pt. 1. 
I [Remarks on his observations of the Pleiades.] Obsry., 10: 152. 

Hall (A.) Relative positions of 68 small stars in the Pleiades. Astron. jour., 
7: 78-78. 

Wesley (W. H.) The nebulte in the Pleiades, il. J. Liverp. astron. soc., 5: 

Potbenot*s problem. 

OuDEMAKB (J. A. C.) Losung des sog. Pothenot'schen, besser Snelliua'schen 
Problems, von Ptolemseus. Yrtljschr. d. astron. G^ellsch., 22 : 845-849. 

Potsdam observatory. 

Publicationen der astrophysikalischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam No. 17 (Bd. 
4. Stuck 4.) Beobachtungen von Sonnenflecken in den Jahren 1880-84 von 
G. Sporer. 4to. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 10.) 

Same. Nr. 21. (Bd. 6. Stuck 1). Bostimmung der Polhohe des astro- 
physikalischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam von P. Kempf. 4to. Ijelpzig, 
1887. . (M. 2.) 
Same. Nr. 22 (Bd. 6. Stuck 2). Bestimmung des mittleren Dichtigkeit 

der Erde mit Hulfe eines Pendelapparates von J. Wilsing. 4to. Ijeipsig, 

1887. (M. 5.) 

YooBL (H. C.) [Report for 1886.] V rtljschr. d. astron. Qesellsch., 22 : 140-151 . 

Prague observatory. 

Safaris (A.) [Report for 1886.] Ibid., 151. 

Preoession. See, alw. Star-places. 

Flammarion (C.) Movimento secular do polo e a translo^io do systems solar. 
il. Rev. d. obsrio., 2 : 6-10. 

Krbutz (H.) Hul&grOssen zur Berechnung der Pricession nach Strove fur 
mehrere dfters vorkommende Epochen. Astron. Nschr., 118: 91. AUo, 





SinoiD (T. H.) Reduction of star-places by Bohnenberger's method. Month, 
not, 48: 20-26. 

Snrri (L.) Bettimmung der Constante der Praecessiun, und der eigenen Be- 
v^Dg des Sonnensystems. 84 p. 4to. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 1.) 

Men. aead. imp. d. fo. de St. P^tersb. 7. 8. 35, no. a. 

I^aifh academj. Prix de I'acadSmie royale Danoise des sciences et des lettros. 
Aitron. Nachr., 117 : 63. Also: Bull, astron., 4: 163. 

IWii aeademy. Tableau des prix d^ernecs. Annee 1887. Compt. Rend., 105: 

lofal aftronomical society. Address by the president ... on presenting the 
gold medal to G. W. Hill. Month, not., 47 : 203-220. 

pdiabtrt'achen Preis der Akademie in St. Petersburg.] Astron. Nachr. ,118: 80. 

(H. H.) Conditions of awarding the Warner comet prizes from Apr. 
I, 1887, to Apr. 1, 1888. Sid. mess., 6 : 225. 

BApav (R.) Bur une application de la projection st6r6ographique [de la sphdrej. 
Bull. Mtion., 4 : 49. 

(Solar). Setj aldo, Chromosphere ; Sun (Statistics of facul», promi- 
apola, etc., for 1886). 

(J.) Grande Eruption solaire du I*' juillet 1887, observ^^ & I'observatoirc 
Uarnald i Kalocsa. 1 pi. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16: 102-105. Also: 
L'A»tron., 6 : 416-410. 

iKCd (A.) Protuberanze solari osservate nel regio osservatorio di Palermo nell' 
aano 1S86. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 65-79. 

ATCBivi (P.) Sulle eruzioni metallichc solari osservate al regio osservatorio 
del collegio Romano nel 1886. JbuL, 8-10. 

Sui fenomeni della cromosfera solare osservati al r. osserv. del colUfgio 
lo nel 4* trimestre, 1886. [Protuberanze.] Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, 
4. Befidic, 8: 18. 

Same. 1* trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 265. 

OiaerTazioDi spettroscopiche solari fatte nel regio osservatorio del collegio 
Del 1* trimestre del 1887. Protuberanze. Mem. soc. spettrscp. 
itAl.. 16: 87,51. 

2* trimestre, 188T. Ibid., 91, 111. 

3* trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 128. 
ObeerratioDS solaires du deuxidme semestre, 1886. Compt. Rend., 104 : 

!• trimeatre, 1887. Ibid., lOi: 1082; 105: 210. 

tSmme. 2* trimestre, 1887. Ibyi., 105: 211. 

Suu^. a* trimeitre, 1887. Ibid., 105 : 1002. 

T iJL Ifr) Kouvelle Eruption solaire [1887, June 24]. 8 p. 4to. 

^100: 610. 


Proper motion. See^ alao^ Ncbule. 

BoP8 (L.) [Proper motion of Lai. 28^1.] Astron. Jour., 7 : 106. 

BoHSKRT (J.) Determination des mouvcments propresdea ^toilea. [Eiplkttl 
des discordances trouvees dans la comparaison] du catalogue de Paris [i 
cclui de Lalande.] Bull, astron., 4: 509-515. 

Flammarion (C.) Mouvement propre d'une otoile observee k Tceil do. 
Virginis.] il. L'Astron., 6 : 441-448. 

Frisby (E.) [Approximate proper motion of Groombridge 3216.] A4 

jour., 7 : 78. 

Gore (J. £.) Proper motion of 40 (o*) Eridani. J. Liverp. astron. toe., fill 


VON GoTHARD (E.) & VoGEL (H. C.) MuthmassHche starke BigenbeM 
oines Stems im Sternhaufen G. C. 4440. Astron. Nachr., 116: 258. 

Kam (N. M.) Eigenbewegung einiger Sterne aus den Helsingfoner Zaoml 
bncbtungen der A. G., zwiscben 55° und 65° nordlicber Declination. I 
117: 849-856. ' 

Leavenworth (F. P.) [Proper motion of Lai. 4219.] Sid. meM., 6: 8^ 

Lynn (W. T.) [Erroneous proper motion of ^Tauri.] Obsry., 10: 867."^ 

Pomerantzeff (H.) [Proper motion of Lai. 80479.J Astron. 17a«:hAJ 

359. : 
[Proper motion of Lai. 80474.] /6ui., 359. 

VON Rebevr-Paschwitz (E.) Verzeichniss einiger Sterne mit m^ 
Eigenbewegung. Ibid., 117 : 291. 

Sadler (H.) Proper motion of tbe " Sidus Ludovicianum.'' J. LiTerpi. | 
goc, 108-200. 3 

Proper motion of Lai. 14551, U Puppis. Ibid., 142. 

Proper motions of 3, > , tJ, f, Ci UrssB Majoris, and Aloor. Eng^, 

45: 124. 1 

SvEDSTRUP (A.) [Proper motion of stars used in determining the orbit o^ 
1803 IV.] Astron. Nachr., 117: 232. 1 

Weiss (E.) [Proper motion of SD.— 3®, 5577.] Astron. Nachr., 116: vj 

Eigenbewegung von Lai. 18069. Ibid,, 259. ^ 

Pulkowa observatory. 

Nyrkn (M.) Polhohcnbestimmungen mit dem Ertel-Repaold'achen Yi 
krei.>c. Mel. math, astron., 6: 449-462. 

Punta Arenas. 

Cruls (L.) Longitude de Punta Arenas. Rev. d. obsrio., 2 : 18-2QL*r 
Cnmpt. Rend., 104: 340. 

Radcliffe observatory. 

[Kt'fK^rt for 1880.] Month, not., 47 : 155. 

Results of astronomical und meteorological observations made at the 

observatory, Oxford, in . . . 1884, under the superintendence «tf I. 

Vol. 42. 290 p. 8vo. Oxford, 1887. 

Red stars. 

C II AMBERS (G. F.) A working catalogue of red start. Month, w 


IffDr (T. S.) New xed sUr near 26 Oygni. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 819. Also : 
Otnj., 10 : 176. 

— — UnpoUithed xed itan detected by Bey. T. W. Webb. J. Liverp. estron. 
IOC., 6: 106. 

— ^ Sweeping for red start and itaii with remarkable spectra. Obsry., 10: 

JbxxMincH (S.) Sulla nuoya ttella roisa preseo 26 Cygni. Aitron. Nachr., 
118: 886; 117: 81. 

(H. C.) Obambers' neues Yerseiohnisi von roten Stemen. Sirius, 
90: a8,268v279. 

CKaJTAUEB (B. C.) Jr. Note on an inaccuracy in the development of a differen- 
t»l refraction formula. [In Brflnnow's astronomy.] Aitron. Jour., 7 : 58. 

(G. C.) New mode of determining the constants of refraction and 
afteriBtiao. Sid. mess., 6 : 810-817. 

(J. R.)] Befraction Ubles, U. S. naral observatory, 1887. 87 p. 
410. Washington, 1887. 

.B (J. M .) Short method for computing astronomical refractions be- 
0^ and 46^ xenith dbtance. Aitron. Nachr., 116 : 115. 

— Short method of computing with BessePs constants the true refractions 
for all zenith distances. Ibid.^ 117 : 58. 

(C.) Sur I'applioation de la photographic aux nouvelles m^thodes de 
M. Loewy pour la determination des 616ments de la refraction et Paberra- 
tion. Compt. Bend., 104: 414^17. 


(W. T.) [Biographical note.] Obsry., 10: 69. 

de Tobservaioire de Bio Janeiro . . . par L. Oruls. Tome 8. Observa- 
OOB dtt passage de V^nus en 1882. il. 708 p. 4to. Bio de Janeiro, 1887. 

(L.) Transferencia do observatorio. Bev. d. obsrio., 2:1. 
ai; «£n^ Nature, 35 : 508. 

do observatorio. Publica^ao mensal do imperial observatorio do Bio de 
Jas^iro. Anno 2, 1887. Bed. L. Cruls [& oihersy 8 -\- 198 p. 4to. Bio 
de Janeiro, 1887. 

omioal aool^tj. . 

ly notices . . . Nov., 1886, to Nov., 1887. Vol. 47. 8vo. London, 1887. 

of the council to the 67th annual general meeting. Month, not., 47 : 

;s (W.) Length of the Saros. Obezy. , 10 : 428. 
i (VSomatiOD of ). See Planets. 

m A 


BatolUtos (Orbits of). 

Mabth (A.) Formulae for computing the apparent positions of a satellite, and 
for correcting the assumed elements of its orbit. Month, not., 47 : 888-346. 
Also, Reprint. 


Elosb (T. 6.) Physical observations of Saturn in 1887. il. Month, not, 47 : 

[Observations of] the dark ring of Saturn, [1887, Feb.] Obsry., 10 : 161. 

-^— [Physical appearance, 1887, Feb. and Mar.] il. J. Liverp. astron. soc., 
6: 196. 

Grssv (N. E.) [Observations of] the outer ring of Saturn : Encke's division. 
Obsry., 10: 189. 

LoHSB (J. G.) [Observations 1885, Nov. 17—1886, Mar. 25.] Month, not., 47: 

Yov Spibssen ( — ) Encke'sche Theilung des Saturnringes. Astron. Nachr., 
116 : 245. 

Stutyabbt (E.) Division de Struve dans I'anneau de Satume. il. L'Astron., 
6: 207. 

Tbbbutt (J.) Observations of Saturn and 6 Gtominorum. [1887, Jan. 80 — Feb. 
14.] Month, not., 47 : 481. 

Tbbbt (F.) Nouvelles observations sur Saturne. il. L'Astron., 6 : 208-209. 

Observation de Satume faite a Louvain [1886, Dec. 25.] 4 p. 8vo. 

[Bruxelles, 1887.] 

Bull. d. Tacad. roy. d. B«Ig., 3. ■. 13. no. 8. 
— ^— Ph^nomdnes observe sur Saturne [1887, Jan., Feb.] 8 p., 1 pi. 8vo. 
[Bruxelles, 1887.] 

Bull. d. Taead. roy. d. Belg., 3. s. 13. no. 3. 

[Observation of Encke's division.] Obsry., 10: 107. 

-^-^ [Observations of physical appearance 1886-87.] Ibid,, 187. 

[Sketch 1887, Feb.] il. Astron. Nachr., 116: 827. il^.- Obsiy.ylO: 161. 

— ^ [Change in the ring.] Obsry., 10: 281. 

WiLLiAics (A. S.) Present aspect of the rings of Saturn. Ibid,, 105. 

Batiirn (Satellites of). 

YON Ekoblhabdt (B.) Mikrometrische Beobachtungen der Satamsatelliten. 

Astron. Nachr., 117: 187. 
Pbbbotin (J.) Observations des satellites Hyperion, Ariel, Umbriel. Ball. 

astron., 4 : 889. 

Sayre obaenratory. 

DooLiTTLB (G. L.) Latitude of the Sayre observatory. Aitron. Jour., 7 : 14. 
Soarboroagh observatory (Wigglesworth's). 

[Report for 1886.] Month, not., 47 : 162. 
Sol^aUerap (H. G. F. C.) [1827-1887]. 

Dbbtbb (J. L. E.) [Obituary notice.] Nature, 87 : 154. 

Thiblb (T. N.) Todes-Anzeige. Aitron. Nachr., 118 : 96. 


•** otitmitory. 

''■nil (J. B.) [Equipment of the Daniel Scholl olwervatory, Lancaster 
City, Penn.] Science, 9 : 482. 


Inn(K.) ijber die Scintillation. Repert. d. Phys., 23: 871, 426. Also, 

*"-— ihwr die Aufstcllung grosser Instrumente. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 105. 

CoutSAy (S. J.) Method of deriving the right ascension and declination of a 
bciTeely body from sextant observations, and its application to the detemii- 
uUoii of terrestrial longitude. Sid. mess., C: 175-188. Alsoltransl.: Kew. 
d.oterio.,2: 122,185. 

ftnnoAlB (G.) ^ OyToec<«pe-colliroateur : substitution d'un repdre artificiel k 
I'hnriaon de la mer. il. 61 p. 8vo. Paris, 1887. 
Mtpr.fnm: R«t. marit et colon.. Dec, 1886. 

XMWrtos (C. W.) Manual of the sextant: containing instruction for its use 
n dtCermining time, latitude, and longitude, and the variation of the com- 
106 p. 8vo. London, 1887. (M. 6.30.) 

Lm (W.T.) The alleged change in the color of Sirius. Obsr>'., 10: 104, 
(Cooipttiiion of). 

Hali. (A.) Observations of the companion of Sirius, 1887. Astron. jour., 7 : 99. 
BoroB (6. W.) Observations . . . [1887]. Month, not., 47: 478. 
Torvo (C. A.) [Observations 1887, Jan. 27— Apr. 7.] Obsry., 10: 263. 

rBOMBT (R.) upper wind currents near the equator, and the diffusion of 
dust. il. Nature, 86: 85. 

(P.) t^ber die Dammerung, insbesondere iiber die glanzenden Erschein- 
nmguk des Winters 1888-84. 88 p. 4to. Amsberg, 1887. (M. 1.50.) 

li creposcolari nel 1888 e 1884. Mem. soc. spettrscp. ital., 16 : 58-64. 

(A.) Sopra i fenomeni crepuscolari del 1883 e del 1884. 76///., 106-109. 

■troBomiiqiM d« Ttmno: 

[Cu— tifiitirn by-laws, officers, etc.] L'Astron., 6: 406-413, 462-468. Also: 
>, «7: 66. 

Sm, aUOf Planets. 

(J.) Sur les distances des plandtes au soleil, et sur les distancps des 
p^riodiques. Abstr.: Compt. Rend., 105: 515 

(A.) Untetsuchungen uber die Constitution gasformiger Weltl<6ri>cr. 

d. Phys., 20: 879-412. 1884. 
Mtt. hy R. (R.) Ball, matron., 4 : lW-906. 

(L.) Bestimmung der Constante der Praeceuion und der eigenen Bo- 
tag d«8 Sonnensystems. 84 p. 4to. Leipzig, [?] 1887. (M. 1.) 

Md. ioBpw <L sc. do 8t PHersb. 7. s. 35, no. 3. 

(V.) Conimensarabilit^ des moyens movements dans le systdme 
BalL aatran., 4: 188-192. AUo: Compt. Rend., 104: 260-205. 

r % 


8p«otni (Stellar). 

GopsLAiTD (R.) Yariability of the spectrum of y CaMiopei«. Month, not., 
47 : 92. 

Ebpin (T. E.) Sweeping for red stars and stars with remarkable speetra. Obarj., 
10: 268. 

— — Stars with remarkable spectra. Astron. Nachr., 117 : 49. 

Haundkr (E. W.) a oihepB, [Remarks on Sherman's observations of bright 
lines in stellar spectra.] Obsry., 10: 61. 

PiCKKRivo (E. G.) Henry Draper memorial. First annual report of the photo- 
graphic study of stellar spectra conducted at the Harvard eellege observatory. 
10 p., 1 pi. 4to. Cambridge, 1887. (M. 8 ) 

Shkbmak (O. T.) Stellar spectra of classes I c and II b, Astron. Jour., 7 : 33. 

• Spectra of the new variable in Orion, of certain temporary stars, and of the 
nebulas. /6u2., 65-71. 

■ Short study upon the atmosphere of p LyrsB. Am. J. sc., 188 : 126-129. 

Spektroskopische Beobachtung der Sterne bis zur 7.6 Gr. zwischen 0^ nnd— 16® 
Deklination auf der Ster^warte zu O'Gyalla. Sirius, 20: 262-266. 

Stars with remarkable spectra, il. Nature, 36 : 461. 

HuTCHiNs (G. G.) A new photographic spectroscope. Am. j. sc, 184 : 68. 

Speotmm analysis. See^ aUoy Light. 

Gnt^NWALp (A.) tJber die merkwurdigen Beziehungen zwischen dem Spektrum 
des Wasserdampfes und den Linienspectren des Wasserstoffs und Sauerstofls, 
sowie uber die chemiscbe Struktur der beiden letztem und ihre Dissociation 
in der Sonnenatmosphare. Astron. Nachr., 117: 201-214. AUOf trtmal.: 
Phil, mag., 6. 8.24: 864-367. 

YON E0YS8LIOETHT (R.) Mathematische Spektralanalyse. Abatr,: Astron. 
Nachr., 117: 329-388. 

Sherman (O. T.) A continuous spectrum from hydrogen. Astron. jour., 7: 95. 

Bpaotmm (Solar). »^, aUo, Spectrum analysis. 

Abnet (W. de W.) Solar spectrum from X 7160 to X 10000. ' Phil, trans, my. 
soc. 177 : 457-469. ^^, Reprint. ■'- * -• . . (M. 8.80.) 

HuTCHiNsl[G. G.) & HoLDEN (B. L.) Existence of certain elements, together 
with the discovery of platinum in the sun. Am. j. sc., 184 :- 451-466. 

Mbnoarini (G.) II massimo d'intensita luminosa dello spettro sokftei. Axti d. 
rl accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Bendic, 8: 482-489. 

Pickering (B. G.) [Device for detecting atmospheric lihes in the solar speo> 
trum.] Science, 9: 18. 

BowLAND (H. A.) Relative wave-length of the lines of the solar spectrum. 

Am. j. sc., 183 : 182-190. 


Trowbrii>os (J.)x& Hutchins (G. G.) Existence of carbon in the son. Am. 
J. sc., 184: 846-848. AUo: Phil, mag., 6.s. 24; 810^18. 

. . I » Oyygen in the sun. Am. j. sc., 184 : 268-270. .ilffo.* Phil.mag., 6.s. 
( airSOMlO. 



Cunu (S.) Neuere Spharometer zur Hessung der Krummung von Linsen- 
tkhtn, il. ZUchr. f. Instrmknd., 7 : 297-301. 

•OitalociMt. See J also. Star-places. 

Anriu (A.) A catalogue of 480 stars to be used as fundamental stars for ob- 
Mntiions of zones between 20^ and 80^ south declination. Month, not., 47 : 

liCKLmrD (O.) Studien uber den Sterncatalog : positions moyennea de 8542 
i\m\t§ dtonninto k I'aide du corcle ra6ridien de Poulkova . . . 1840-1869. 
XA. math, astron., 6: — [avril et sept. 1887.] 

Pulkowaer Declinationsbestimmungen. Astron. Nachr., 118: 16&-168. 

BcTAjiT (B.) [Errata in Glasgow and Romberg's catalogues.] Ibid,, 111. 

fOqic cataiogue, 1880— erraU.] Ibid., 117 : 47. 

Gfttalogiie de Tobtenratoire de Paris. Positions observe des ^toiles. 1887-1881. 
Tome 1. 0^ to 6^. 22 + 836 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 

ClAVDLEm (S. C.) Jr. Notes on some places of Auwers's fundamantal catalogue. 
Astron. Jour., 7 : 81. 

Dowvivo (A. M. W.) Comparison of the star-places of the Argentine general 
catalogue for 1876 with Uiose of the Cape catalogue for 1880 and with those 
of other southern catalogues. Month, not, 47: 446-464. ^/«o.- Reprint. 

Probable errors of the star-places of the Argentine general catalogue for 

1S75 and the Cape catalogue for 1880. Month, not., 48 : 19. 

(B. A.) Corrections to the Uranometria argent! na and the Cordoba cata- 
logues. Astron. Nachr., 116: 879. 

^ A. M.) Index tu certain classes of stars contained in the Greenwich catii- 
logues, reduced to 1876.0. Pub. Washb. obsry., 6 : llf>-2d0. 

LoswT (M.) Determination des ascensions droites de 521 6toiIe3 de culmination 
Innaire ou de longitude et d*un certain nombrc de circumpoluires bor^ales 
b a Wes snr 68860 observations effectuSes entre les ann^es 1868 et 1881. 117 p. 
4to. Paris, 1887. 

(£.) [Notice of the Paris catalogue.] 4 p. 4to. Paris, 1887. 
Ripr.from: Compt. Rend-^lOA: 629-C31. 

(C. H. F.) Flamsteed's stars ''observed but not existing." Mem. nat. 
I. sc., 8 : 69-83. Also, Reprint. 

■■ Corrigenda in various star catalogues. Mem. nat. acad. sc, 3 : 87-97. 

AUo^ Reprint. 

O. Arg. 8., Bono VI, W^, Wa, RQmker, Sclvl-, Baily's Lai. lone^ Yarnnll, Gia^gow, 
Santiago, Genera. 

t ««^— [Progress of work upon a catalogue of 80,000 stars.] Sid. mess., 6 : 352. 

Ks^HVXB (J. 6.) Zone catalogue of 4,050 stars for the epoch 1885, observed with 
■ As Ikinch transit of the Cincinnati observatory. 104 p. 8vo. Cincinnati, 

LI TtigleiGhung des Pulkowaer Catalogs von 8642 Stemen fur 1866 
•Gatftlog fur 1880. Astron. Nachr., 118 : 1-6. 


Star charts. 

Klein (H. J.) Stern-Atlas. Lfgn. 6, 7, 8. fol. Leipzig, 1887. 


SchOnfeld (E.) Bonner Stemkarten. Serie II. Atl— der Himmdjl 
chen 1° und 28° sudlicher Declination. Lfg. 8. 5 maps. fol. ^ 

Weiss (E.) Bilderatlas der Stemenwelt. 51 p., 41 pi. 4to. Esiiy 


Gore (J. £.) Absolute dimensions of a star-cluster. J. Liverp. Mti 
169-171. ' 


1 1 

BiGOURDAK (G.) R^uction de la distance apparente de deux sittlill 
leur distance moyenne d'une ^poque donn^. Compt. Rend., lOC 

Letayour (H.) Right ascensions of certain stars within 1(P of 
duced from observations by F. 6. W. Struve. Month, not., 47 1 

Safpord (T. H.) Observations of the mean right ascension of certnia; 
made at the Field memorial observatory . . . and reduced to . 
Proc. Am. acad. arts & sc., 22: 1-18. 

Stoke (E. J.) Mean right ascensions of Polaris, 51 (H) Cephei. 6 Ui 
X Urs. Min. for 1887, from the RadclifTe observations 1880-86. 
47: 85-87. 

Stars. See, alsoy Colored stars; Double stars; Nova Andromed«; Fsill 
lar); Photometry ; Proper motion ; Red stars ; Variable sta». ^ 

Mauler (E.) Uber den Stern misri dor As*yrer. 10 p. 8vo. H 

MoNCK (W. H. S.) Temperature of the sun. J. Liverp. astn>n. S| 

Stars (Motion of) in the line of sight. See, also. Solar system. 

Seabroke (G. M.) Spectn*$c<>pic observations . . . made at the Tc^j 
atory. Month, not., 47 : 93-100. tl 

Spectroscopic resulu . . . obtained nt the Royal «*bservatorT, Green vl 
Ibid., 101-108. 

Stockholm observatory. ' 

Gtldcn i H.) [Report for 1880.] Vrtljschr. d. astiv^n. GeselUch., j 

Stonjharst college obsenratorj. J 

[Report for 1S86.] Mfnih. not.. 47 : 157. 

Jlesulis of metei>n^logicai and magnetical observations by S. J, 
87 p. limo. Market Weighton. 1SS7. 

Straasbnrg obserratory. 

KoBOLD \B.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astroa. Gee 

ScHva (W.) Geographische Lage der verschicdenea 'B 
Strassborg. Astiun. Xachr., 116: 18S. 




SttUTe (O). 

Adresse der k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. an flrn. Otto Struve zur Feier seines 
funfzigjahrigen Astronomenjubilaumsund fanfund&wanzlgjahrigen Direktor- 
jubilaums am 20. Februar, 1887. Sirius, 20 : 97-101. 
See, aUOt Natnre, 35 : 422. 

^vaji. Sm, oIm), Chromosphere; Corona; Eclipse; Faculao; Prominences; Siv<- 
trum (Solar); Sun (Diameter of); Sun-spots ; Sun (Statistics, etc.) 

AnvxT (W. de W.) Sunlight colors. Nature, 86 : 498-501. 

BiGELOW (P. H.) Phenonifiiu uf solar vortices. Ahatr.: Proc. A.n. ass. adv. 
8c., 86: 62. AUoy Reprint. 

[Braun (P.)] Sunto della teoria solare del P. Braun. Mem. soc: spettrscp. 
ital., 16 : 48-50. 

Brothers (A.) Comparison of drawings and photographs of sun-spots and the 
sun's surface. Proc. Manchester lit. & phil. soc, 26 : 74-78. 

Coaklkt (6. W.) Motion of the sun in reference to the centre of gravity of the 
solar system. Papers Am. astron. soc., 1 : 88-44. 

CaoTTON (W. J.) [Abstract of] Braun's theory of the sun. Obsry., 10: 296. 

FiLACHOU (J. E.) Principes de physique solaire. 106 p. 12mo. Montpellier. 

FrOlich ^O.) Messungen der Sonnenwarme. 2. Abhandl. il. Ann. d. Phys. 

u. Chem., n. F. 80 : 582-620. 

Lakolst (S. p.) Sunlight colors. Nature, 86 : 76. 

LxYiBON (W. G.) Note on periods of stationary temperature accordant with a 
steadily cooling sun. Papers Am. astron. soc, 1 : 44-48. 

LocKTSR (J. N.) The chemistry of the sun. 19 -|- 467 p. 8vo. London, 1887. 

(M. 14.60.) 

ScHULZ (J. F. H.) Zur Sonnenphysik. Astron. Nachr., 118: 129-146. 

STAjroiiBWiTCH (6. M.) Photograph ie directe de P^tat barom^trique de Tatmos- 
p&ere solaire. Compt. Rend., 104: 1268-1266. 

TBOMSoy (W.) Probable origin, the total amount, and the possible duration of 
the sun's heat. Nature, 86: 297-800. Also: Pop. sc month., 81 : 19-29. 

ZxKOKR (K. W.) Die Meteorologie der Sonne und die Wetterprognose des 
Jahres 1886. 63 p. 8vo. Prag, 1887. * (M. 8.) 

Son (Diameter of ). 

AuwKRs (A.) Neue Untersuchungen uber den Durchmesser der Sonne, II. 
Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch. 1887 : 449-486. AUo^ Reprint. 

(M. 1.80.) 

Di Lrooe (A.) Sul diametro solare. Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, 1884-86, s. 4. 
Mem. d. cl. d. sc. fisich., 1 : 282-281. 

Bmisbine recorder. 

Maueir (J.) Neue einfache Form des photographischen Sonnenscheinauto- 
grapben. il. Ztschr. f. Instrmknd., 7 : 288. 

Bon-spots. £See, aUo^ Sun (Statistics of facul», prominences, spots, etc., for 1886). 
BioxLOW (F. H.) Sun-spots as vortex rings. Sid. mess., 6 : 189-161. 



BaoTHXBS (A.) ComparMon of drawings and photogimpha of tmi-lli 
sun's surface. Pioc. Manchester lit & phil. soc., 26 : 74-78. 

Brown (£.) Bemarkable sun-spots [1886, May]. 11. J. LiTefp.i 
6: 50. 

Jacquot (M.) & BBUGUiiRX (— ). [Distinguished a group of 86 ipi 
naked eye, 1887, Dec. 19.] L'Astron., 7 : 88. 

Lakdereb (J. J.) Grande tache solaire de Juin 1887. il. IbiiL^S 

Markwick (E. £.) Some typical sun-spots, il. J. Liverp. a4H 

Measures of positions and areas of spots and faculs ... on photii|l 
... at Greenwich, in India, and in the Mauritius. Greeaw 
obsns. 1885 : 84-104. 1 

SpOrer (G. F. W.) Periodicitat der Sonnenflecken seit dem Jalnf 
nehmlich in Bezug auf die heliographische Breite derselben, ^ 
auf eine erhebliche Stoning dieser Periodicitat wahrend einei 1 
raumes. Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 828-829. 

--^— Beobachtungen von Sonnenflecken in den Jahren 1880^-84. 
trophys. Obs. zu Potsdam, 4 : 219-427 (Bd. 4, Stuck 4). 

Tacchini (P.) Observations solaires du deuxidme semestre, II 
Bend., 104: 216. 

Same. I*' trimestre, 1887. Compt. Rend., 104: 1062; 106^ 

Same. 2« trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 105: 211. 

Same. 8« trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 105: 1002. j 

Osservazioni di macchic e facole solari [4* trimestre, 19891 

accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 3 : 14. ' 

Same, l" trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 265. • d 

■ Macchie solari osservate a Roma nel 1886. Mem. soc. apett^i 



— Macchie e facole solari osservate al regio osservatorio del ooQij 
nel 1» trimestre del 1887. Ibid., 88-86, 54-57. - 

— Same. 2« trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 87-90. ^ 

— Same. 3» trimestre, 1887. Ibid., 118. i\ 

Taches solaires k colorations rouges. L' Astron., 6 : 59-62. 
Veeder (M. a.) [Spots visible 1886, Nov. and Dec.] Nature, 
Wolf (R.) [Statistics for 1886.] Yrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 

Ban (Statistics of faculse, prominences, spots, etc., for 1886). 

Riccd (A.) Osservazioni astroflsiche solari eseguite nel r^io 
Palermo : statistica delle macchie e delle facole nell' anno 1( 
spettrscp. ital., 16: 11-16. 

Solar activity in 1886. Obsry., 10 : 197-199. 

TACCHXira (P.) Distribuzione delle protuberanze idrog^inldlM 
lole durante Tanno 1886. Atti d. r. accad. d. Linoiivft 


■ (SteMeiQffjiQQliB^ prominences, spots, etc., for 1886) — Continued, 

^^^^^*^ (P.) DUtribozione in latitudine delle fiacole, mtcchie ed eruzioni solari 
^^iVkU il 1886. Atti d. r. accad. d. Lincei, s. 4. Rendic, 8 : 185. 

"""^ Diitribatlon en latitude des ph^nomdnes rolaires pendant I'ann^ 1886. 
^pt Bsnd., 104 : 671. 

"""^ Mtcchie solari ossenrate a Roma nel 1886. Hem. soc. spettrscp. ital. 

^^(R.) 8onnen-«tatistik fur 1886. Astron. Nachr., IIC : 259. See, also, 
Vi*.|^ehr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22 : 164. 

"""^ StitistSqae solaire de I'ann^ 1886. Compt. Rend., 104 : 160. 


^CiciT (S. F.) Vollst&ndige logarithmische und trigonometrisohe Tafeln. 
l&sd. 6 + 204 p. 8to. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 1.60.) 

A)ci0ir (J.) Tables de logarithmes k 5 d^imales des nombres et des lignes 
trigoDomtoiqae. 287 p. 16mo. Paris, 1887. 

tUHlKEM (C.) Logarithmisch-trigonometriscbe Tafeln mit 5 Dccimalstellen. 
6. Anil. Ton A. Kallius. 188 p. 8to. ^rlin, 1887. (M. 1.50.) 

Dvpcm (J.) Tables des logaritbmes k 5 d^cimales d'aprds J. de Lalandc . . . 
4 -h 280 p. 16mo. Paris, 1887. (M. 2.) 

QACm (F. O.) Funfttellige vollst&ndige logarithmische und trigonometrische 
TafUtt. 26. ed. 162 + 84 p. 8vo. Halle, 1887. (M. 2.) 

(A.) Funfstellige gemeine Logarithmen der Zahlen und Winlccl- 
fbnetionen von 10 zu 10 Secunden nebst den Proportiontheile ihrer Ditfer- 
enzen. 2. ed. 8 +183 p. 8vo. Wicn, 1886. (M. 8.40.) 

(H. 6.) Logarithmisch-trigonometrischcs Handbuch. 15. ed. 8r> + 
888 p. 8vo. Leipzig, 1887. (M. 3.) 

(F. 6.) Tables de logarithmes k cinq decimales. 17 + 174 + 8 p. 8vo. 
Stuttgart, 1887. 

(L.) Tables de logarithmes k 7 d^imales . . . procM^es d'une intro- 
duction par J. HoOel. 2 v. 4to. Paris, 1887. (M. 9.) 

(T.) Funfstellige logarithmisch-trigonometrischo Tafeln. 12. ed. 
36 + 186 p. 8vo. Hannover, 1887. 

WooDWAKD (C. J.) ABC five figure logarithms. Differences on a new and 
simple plan. 58 p. 16mo. London, 1887. (M. 2.70.) 


(H. S.) Exchange of longitude-signals between St. Louis and Mox- 
ioo. Astron. Jour., 7 : 62. 

f Charles George) [1840-1886]. 
For Biography, see Month, not., 47 : 142. AUo^ Obsry., 9 : 175 

It otaerratorj. 

:«F» (H.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. Gesellsch., 22: 

Sm^ mUo, Objectives. 

S9r HantaUong von.Femrohren. Sirius, 20 : 276-279. 

Ol illZ-J •■riAJTET l^ 

l-:i:_z ^ » -i/?i_T..* 1, !^»*r ^ 

•l-*4. -i-ff r'l.i'irf jLjl *bC i. * •:_ 1 

r~ ■*• 

irr'-iiiTLja^ A'..j^»ein<t ^i«*:r *v-sfzst^gi^ uni. 

r-17 Vl-ii fcif:*'. 'n[lL 

A I --I. 3 - - 


1.1. " -»----:.. .:.*-:. :- :.■ .a. o^-iji^^r* as 

». *:. --::.. 

j^^-*!;' ." • t:.i.— t . .- " r .= -- I.-T-L. '-."4 l.'*iT 

■ ^k 

^ > A ■ « «v %■ -^ a" bX >«'* .M A^M^iJ^V^ ^M< «^ wfT 


See, aUo, Clocks. 

^**^ll(J. E.) Time-ierv ice of the Lick observatory. 16 p. 8vo. [North- 
•^, 1887.1 

Btpr.fnm: Sld.ineM.,6: 233-248. 

[Adoption of even hours from Greenwich in America and Norway.] Ciel et 
tern, 8: 55. 

[4Lm(\V. F.) & Flxmino (S.) Reports on introduction of standard time, 
fie.] Science, 9 : 7. 

Fuxiyo (S.) [Introduction of new system of time into Canada.] Obsry., 10: 

O b — na tions. 

FiVLAT (W. H.) Probable errors of transit-observing. Month, not., 47 : 427. 

lyoio BnlM. 

ftracKHAEOT (F.) Aus Tycho Brahe's Briefwechsel. 28 p. 4to. Basel, 1887. 

(M. 1.60.) 

ViSfCBJtT (J.) Le nouvel observatoire d'Uccle, prds Bruxelles. il. Ciel et 
terre, 8: 105-110. 

•tatss naTftl obflanratorj. 

(A.) Organisation des services astronomiques aux £tnts-Unis. 
Compt. Rend., 105: 488-401. 

ObcanPtttions made during the year 1888 at the United States naval observatory, 
R. W. Sbufeldt, superintendent. 483 p. 4to. Washington, 1887. 

Frwffmmme of work to be ^)ursued . . . during the year 1887. 1 p. 22«"x3.5«". 

[Waibington, 1887.] 

Atto: Sid. in«Mi.f 6: 166. 
BaftaeCion tables, U. S. naval observatory, 1887. [Arranged by J. K. Eastman.] 

S7 p. 4to. Washington, 1887. 

B#port of the superintendent ... for the year ending June 30 [Oct. 0], 1887. 
17 p. 8vo. Washington, 1887. 

Bamha of meteorological observations made at the U. S. naval observatory dur- 
ing the year 1883. 21 p. 4to. Washington, 1887. 

(J.) [Observations of phyrieal appearance in June, 1887.] Astron. 
Nachr., 118: 146. 

(W.) Vber die Abpl.Httung des Uranus. Astron. Nachr., 116: 

(J. 31.) [Explanation of the variability of Algol.] Obsry., 10 : 320, 388, 

(W. H. S.) [Cause of the variability of Algol.] Obsry., 10 : 357, 425. 
(H. M.) The variable star Algol. So. Am., 56 : 247. 


Variable star — Chniinned, 

AndromedcB (Nova, 1885). See, Nova AndromedA. 

28 AndromedcB, 
Backhouss (T. W.) [Variabilitj of 28 Andromedn.] Obtrj., 10 : 148, 

e AquiUt, 
Lynn (W. T.) Variability of e Aquil». Obeiy., 10: 194. 

60 AquiUe, 
S AWTKR (E. F.) A new sbort-period variable in Aquila. Af tron. Jour., 7 : l| 

B Canis mc^orie. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. On tbe two new Algol-type Tariablea T Cygni aj 

Canid majoris. Astron. jour., 7 : 144, 150. ^ 

Sawysr (E. F.) On a new variable of tbe Algol type. /ftuL, 119. 


EspiN (T. £.) New variable sUr in Cauiopeia. DM. + 47^, 194. 
Nacbr., 116: 271,819. 

P Cygni {Nova 1600). 

LoHBE (J. 6.) [Observations of nova Cygni, 1885, Sept 1 — 1886, 

Montb. not., 47 : 494. 

X CS/gni. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. A new sbort-period variable in Cygniii. Aatioa. 

7: 82. 

• » 

— ^ Observations of X Cygni. Ibid.j 159. i 

Y CS/fffii. 

Chandler (S. C.) jr. A new variable of tbe Algol type. Aatron. 
40, 47. 

On tbe two new Algol-type variables Y Cygni and R Canit 

Ibid,, 144, 150. 

Sawyer (E. F.) On the new Algol-type variable Y Cygni. /6tdL, 116. 

Period of tbe Algol variable Y Cygni. Ibid., 188. 


Ebpin (T. £.) [New variable in Cygnus. DM. + 88^, 8967.] Attipa. 

117 : 287. 

DM. -f so, 766. 

Boss (L.) Variability of DM. -f 8<», 766. Astron. jour., 7 : 126. 

C Oeminorum, 
Beed (W. M.) [Observations 1887, Feb. 10— May 14.] IHd.^ 127. 

TJ Chminorum. 

Baxbitdell (J.) jr. Note on recent maxima of IT Qemlnomm. i^ 

astron. soc., 6: 114. 


SAWTEm (E. F.) . [Observations 1887, Mar. IT^May 16.] 


star— Obi»<tftiMil 

Lalande 10068. 

FdBTXft (J. O.) [ObMiratioDS 1886, Feb. 2—1886, Feb. 8.] Obiry., 10: 288. 
Wbitb <£. J.) [ObMrratlons 1886, May 81— Not. 22.] Ibid., 160. 


BAVWCMVKQMm (J.) Neuer Verinderlicher in Libra. Aitron. Nachr., 118: )37. 


SAWTsm (K. F.) [Max. and min. of T and IT Monocerotif obtenred in 1886.] 

Aslron. Jour., 7 : 109. 

TJ OphiuehL 

C&avDLSB (S. C.) Jr. Investigation of the light variations of U Ophiuchi. 
Ikid., 129, 187. 

SAWTKB(E.F.f Obierrations 1886,. 1886. /6uf., 6, 82. 

Ononis (Nova, 1886). 

lloycx (W. H. S.) [Possible explanation of variability.] Obsry., 10 : 69. 

MCllbb (6.) t)ber den Ck>re'schen Stem bei x^ Orionis. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 

Fabkkvmt (H. M.) [Observations 1886, Oct. 22— Deo. 2.] Astron. jour., 7 : 80. 

Sawtsb (£. F.) [Observations 1886, Dec. 19—1887, Jan. 27.] Ibid., 64. 

SnooBAVT (P.) [Observations . . . 1886, Dec. 19—1886, May 8.] Astron. 

Nschr., 116 : 187. 


WiLLiAm (A. S.) A new variable in Puppis. Month, not., 47 : 91. 

10 Sagittce, 
GoRB (J. E-) [Observations 1886, Jan. 6— Sept. 27.] Month, not., 47 : 267. 
Bkvo (W. M.) [Observations 1886, Oct. 20— Dec. 29.] Astron. jour., 7: 86. 
Sawtbb (S. F.) On the variable star F. 10 Sagitte. Ibid., 102. 

67 SagUiarii. 
Sawtsb (E. F.) a new variable of short period. Astron. jour., 7 : 8, 29. 

6^ Tauri, 

K»Pt9i (T. E.) New variable star in Taurus. Astron. Nachr., 116 : 176. AUo: 

Obsry., 10: 110. 

61 Ursa fnajoris. 

Gcif MILL (S. M. B.) Suspected new variable in Ursa major. J. Liverp. astron. 

§oc., 5: 147. 

T VulpecuUe. 

r Cba^vdleb (S. C.) jr. Light variations of Sawyer's variable in Vulpecula. 
L Astron. jour., 7 : 1. 

kwbto BUM. 

K ^iAZBVDBLL (J.) Maxima and minima of variable stars observed during the 
ymr 1886. Obsry., 10: 261. 

MAMVLMtL (9. C.) Jr. On the methods of observing variable stars. 16 p. 12mo. 
[Ctebridge, 1887.] 



£^l':y T. E '>" :- fc i.?v rUsf :f rfcrj^ViM.! AKrtm. Xachr.. lift 

tFirrr . fric ■:■■ '—4 
&:si V E. >:•=.* f::fp»rsr-i TiriiVi* rat* >f ib* A.I^>'. tjpe. /^uf., lOi 

P:rKEx:>:- E C. O-iwrr*; :q* -f tatji*.:* Kir- ;a 18eh5. Prtic- 


!•'-: •-:. ST 
Sin*. l>?r . /:- f . I>5l 


'Jt-wm?^:— * :f i 

«. :>'?". L» 



rL 21] AstTon. Na^ 

Lax? J 


L s^c -' G Pi^:2*: »rcwfcr*=.0!. :>?r.. J^i:. 2. F*b. S.] Month. 



LT>!f W T Xj-hJ.^^* * *l>,i*i .b**rr»i>n rf m mellite of Veaof 

I »• 1.7-7 _ _»• 

- 1 

ArvBX^ A V*r-»-I>i-:bzi=i- :ir4 -=1 ISSl BmchtQbcrdM 

B^. :;!.;:--£*:: ... 4 Bi. H-::^=«rL*ci*a Aibeitn war Vi 
d*T Exr<i*ii'.: =-?n und 2«r r=;<na-:h-.i:if i«r becTitzS«a IiutniBWBti.1 

-»: ; 4-^ . &*.-::=. :>*" 

'R-?r-:r: f ij-mA!: .• T.T-iai.-^. '.►? 1?$^*.' Vrtl>chr. d- asti\*n. 

BvVhTKT :zlaGkts J J. A X-*^ur« -m piquet photo^raphiqi 
*•:«• i". Vir-ii »ur > * .^il d* 1?*2. C.ii^ Reed . 104 : ^0. 

Csri.* L ObMrTA-;»? .ia pasMx^ai d<> V«as« em 1$S. peUi 


▼•BOS (Trantii of) — (hntinued. 

Ji*ny>02C (S. J.) Obierving weather during the transit of Venun [1882]. Obm*., 
10: 3(W. 

Obkecbt -J. A.) Application d*une nouvelle m^thode de discussion aux i\^u1- 
Uit4 tibtcniu par les uiisiiions fran^aises. Compt. Rend., 105: 1004-1007. 

Ik«^p*r»of the coniinittec appointed by the British government to superintend tho 
jirran-^emont* ... for the observation of the transit of Venus, 1882. Dec. Ti. 
^^ p. ■l^•. [Li*ndon, 1887.] 

Anoalen der k. k. Universitatt-Sternwarte in Wien (Wahring). Hrsg. von E. 
Wciat. 4. Bd., 1884. 172 p. 4to. Wien, 1886. 

obftsrratoiy (Wien-Ottakring). 

Xftz .N.) Mittheilungen iiber die von KufTner'sche Sternwarte in Wien- 
Ottakring. Astron. Nachr., 118: 113. 

(Au^nut) [1828-1886]. 

Stbute (O.) [Biographical sketch, with portrait.] Vrtlj^chr. d. astron. 
G«9ellsch.. TZ: 2-6. See, alao, Astron. Nachr., lir»: 335. 

O b — rratory. 

publication* of the Warbbum observatory of the univenity of Wisconsin, v. 1-4. 
4 r. 8vo. Madison, 1882-86. 

Act. hf Valentiner (W.) VrtlJ^chr. d. a^itron. GeMlloch., 22: ^A-M. Set, nUo, Ibid^ 

PiiMicatioDi . . . vol. 5. 4 + 262 -f 23 p. 8vo. Madit-on, 1887. (M. 7.50.) 
Wtndsor obscnratorj (Tebbutt's). 

Tkbbutt « J.) History and description ... 74 p. il. 8vo. Sydney, 18H7. 
rate eoltoc^ obMnratory. 

Ions of the astronomical observatory (;f Yale university, vol. 1, pt. 1. 
Determination of the relative pocitions of the principal stars in the griuip nf 
the Pleiades. By W. L. Elkin. 105 p. 4to. New Haven, 1837. 


5BABLB (A.) The luminous bands visible in and near the xodiac. Astron. 
Xechr., 116: 828. 

Wolf (R.) [Report for 1886.] Vrtljschr. d. astron. OeMll<»ch., 22 : 163-165. 

■«»M>;(iMA\ VIISHHI.l.ANIiol'S Ci.iLI.ErTloSS. 

^^^B - — 



^^M THS YRAR 1887. 


^k_ V^"'"/ 

^^^^^^^Ki inr THB sMiTUBuNiAjr vsworvriiiK. 

— 005 




THK YE-A.R 1887. 








[The lize is octavo unless otherwise stated.] 

, HsLSir C. Di8. — Plant Analysis as an Applied Science. A lecture deliv- 
ered before the Franklin Institute, Jan. 17th, 1887. Philadelphia, 1887. 8vo. 
Plant Chemistry as Illustrated in the Production of Sugar from Sorghum. A 

lecture delivered before the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy, Feb. 8th, 1887. Philadelphia, 1887. 
AmKEsr, W. — The Animal Alkaloids, Ptomaines, Leucomaines, and Extractives. 

Philadelphia, 1887. 12ino. 
ALauLVDEi s Haqoi. — Aequo potabili, considerate come bevanda dell'Uomo o dei 

Bmtl. Milaoo, 1887. 12mo. 
«^— *-> Stndio llsico-^himico delle aoque potabili. Maggi ; Esame microscopico delle 

acqoe potabili ecc. 
Alkoholoustriache Tateln. — Sammlung von Alkoholometrischcn Reductions- 

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[ AucHtT for Pharmaci og teknisk Chemi med deres Grundvidenskaber, redig. af S. 

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t Amxarzvr, R. — Grundzuge der Chemie. 2. Auflage. Hamburg, 1887. 
^_ If etbodischer Lehrgang der Chemie. Halle, 1887. 

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Aod Cbemical Change. London, Roy. Soc., 1886. 

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TOLD, Carl. — Repetitorium der Chemie. Mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der 

I ii^ die Medizin wichtigen Yerbindungen. Zweite Auflage, 1887. 12mo. 

Ljp^ASCOCK, S. H.— Report of the Chemist to the New York Agricultural Experiment 
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JnsK P. — Food Adulteration and its Detection, with photomicxo^ 
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Batley, T. — Pocket-Book for Chemists, Chemical Manufacturers, etc. 4. edit. New 

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Bkilstein, F. — Anleitung zur qualitativen chemischen Analyse^ 6. Umgearbeiteto 

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Handbuch der organischen Cliemie. 2. Ganzlich umgearbeitete Auflage. 

Hamburg, Lieferungen 20-27. 1886-'87. 
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ben von A. Hilger, £. List, R. Kayser, D. Sgger, und Th. Weigle. Berlin, 

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ter der angewandten Chemie zu Munchen am 20 und 21 mai, 1887. Herausgeii^e- 

ben von A. Hilger, R. Kayser, u. £. List. Berlin, 1887. 
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■ Ueber die zum theoretischen Beweise des Avogadro'schen Gtesetses erforder- 

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B. tTec la collaboration de professeurSi d'ing^nieurs etd'industriels. Paris, 1887. 

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Mitio of the Chemical Society of Washington, No. 2. [Contains annual address of 

tkpmident, H. W. Wiley, on Our Sugar Supply.] Washington, 1887. 
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svafvelcyan och en dermed analog forcning. 4 Abhandlungen. (Lund, Acta 
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Cleve, p. T. — Cm nagra Klornaftalinsulfonsyror. Stockholm, 1887. 
Cohen, J. B. — The Owens College Course of Practical Organic Chemistry. London, 

1887. 12mo. 
Combes, A. — Nouvelle reaction du chlorure d'aluminium ; Synthdses dans la S6rie 

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Cornwall, H. B. — The Chemistry of Butter and its Imitations. The physiological 
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imitation butter. (In Report of the Dairy Commissioner of the Stite of New 
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Gas Analysis. Glasgow, 1887. 
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DoijER VAN Cleepf, G. — Lccrboek der scheikunde. Stuk II. Haarlem, 1887. 
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DucLAUX, E. — Le Lait ; Etudes chimiques et microbiologiques. Paris, 1887. 

Action do la lumidre solaire sur les substances hydrocarbon6es. Nancy, 1887. 

DuRRANT, R. G. — Laws and Definitions Connected with Chemistry and Heat; with 

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graphischen Copirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positivprocess) auf Salz-, Starke- 
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Encyclop^ie chimique, publi6 sous la direction do FrSmy : 
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Ibme VJIl. Chimie organique. Section I : Alcalis organiquo artificieU. Partie 

2, Sdrie aromatique, par E. Bourgoin. 
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(LuDd, Acta Univers.) 1887. 4to. 
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*"*"** Qotlitstive Chemical Analysis. 10th edit., translated from the 16th German 

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"^UULii, O.— Memoirs of Dr. Samuel Guthrie and the History of the Discovery of 
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9 O. A. — ^Einige kritische Bemerkungen zur Aviditats formel. Ueber- 
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TJeber Warme- und Volumanderungen b«i chemisohon Vorgangen. Aus d. 

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Svenska Farmakopens Preparat jemte Handledning i Titreringsanalysen. Upsala, 
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Handwdrterbuch (Neues) der Ghemie. Boarbeitet und redigirt von H. von Fehling, 

fortgesetzt von C. Hell. Lieferungen 56-57. Braunschweig, 1887. 
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fondue. Paris, 1887. 
Harcourt and Madan. — Exercises in Practical Chemistry. 4 edit, revised by H. 

G. Madnn. Vol. 1, elementary exercises. London, 1887. 
Harnack, £.-^Die Hauptthatsachen der Chemie. Hamburg, 1887. 
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Hart, Edward. — Laboratory Exercises for Beginners in Chemistry. Second edition. 

Easton, 1887. 12mo. 
Hartmann, Franz. — The Life of Philippus Tbeophrastus Bombast, of Hohenheim, 
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<— — Zor Kenntoiii des Amidophenylmercaptans und dor onUprechendon ifaph- 

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BiriiB, 1887. 
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^, 1886. Wiesbaden, 1887. 
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•**'Wv»..-Chemie des taglischen Lebens. Neu bearbeitet von F. Dombluth. 2. 

Attlaie. Stuttgart, 1887. 
^^t A.-^un 616mentaire do chimic ct do manipulations chimiques. Paris, 1887. 

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W. F. — Leerboek der chemie en van eenig^r barer toepassingen. 
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Pindustrie. Paris, 1887. 16mo. 
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the State of New Jersey for 1886.) Trenton, N. J.. 1887. y 

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Lellmann, Euoek. — Prinzipien der organischen Synthese. Berlin, 1887. 
Lemlino, J. — Der Photochemiker und die Hausindustrie. Heft 1. HaUi 
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LocKTER, J. N. — The Chemistry of the Sun. London, 1887. j, 

LoRscHRiD, D. — Lehrbuch der anorganischen Chemie mit einem kurson flli 

der Minemlogie. Nach dem Tode des Yerfassers bearbeitet tod H. H^ 

Elflc Auflage. 1887. J 

LosAMTscii, S. M. — Chemiache Technologie. I. Ueber Wasser und BiHi 

Bclgrad, 1887. - 

LuNOE, G. — Ci>al Tar and Ammonia. Being the 2d and enlarged edition cilli{ 

on cHml-t«r. London, 1887. 
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Malrpeyrb, F., et a. Petit. — Manuel d'Alcoometrie, contenant la deaci^jj 

npi^an'ils ot des metbodes alcoom^triques, les tables de force et mouill 

cools, d*apni^ Gay-Lussac et Kupffer. Paris, 1887. 
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adopted at the fourth annual oonTentioii of th« Awoclation < 



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Agriculture, division of chemistry . Washington, 1887. 8vo. 
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UHiiiiiut TO uicaoRAaE tbk 













The ** Toner Lectures " (of which the present issue is the tenth) 
have been instituted at Washington, D. C, by Joseph M. Toner, 
M. D., of this city, for the promotion of medical science. With thi^i 
object the founder has placed in charge of a Board of Trustees, con- 
sisting of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the Surgeon- 
General of the United States Army, the Surgeon-General of the 
United States Navy, and the President of the Medical Society of 
the District of Columbia, a fund, '' the interest of which is to be 
applied for memoirs or essays relative to some branch of medical 
science, and containing some new truth fully established by experi- 
nient or observation." 

The publication of these Lectures has been undertaken by the 
Smithsonian Institution, as falling legitimately within its funda- 
mental purpose, " the increase and difiUsion of knowledge among 
men/' The series of "Toner Lactures," published by the Institu- 
tion in pamphlet form, is as follows : 

L **On the Structure of Cancerous Tumors and the mode in 
which adjacent parts are invaded." By Dr. J. J. Woodward. De- 
livered March 28, 1873. Published November, 1873. 8vo., 42 pp. 

II. " Dual Character of the Brain." By Dr. C. E. Brown- 
Six^CARD. Delivered April 22, 1874. Published January, 1877. 
8vo-, 23 pp. 

III. " On Strain and Over- Action of the Heart." By Dr. J. M. 
Da Costa. Delivered May 14, 1874. Published August, 1874. 
Uto., 30 pp. 

XV. " A Study of the Nature and Mechanism of Fever." By 
^Or. H. C. Wood. Delivered January 20, 1875. Published Feb- 
, 1875. 8vo., 47 pp. 

(• • • Y 


V. " On the Surgical Complications and Sequels of the Continued 
Fevers." By Dr. William W. Keen. Delivered February 17, 
1876. Published March, 1877. 8vo., 70 pp. 

VI. " Sub-cutaneous Surgery." By Dr. William Adams. De- 
livered September 13, 1876. Published April, 1877. 8vo., 17 pp. 

VII. " The Nature of Reparatory Inflammation in Arteries after 
Ligatures, Acupressure, and Toreion." By Edward O. Shake- 
speare. Delivered June 27, 1878. Published March, 1879. 8vo., 
70 pp, and 7 plates. 

VIII. " Suggestions for the Sanitary Drainage of Washington 
City." By George E. Waring, Jr. Delivered May 26, 1880. 
Published June, 1880. 8vo., 24 pp. 

IX. " Mental Over- Work and Premature Disease among Public 
and Professional Men." By Dr. Charles K. Mills. Delivered 
March 19, 1884. Published January, 1885. 8vo., 36 pp. 

X. " A Clinical Study of the Skull." By Dr. Harrison Allen. 
Delivered May 29, 1889. Published March, 1890. 8vo., 79 pp. 
with 8 cuts. 

These Lectures, in addition to their first issues in pamphlet form, 
are republished and included in the '* Smithsonian Miscellaneous 

As it has been found quite impossible to supply gratuitously the 
large demand from medical men and others for these Lectures (in 
addition to the liberal grant to the leading public Libraries and 
other Institutions in this and foreign countries), the uniform price 
of 25 cents has been fixed for each, by which probably their more 
equitable personal distribution is secured. 

Secretary Smithsonian Institutioti, 

Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, Mareh, 1890. 


I It would be difficult to meation a single phase of the niaDifold 

[presaioDs that boIoDg to disease in which the study of the face 

1 braiu cannot enter ; but to the laryngologist and to the neurulo- 
T8l mftny portions of the head must be of especial interest. The 
laryngologist can examine the mouth, nose, and the pharynx ; the 
Dsurologist the surfaces of the crown, which aSord him guides to 

1 peculiarities of the interior of the sltuil. Since much which 
a to both of these branches of medicine is of comparatively 

Mat growth, a study of the osteology of the head cannot fail at 
the praent time to be useful. 

Ad accurate impression of the superficial characters of the skull 
can be received from examination of the living subject. Reliance 
must be made upon these characters in fixing the relations of the 
■oft parts; henoe the ranges of variation in these characters 
lould be known, and a^ full a knowledge as possible be obtained 
study of the cranium. In the paper herewith submitted an at- 

mpt ia ratide to treat of theae relations and ranges of variation. 
The author's interrat, at first, woe confined to the diseased conditions 
of th« facial region and of the vault of the pharynx, but the interest 

idually widened and soon embraced the normal anatomy of the 
plire head. 

The method recommended by him is as follows: First, to study 
e»r«rblly a character as detected in the living subject, then to exam- 
ine all crania available and endeavor to ascertain in what guise the 
■ame structure may reap|>ear, and subsequently to formulate such 
dascriptions us can be deduced from the data; second, to bring 
together the material gleaucd while examining crania, which np- 
pun to be of interest, to illustrate the nutritive proceeses at work 


in forming or maintaining the different parts of the skull each to 
the others. 

Many of the characters obtained in this manner are of necessity 
minute; so, indeed, are the distinctions upon which the anthro- 
pologist relies. The obliquity of the palpebral fissure, the color 
of the iris, the distribution of the hair, or the characters furnished 
by the individual hair may be mentioned in this connection. 

The significance which can be attached to the study of variation 
either in the study of race grade, or in the large question of evolu- 
tion of organic forms, is of course conceded. The last named 
cannot be determined until extended series of data have been col- 
lected. If, according to Engel (Untersuchungen iiber Schadel- 
formen, p. 121), uncultivated primitive races exhibit few variations 
in the composition of the skull as compared with the more ad- 
vanced, we may be prepared to accept Retzius' dictum that indi- 
vidual differences become greater in proportion to the higher intel- 
lectual development of a nation. Preservation of such facts as the 
disposition of the minute plates and processes of the interior of the 
nasal chambers and of the base of the skull, the description of 
suture changes, of the depressions made by small veins, and of the 
minor deviations in size of paired structures may have an outcome 
as interesting as those derived by discovery of structures which 
exist on a larger scale. 

The lack of fixation of characters should not of necessity diminish 
their value. Beginnings of characters are always facile and inde- 
terminate. This is nature's process. 

The effects of diseased action, although their manifestations be 
apparently insignificant, are also worthy of study from the stand- 
point of the biologist as well as that of the pathologist. When pro- 
duced from other than traumatic causes, these effects have distinct 
value. They may indicate modifications of the processes of life, 
which are of the same kind as those furnished by the anatomy of 
normal parts. 


Tlie extent to which variation in normal anatomy is an exciting 
vue of disease is difficult to determine. All things remaining the 
» it may be said that the most variable parts are seen in the 
ions which are in extremes of specialization, as in the nasal 
dxiifflbas of man, and that these chambers are degenerate as com* 
poured to many mammals where the range of variation is small. 
TTi« pre-disposition of nasal disease in man cannot be rationally dis- 
■wnciited from the proneness of the parts which enter into the com- 
pontioD of the nose to vary. If this statement can be depended 
vpoD, the pablication of all details of structure in the nasal cham- 
ber beoomes eesential. 

This mnj is a contribution to the morphological study of dis- 
^*Md action. The writer trusts that increasing interest may be 
^^VAkeoed in the proposition that medicine for the most part is a 
*^i0ooe based on biology. The study of biology should not be the 
P'^ptratory work of the trio only, but should be the subject of un- 
'^•"ing assiduity in every phase of medical research. The study of 
^^mical variation in the human frame is a phase of biology, and 
^tt held in this connection to be a subject as important as any other 
^nidi may claim the attention of the student of etiology of disease. 
The materials upon which the essay is based were found in the 
^Uectiona of the Academy of Natural Scieaces of Philadelphia and 
^^ *e College of Physicians of Philadelphia. The letter C. in 
^^'^i^of other signs, will indicate that a specimen so named is to 
"•fcond in the College of Physicians (Hyrtl Collection); the re- 
""^^wlerare in the Academy. (The last named are oflen indicated 
^4elctte«A. N.8.) 

^ determination of percentage of frequency of any anatomical 
^'^^'^'i^tiea has not been attempted. The writer has beea con- 
^t to give the numbers and nationalities of the specimens re- 
^ entire number of specimens of crania in the Academy is 
'^.and in the College of Physicians 156. 


The following exhibit the arrangement of the subject-matl 
the essay : 

The malar bone. 

The lower jaw. 

The norma-basilaris. 

The basi-cranial angle. 

The posterula. 

The nasal chambers. 

The vertex — its sutures, eminences, depressions, general 4 

Remarks on the sutures other than those of the vertex. 
The foramina. 

The grooves caused by blood vessels. 
The cranial ridges, processes, etc. 

Delivered May £9, 1889. 




The malar bone is one of the most conspicuous of the superficial 
characters of the face. At the outer and lower margin of the orbit 
the external surface, as well as the posterior and zygomatic borders, 
can be separately distinguished. The bone as it enters into the 
composition of the lower border of the orbit is discussed elsewhere. 

The consideration of the external surface will be undertaken at 
this place. The chief points to consider are, first, its inequality, 
and, second, its obliquity. 

1st. The inequality of the surface is simple in character. It is 
comprised in the lower part, this being at times raised so as to form 
a rounded projected eminence. It is less pronounced iu the negro 
than in the Caucasian, and is entirely absent in the child. When 
the cranium is examined the inequality is seen to answer to distinct 
differences in texture of the superficies — diflEbrences varying in indi- 
viduals, but never entirely absent. 

Throughout the series of examinations made with this object iu 
view — viz.,of determining the variations in the upper and lower part 
of the bone — it was found that from simple differences in superficial 
texture it was an easy transition to the detection of differences in the 
deeper texture of the two parts ; that thence to attempts at the for- 



mation of suture-lines which extended along the boundaries of the 
parts to a groove along the entire length of the bone on the poste- 
rior surface ; and that finally the observer was led to the study of 
specimens which showed the separation of the bone by a perfect, 
open suture. The details of the description adopted will appear 
in the reverse order of the appearances as given above. 

The existence of a suture in the malar bone has been occasionally 
noted in the skulls of various races. J. B. Davis/ in 1872, con- 
tributed a short note on the subject, of which the following is an 
epitome : The author refers to the presence of the suture in nine skulls 
of Asiatics and negroes. The suture is often met with in the skulls 
of the Dyaks of Borneo. It is rarely met with in modern skulls, 
but more frequently in the skulls of ancient Europe. Prof. Wenzel 
Gruber ' subsequently enumerated twenty-one examples and gave 
the literature of the subject. 

The collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences contains ten 
undescribed examples of a distinct bone occupying the lower part 
of the malar, or lying at the malo-squamosal suture. Seven skulls 
were found which exhibited these peculiarities. No. 1 255, Ostrogoth, 
showed a separate malar bone on one side. No. 1442, Peruvian, ex- 
hibited a separate malar ossicle at the malo-zygoinatic suture, on 
both right and left side of the skull. No. 1690, Peruvian, a dis- 
tinct transverse suture crossed the malar bone of the right side. 
No. 83 (Atacames), Peruvian, a transverse suture was seen on 
the left side; a less distinct one on the right side. No. 1305, 
Peruvian, a small ossicle was seen at the malo-zygomatic suture on 
both sides of the skull. No. 753, Seminole, and 540, Pawnee, a 
similar ossicle was noted on the right side. No. 460, Malay, exhib- 
ited an imperfect division of one of the malar bones into two parts. 
This specimen is not enumerated with the foregoing. In the United 

^Journal of Anthropological Institute, vol. l,p. clvi. 
'Das Zwoigetheilto Jochbeine. Vienna, 1878. 



Army Museam (No. 309, Chickasaw) the malar bone was 
<i^c>o1>Ie on both sides.^ 

^our examples were seen in which a suture began at the malo- 
Ky^vmatic suture, and, advancing forward, was lost a short distance 
the posterior end of the bone. These were No. 1424, Peru, 
both right and left sides ; No. 1506, ibid, on the right side, and 
. 1434, ibid^ on both right and left sides. 
Xn a single example. No. 1369, ibid, a skull of an old female, a 
fi>rmm€n perforated the right malar bone a little in advance of the 
nmlo-sygomatic suture and appeared to be in the line of the trans- 
▼esve suture, though no trace of the line could be discerned either 
in fiont or back of the opening. 

Thus twelve examples can be cited, all of American origin, which 
CKliibit transverse malar sutures more or less complete as seen from 
botli the inner and outer surface of the bone, and two in which the 
bone was double. 

Bat when the inner side of the malar bone is examined a much 

larger number of skulls exhibit the transverse suture. No attempt 

was nade to ascertain the entire number of examples last named. 

While a search was instituted, with another object in view, the inner 

sur&oe of the malar booe was at the same time examined, and out 

of the entire number examined, it was detected in fifty-one crania. 

^ eight of these it existed on both right and left sides. 

"^ distribution of selected examples among the races was as 
Mk)«i: North American Indians, one each of Chinook,* Lenape,' 
*<iM>mbee,* Naas,* Shawnee,* California Indians,^ one unnamed ;' 
Penviana, ten ; • Anglo-American, one : ^' Mexicans, three ; " negro, 
***'" Egyptians, five;" Circassians,^ Roman,** Arabian, " Nu- 
'^ " ooe each. 

I We since seen an additional example in a skull (No. 53) in the ana- 
"•>cil collection of the University of Pennsylvania. 

'^ «40. ♦44. »218. •1210. M683. « 204. 

*^«.667, 1704, 1298, 1803, 1025, 941, 447, 11, 891, 1426. "No. 17. 
"MB^ HXH, 1616. " 648. " 997, 778, 799, 814, 768. 

» No. 248. " No. 776. " No. 829. 



In all of these specimens a delicate line could be traced forward 
from the posterior to the an tero- inferior portion of the bone. It 

was of precisely the same character in the examples in which the 


outer suture was distinct. 

The inner sur&ce of the malar bone will not infrequently exhibit 
a concavity below the line of the suture. This concavity is dbtinct 
even iu specimens in which the suture is nowhere evident Such a 
peculiarity is well seen in a Peruvian skull (No. 1407). A similar 
disposition was noticed iu the skull of the Hyrtl collection (No. 92). 

The small ossicles named above as occurring at the malo^ygomatic 
suture tend to break up the uniform smooth surface of the inner 
aspect of the malar bone — a disposition which may exist even m the 
absence of a separate ossicle. The squamosal element may be long 
and irregular and extend forward, along the line occasionally taken 
by the suture, nearly to the maxilla.* Thb was seen in a Peruvian 
(No. 1506), which showed an incomplete suture externally, and in 
the skulls of two Creek Indians (Nos. 652 and 75). 

The following measurements were made to indicate the propor- 
tionate size of the upper and lower parts of the malar bone. The 
numbers have been arranged in the order of the size of the upper 
part of the bone, this being the smallest in the first example named 
and the largest in the last : 


2 c. 8 m. 
. " 9 " 

> Hindoo. 

3 " " 
" 8 " 

> Tahitian. 

3 " 2 " 

" 8 " 

> Esquimaux, 1561. 

3 " 2 " 

1 " 5 " 

> Marquesas, 1531. 

3 " 3 " 
" 6 " 

>Rsquimaux, 1559. 

^Wenzel Gruber (Archiv. f. Anat. u. Physiol., 1878) has given elaborate 
attention to this subject as studied in modern European crania. 


Upper • . 3 " 3 " 1 Hindoo, 1047. 
Lower . . 0"7" J Lapp., 1551. 

3 " 3 " 
1 " 1 " 

3 " 3 " 

I Chi 

Chinese, 426. 

1 " 3 " I ^^1^7' ^'^• 

3 " 5 " \ ^ 

Q u 3 « I Burmese. 

Upper . 3 c. 8 m. 1 . . 

Lower . " 10 " j ® ®' ®- 1 Cretin of Hyrtl col- 
Upper . . 3" 9" 1 ... ., j l«<5«on. 
Lower . . « 8 - / "«*^* '*^^ ^ 

The mcasarementfl were taken from the middle of the fronto- 
malar sutare to a line indicating the boundary between the two 
parts of the bone as defined by the change in texture of the surfiu^ 
No sutures existed in the specimens selected. 

In the Hyrtl collection of crania, in the College of Physicians 
of Philadelphia, a Chinese skull (No. 13) showed a complete ex- 
ternal suture on both right and left sides of body. A Cretin (No. 7) 
showed a complete suture in the bone of the left side and an incom- 
plete one on the right side. 

A Siamese skull (No. 39) retained an incomplete partial external 
suture on both bones, with entire posterior grooves. 

In No. 67 the malar and zygomatic processes nearly met on the 
posterior surfaces of both boues. A similar groove was seen in a 
Japanese skull (No. 50). 

In a skull (No. 77) a distinct posterior fissure was seen in both 

In a skull of a Hollander (No. 10) a foramen was noted in the 
maxillo-malar suture. 

The malar bone is thus found to exhibit a disposition for the 
lower part to become distinct from the upper. The disposition is 
more frequently seen on the inner than the outer surface, and in all 


instances is more pronounced posteriorly than anteriorly. The line 
of the suture when complete answers with an approach to accuracy 
to the attachment of the masseter muscle ; and the existence of the 
suture might in some instances be found associated with the traction 
of this musde. 

In skulls which had been in a measure disintegrated by the 
action of the air, and sunlight and heat — in a word, which had been 
" weathered " — a distinct texturing was seen at the two parts of the 
bone. A beautiful instance of *' weathering," demonstrating the 
texture of the bone, was seen in a skull of a California Indian (No. 
1683), as well as in a Peruvian (No. 939, A. N. S.) In like man- 
ner fractures of the bone as shown in a skull of a Tahitian (No. 
1016, A. N. S.), indicate the same difference in texture of the two 

This difference, in brief, is as follows : The superficial lines of the 
upper part are concentric, or nearly so, with the orbital margin, and 
the interior is composed of rounded cancelli, while the superficial 
lines of the lower part are parallel with the inferior free margin of 
the bone and the cancelli are coarsely laminated. 

2d. The obliquity of the malar bone depends more upon the lower 
border than the upper part, and is associated with a change in the 
zygomatic process of the squamosa. The arch being viewed from 
above, the entire inner contour of the process last named can be 
seen in skulls in which the malar (especially Et the lower part) 
is much deflected, as in Peruvians, while the posterior part only of 
the inner contour can be seen in skulls of low degree of malar 
deflection, as in negroes. 

The degree of obliquity is independent of size. It is marked in 
in a Tschutki skull, A. N. S., where the malar bone is small. 

In skulls of high degree of malar deflection, as in Malays and 
Chinese, the under surface of the zygomatic process of the squamosa 
is inclined inward from without and outward from below, while 
those in which the degree of deflection is small, as in negroes, it is 
nearly straight. 



\ Such data iudicate that with the deflection outward of the lower 
tof the malar there are associated distioctive changes in the 
piamosal part of the zygoma. 
i The malar l>one of the fmtua at term shows all the essentia! pecu- 
s of the adult bone, (the swelling meutiooed on p. 7 alone 
udog absent,) eveti the minute apme at the posterior margin of the 
Aiital procesB, (occasionally retained in the adult,) being present. 



The frequency with which the malar bone may enter iuto the 
JUary fissure (by the processus marginalia) is subject to 
inch variatiou. Fromeut (quoted by Henle) found it to enter iuto 
lissurc in nearly one-fourth of all skulls observed by bim. lu 
the following skulls of immature subjects — i. e., below the age of 
sixteen years— forty -one in number, the association was present in 
thirtj-oiie instances; hence I conclude that theexclusiun of the malar 
Iwne from the fissure is more frequent in adult life than in youth. 

The skulls in which the process was excluded were distributed as 
follows: One each in a Utah, Sioux, Seminole ludian, Chinese, 
Caucassian, Egyptian, and a Sandwich Islander skull. The re- 
ining three skulls were unnamed. 


By careful inspection almost the entire outline of the lower jaw 
aui be made out in the living subject. Even witbout prep.iraticm, 
the degree of projection of the chin can be seen in profile, as also 
the extent to which the angles are developed ; but careful ex:im- 
inatioD with the hand, especially when accompanied with oral in- 
greatly aids the ol»erver in determining the form of the 

e noet marked variation in the form of the jaw is seen in the 
P which lies in advance of the insertion of the masscter 


muscle. I have veotured to call tbia the anUgomwn. This depn 
Bion can be easily detected by the finger. When the antegooium : 
well defined the mentum is always high. In a word, the veiliai 
measurement at the anterior end of the horisontal ramus bs^ 
large, the measurement at the posterior end is small. In one ■ 
ain))le exaraiued the auterior measurement was 3° 9°™ and the 
terior 2° 3*™. In another example the fioterior measurement ri 
3" and the posterior 2" 2*". 

Fra. 1. — Tha towor jnvr, ihowing the untegriniiirn. tinJ high a 
1, tho nnte^niuni. (No. 300, A. N. S.) 

This variation is o^d met with !n padutti and ia geoanlly Ml 
in Cretins, It appears to be a result of rapid growth of the I 
To what extent the fiu-ial iirt«ry and vein may exert pressure ^ 
the bone to form the depression ia not kaowo. The molar b 
are often tilted forward in specimens of the bane which exhibit i( 
nntegomum, and in some instances the teeth wear trauTenelf J 
stead of obliquely. 

The finger being placed in the interval b 
lower jaw-bone, one can detect with ease the mylo-hyoid rj 


id procfias can be outlined iu cniAciated aiibjccte. 
jrlei of lh« lower jrw are the moat Tariable uf any pan of 
[>f nooewity tbe general shape of the articular eurfaces 
ado out in the liviogr subject, but tbe tubercle to wbich 
hfl external lateral ligament cau easily be felt. When 
iw is i]<tprBS3ad the finger cm define the outer half 
thtt condylar surface. 

of tb« lower jaw of the cranium of an Esqul- 
A. N. S. an elongitltsl gwelling waa noted lying on the 


lingual aspect of the ramus from the first molar to the canine tooth* 
In the skull of a young adult the swelling was mammalated, each 
nodule answering to the socket of a tooth. In the remaining bones 
three in number, the swelling was uniformly convex, and extended 
to a line which was nearly equal to that of the bottoms of the 
sockets. The bone constituting the swelling was firm in consist- 
ence, but did not appear to be the result of inflammation. Oat of 
thirty-four Esquimaux crania in the Army Medical Museum the 
hyperostosis was absent in one only. 

In the living subject the distanca from the angle of the bone to 
the firm muscle-mass about the cervical vertibraa often difiers on 
the two sides. It is commonly greater on the left side. When sep- 
arated from the attachments and relations, the bone does not exhibit 
the degree of asymmetry, which corresponds to the peculiarity named. 
It is true the left ramus may be deflected slightly outwatd to corre- 
spond with the increase of left-sided deviation of the superior dental 
arch, but no amount of dental varisCtion could correlate with the 
apparently gross change at the angle as is seen during life. The 
explanation lies not in the maxillse, but in the cervical vertebrae, 
especially the atlas, the left transverse process of which is the 

The disposition for the left angle of the lower jaw to project to « 
degree much greater than the angle of the right side has been found 
by me to correspond also to the relation between the right and left 
sides of the hyoid bone. In a word, the entire left greater comu 
deviates to a greater degree from the median line of the bone than 
does the right. The same remark is applicable to the two sides of 
the thyroid cartilage. These parts can be felt in the neck of the 
living subject. I have notes of several cases in which an irritation 
of the lower part of the pharynx appeared to be associated with the 
pressure of the posterior free end of the right great coma against 
the mucous membrane. I have never detected similar points of 
irritation on the left side. The tentative conclusion I have drawn 


«n the ikctB is that the right greater corna of the hjoid bone has 
eodaaej to be pressed in against the wall of the pharynx, while 
^ kft appears to have no such disposition. 


The norma basilaris embraces the skull when viewed from 

nesth. It is the least natural of any of the normsB, for the parts 

kck of the foramen magnum are included in the region of the neck 

id are separated from the occiput by inconstant lines, while the 

kdil parts are included in the mouth. The parts intermediate 

the oodpat and the face (the lower jaw will be considered as 

tbmt) ooDStitate the true " base of the skull " as limited by phy- 

mas in studying the skull in the living individual. It includes 

Ma&i of the important region of the pharyngeal vault. Varia- 

tHQi in the norma basilaris, as might be expected, are seen in the 

^oopitil, fiu»al, and intermediate regions, which do not of necessity 

^Oft^k^ with one another, but express oftentimes entirely distinct, 

^iHA opposing, tendencies. 

border properly to consider the relations of the somewhat in- 
^MignuMu elements of the norma basilaris it is important to recall 
uMiigmficanoe of the parts. 

Taidog the union of the squamosal, tympanic, petrosal, and 
^loid elemoits to form the temporal bone as an illustration of the 
^Ast early union between bones is an evidence of their affinity, 
^ the following statements become tenable : 

^ iknll of the child at the sixth year exhibits the bones of the 
^Qoited completely to one another and to the sphenoid and 
*^ti| bones. Thus, since they unite with the facial elements 
than with the occipital, squamosal, or frontal, they may be 
[^ to have closer relations with them. The bones of the face 
of course, the lower jaw) unite with the sphenoid and 
bones to form a single segment or piece, while the 
fkflMS— the parietab, temporab, and the occipital — are 


separate. The association of bones above named will receive in 
this connection the name of the anterior cranicU segment 

The squamosal portion of the temporal bone unites with the 
malar bone, while the element first named is in articular union 
with the lower jaw, thus a natural series on the side and the base 
of the skull is constituted. The most intimate relations of this series 
are with the bones of the anterior segment rather than with the 
parietal, and it may receive the name of the squamoso -malar series* 

The petrosal elements early unite with the squamosal, but never 
exhibit inclinations to unite with the occipital or sphenoid bones. 

The occipital and parietal elements are also distinct, and nothing 
can be claimed to show their disposition to unite in any definite 
manner to one another or to any of the groups above named of 
cranial bones. 

In reviewing the above facts it is seen that the sphenoid and 
frontal bones have facial affinities ; that the squamosal and malar 
bones form a natural series, which tend to embrace the lower jaw, 
but that nothing in the attempt to demonstrate affinities by their 
predilections in articulation can be shown for the parietal or occip- 
ital bones. 

Conceding that variations in bones are to bd studied in connection 
with the changes in the groups to which they belong, it follows that 
the variations of the face should include those of the sphenoid and 
frontal bones; that the squamosal, malar, and inferior maxilla 
should be studied together, and that the remaining bones cannot be 
studied as a whole. 

The anterior segment can be easily separated from the parts lying 
back of it by the line of the occipito-sphenoid junction. When 
the junction is obliterated a hypothetical transverse Une^ joining 

^ The transverse line answers necessarily to the place of the former su- 
ture which unites the sphenoid and occipital bones. Some writers assert 
that the transverse depression seen in the adult skull is not sutural, but 
muscular. This is not the case. The two lines are distinct. They are 
clearly seen as such in No. 87 Oarniola (College of Physicians) and ob- 
scurely so in many specimens. 


the tips of the sphenoidal toogues can be substituted for it. The 
production of this line across the norma will traverse on either side 
tbe alisphenoid, at the region of the oval foramen, the articular 
embenoe, and the root of the zygoma. 

The transverse line can be intersected at its centre by a hypo- 
thetical longitudinal line, which, passing through the mid-point of 
the b(uian, can be produced so as to divide the norma into a right 
ftoda left part. ^ 

The points of the greatest interest in the region are the asymmetry 
of the sides of the superior dental arch, the relative positions of the 
oral foramina of the sphenoid bones, the position of the anterior 
border of the articular eminence in connection with the tran&- 
vene line, the depth of the zygomatic fossa, the thickness of the 
oudir bone, the size of the bulbo petrosus — t. e., the rounded swell- 
hkg of the free part of the petrosa — and the angles formed by the 
tici of the tympanic bones and the petrosa with the longitudinal 
. line. 

The left side of the dental arch hns been found more frequently 
wpanded (it embracing a larger curve at the position of the first 
w^ second molars) than is the right. With this expansion is 
**ocitted a diminished depth of the zygomatic fossa, a weaker ar- 
"Cultr eminence, and a thinning of the zygomatic arch, as com- 
pwed with the same parts on the right side. The temporal ridge is 
«o the weaker on the expanded side. The significance of the 
*ooTe facts appears to be as follows : The side of least expansion of 
the dental arch is the stronger side ; hence a dental armature which 
■ straight, or nearly so, is stronger than one which is curved. 

The base of the alisphenoid on the stronger side inclines to be 
^^fned back farther than is the case on the weaker ; but this is 

^ tagiea formed by the axis of the tympanic and the petrosal 
vsiy on tbe two sides, but appear to be independent of the 
ki tbe anterior a^^ent and the squamoso-malar series. 

xf the foramen magnum, and in the 


distance from the basion to the mastoid process, and to the trans- 
verse process, are also variable without reference to other basic 

In some specimens the differences between the measurements of 
the anterior cranial segment and those of the occipital bone suggest 
that the rates of growth in the two parts of the skull have been de- 
termined by independent causes. 

^Thus, when the base of the skull (norma basilaris) is carefullj 
inspected, it is evident that the parts on the sides of a median line 
are not always of equal value in size ; also that the parts of the ante- 
rior segment may vary in a manner different from those of the parts 
posterior to it. In a word, while the contrast of right and left meas- 
urements are often discernible, the preponderance is not always the 
same in the two parts. In some examples the left side of the norma 
is wider throughout, though this is infrequent In others the left side 
of the structures posterior to the anterior cranial segment is the wider, 
while the right side of the anterior segment is best developed. This 
is a common disposition. In the group last named the increase of the 
base of the alisphenoid (especially in a backward direction) is associ- 
ated with a narrowing of the petrosal space — L e , the space between 
the alisphenoid and the occipital bones. When this is seen the left nde 
of the dental arch is often more deflected than the right, the right 
malar bone is the larger and encroaches to a greater degree on the 
inferior orbital margin, and the surfaces of origin of the right mas- 
seter and temporal muscles are the better marked. 

The production of the transverse line intersects the foramen ovale 
at a point near its posterior margin or at one entirely back of the 
opening. The left side of the incisive foramen is often the larger, 
and the suture between the palatal plates of the maxiUao is not in 
line with the basion, but lies to the left. It appears to be probable 
that the muscles of mastication of the right side are more powerful 
than are those of the left. Hence the muscular impressions are 
here most marked and the malar bone b the more robust. The 
base of the right alisphenoid appears to be forced back, and by 


i^nnonious distribution of the blood-vessels is increased in its diam- 
:er8, while the angular process becomes wider. 

That the left dental arch is more deflected may be the result of a 
Lmiiiisbed tonicity in the masticatory and buccal muscles on this 
dc This hypothesis agrees with the fact that the left frontal 
minence is commonly the smaller. 

The following measurements have been taken in illustration of 
he data as above stated. No one specimen illustrates all the 
points, nor is this to be expected in so variable a form as the human 
skull. When in a given example a measurement is omitted it may 
be nndentood that the result is negative, and not that the meas* 

uremeot conflicts with the views as already given. 

No. 916, n^^, A. N. S., aged 16 years : 

lioogitadinal line overlies median suture of hard palate. 

Tnasrene line lies back of oval foramen, left ; in front of the 
woen, right. The line is 4"*" back of anterior border articular 
«nbence, right, 8"" left. 

I^itUnoe from longitudinal line to outer border first molar tooth, 
^ right, 28— left. 

^e lefl petrosal element has an angle of 60^, (he vaginal process 

^1 tod the tympanic bone 20^. The right petrosal element has 

■fi ttgle of 60®, the vaginal process 45®, and the tympanic bone 

^tt peculiarities of this cranium included the lachrymal crest 
• • . 

)^^*^ the maxilla ; the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone 
'^^^'ii&ental, with deep triangular notch reaching back to the second 
'^ tooth ; the longitudinal palatal suture straight — the atlas 
■"^ylosed to occiput 

No. 917, negro, A. N. S., aged 21 years : 

I^ip'iidiiial line overlies hard palate 2— to left of longitudinal 

Hue 2r* behind anterior border articular emi- 




Distance from longitudinal line to outer margin first molar, h 
30*"; right, 28*"; to outer margin 2d molar, left, 32""; r% 
SO"" ; to outer margin 3d molar, 30 left, 30 right 

Angle of left petrosal element, 50^ ; left vaginal process, 50^ ; i 
tympanic bone, 90^. Angle of right petrosal element, 50^ ; r^ 
vaginal process, 40° ; right tympanic bone, 90°. 

Left zygomatic fossa, 26*" deep ; right, 28*" deep. 

Left zygomatic arch at suture, 4"" wide ; right, 6"* wide. 

Other peculiarities : Large, thick perpendicular plate of ethoN 
bone; septum straight; longitudinal palatal suture not strai^ 
jugular and carotid foramen smaller on left than right ; also 
canal for tensor tympani muscle ; bregmal and post-bregmal g 
tions of sagittal suture deflected, the latter about 60° ; lachrji 
crest inferiorly produced, but not touching maxilla ; lingual pra| 
of sphenoid bone absent on right i 

Distance from middle point of tympanic bone to base of ut$ 
process of maxilla, 8"* ; from alveolar process, left, 6*, and alv^ 
process right. 

The following notes were taken to indicate an occasional charad 
which varied in size on the two sides of the norma : 

No. 127, Turk (Col. of Physicians): 

Left angular process, 8"" ; right, 10"". 

Stephanion more interrupted on the right than the left side. 

No. 132 (Col. of Physicians): 

Left side palate deflected. 

Right, depth of zygomatic fossa, 1 6** ; left, 17"*. 

No. 92, Uskoke (Col. of Physicians) : • 

Left, width from bnsion to outer border traosvene pi 
occipital bone, 44"" ; right, 41"". 

Left, depth of zygomatic fossa, 20"* ; right* 23"". 
Left, width of malo-zygomatic suture, 6""; 
Left, width of bulbo-petrosa narrower than a 
All parts of the right side of the vertex MM 


No. 94 (Col. of Physicians) : 

Left basio-traosverse (t. e., measurement from basion to outer end 
of the transverse process of occipital bone), 40"" ; right, 43"". 
Left carotid foramen, 6*" ; right, 6"". 
Left supra orbital margin more inclined than on right. 
Left portion of incisive foramen the larger. 
Left side dental arch but slightly larger than on right. 

No 114, Elba (Col. of Physicians): 

Left dental arch most expanded. 

Left basio-transverse, 41"" ; right, 43"". 

Left zygomatic fossa, 21"" deep ; right, 24"" deep. 

No. 73 (Col. of Physicians) : 

Left dental arch most expanded. 

- Left basio-transverse measurement, 41"" ; right, 40"". 

Left spinous process of sphenoid, 4"" ; right, 5"". 

Left angular process from base of lingualis to sphenoidoHsqua? 

mosal suture, 22"" ; right, 22"". 

No. 77 (Col. of Physicians) : 

Left dental arch most expanded. 

Left basio-transverse, 36"" ; right, 40"". 

Left zygomatic fossa, 23"" deep ; right, 26"" deep. 

No. 117 : 

Left dental arch most expanded. 
Left zygomatic fossa, 17"" deep ; right, 21"" deep. 
Temporal ridge greatly interrupted on right ; not interrupted on 

No. 34, Krim. (Col. of Physicians) : 

Right side dental arch expanded. Distance from base of lingual 
process to sphenoido^quamosal suture, l^ft, 26"" ; right, 25"". 

Transverse line barely reaches back of the rounded form of fora- 
men ovale, or right, while ly i ng well behind the foramen,or left. Left 


jugular and carotid foramina smaller on left than on right Zygo- 
matic fosga, right, 24"" deep ; left, 26"" deep. 
No. 6 (Col. of Physicians): 

Depth of zygomatic fossa, 16°*°* right, 17°»" left. 

Width of anterior lacerated foramen, 10°*°* left, 6°*°* right. 

In cranium of giant in College of Physicians the zygomatic fossa 
is 30°*°* deep on right, 22°*°* on left. The malar bone lacks 2"°* 
of reaching infra-orbital foramen, right, and 6"" on left. 

No. 60, Japanese (Col. of Physicians): 

Base of alisphenoid, 21 i°*°* right, 20"*"* left; no asymmetry of 
dental arches. Transverse line 2°*°* back of foramen ovale, left ; 
crosses foramen at anterior third right. 

No. 646, Malay (A. N. S.) : 

The foramen ovale is crossed by the transverse line at the poste- 
rior margin on the right side, and at the middle, on the left, the 
line crosses the articular eminence 4°*°* back of anterior margin. 

The antero-posterior line answers to the middle of the socket of 
the left central incisor. 

Right spinous process, 6°*°*. 

Left " " 5°*°*. 

Right base of alisphenoid, back of foramen ovale, 6"*°*. 

Left " '^ " " « 2°*°*. 

Right from spinous foramen outward, 9' 

Left " " " " 7' 

Right width of zygoma at suture, 6^ 





Since the introduction of the rhinal mirror as an aid to the ex- 
amination of the pharynx, the region known as the naso-pharynx 
can be inspected with almost the same ease as any other portion 
of the body. Many of the features of interest which relate to this 
portion of the pharynx are of a character which can be analyzed 
only by reference to the cranithn. In the naso-pharynx are de- 



Gictod the outlines of the delicate vertical plat« of the vomer, the 
Sphenoidal surfaces of the internal pterygoid processes, tliQ posterior 
ends of the tiiiddle and inferior turbinated hones, and the vault of 
the pharynx as defioed for the most part by the alaa of the voiaer 
ami ihe occipital proccBs of the occipital boue. 

In a conimunicatioii to the Aiuariuan Lnryngological Associatioa 
which I made in 1S8S I called atteution to a portion of tiiia region 
which extends frora the plane of the posterior nares to the posterior 
limit of the vomerine &l%, and defined on the side by the internal 
pterygoid plates, and proposed for it the term poalerula. Subse- 
quent study has confirmed roe in the value of this portion of the 
na»o-phar}'n)c being restricted as a distinct clioical region, and I 
here venture to show the dose relation which exists between it and 
the roorbid condition of the interior of the nasal chamber. I will, 
in Addition, discuss the subject of the bos io cranial angle — that ia 
to say, the clinical interest nrlaing from the angle formed between 
the poeterula on the one part and the inclination of the basilar 
pmceas of the occipital bone on the other. The separate heads in 
the description of the posterula include the following : 

The under surfaces of the body of the sphenoid bone. 

The vomer ai seen in articulation with the sphenoid and palatal 

e posterior nnres or choauce, (For note on Choanse see Nasal 
Rie region of the spheno-turbinals. 

1 no other portion of the skull do so many elements combine as 
)fae naao-pharynz. 

&e baai-sphenoid and prc-spheiioJd here unite. The spheno- 
■rbinais lie in front of the under surface of the sphenoid elements 
Mid pass backwanl a variable distance above the palatals and vagi- 
BkI prucoees, and forward along the sides of the meao-ethmoid, 
t vomer articulates with the boily of the sphenoid bone. The 
a of the alie unite in a variable manner with the sphenoidal 



of the r^on lies the basi-apheaoid junction, whidi is the last of 
all the guturea in this region to close. 

The uoder surface of the basi-spheaoid, up to the sixth year, is 
convex ia the centre and grooved or fluted on the sides. The con- 
rexity sorvea to receive the concave surface of the vomer, and the 
flutings accommodate vessels and nerves. The vagioal processes, 
the body of the sphenoid bone, and the sphenoidal processes of the 
palatals, later in development, convert these grooves into canals. 

In some examples of crania' the uuder surface of the sphenoid 
bone continues to he convex in adult life. 

In others (972, Negro; 1043, Pawnee; 726, Seminole; 100», 

Pio. 8.— Tho posterula of n German {No. 1188, A. N. S.), showinjt fail- 
ure of the vaginol procees of the sphenoid bone and ths palatal bono to T«ach 
the vomer. On the right side a flssura eiiita between the parta named. 

1. Lateral superior foramen. 

2. Vaginal process. 

8. Lateral inferior foramen. 

4. Palatal bone. 

6. Vomer. 

6. Interval between vomer and vaginal and pnUlal element*. 

>Nos. 4S8, gi2,'27, 69, Seminole; 732, Seminole; 964, 968, NarrBg. ; 
Uenom. ; 118, Lenape; 741, Handan. 




Ottawa ; 1188, 1063, German ; 746, Minitari ; 947, Arauniau) the 
eiginals, and aphenoidal processes of the palatal bones do not reach 
B6 Tomer, or may be entirely absent. 

From this condition of retained juvenile feature the most char- 
cteristic depMture is to have the under surface of the body of the 
pheooid bone slightly rugose (757, Otoe; 1233, Miami; 19, Bon- 
^slee; 693, Narragansett). 

A few examples may be named in which the surface is moder- 
ately convex. On the other hand, it may be flat. The variety last 
ojuned includes a large number of examples which are of especial 
iDlereit, since no civilized race is represented (53; 651, Arauca- 
Dian ; 1227. Blackfoot ; 1451, Australian; 1029, Fiji; 1342, bas- 
tmid Malay; 435, Malay; 990, Maya; 1315, N. A. Indian; 730, 
Seminole; 935, Narragansett ; 204, Chinook ; 605 Sioux ; 142, 905, 
9ia, 973, 654, Negro). 


.. ^®' *•— The poeteniU of an adult North American Indian (No. 1822, A. 
*"^)! showing a mwiian voraero-basilar foramen, in addition to the two 
^^' fomroina. 

1* Lateral superior yomero-busilar foramen. 

^ Vaginal process. 

S' Lateral inferior yomero-basilar foramen. 

i PaUtel bone. 

fi. Vomer. 

61 Mt^an Tomero-basilar foramen. 


In one instance the surface is hyperostosed (No. 78, Menominee) 

In three examples the under surface is concave in the centre, and 
two large canals retained at the sides (1322, Potawatomie ; 1229, 
Upsala ; 1228, Upsarooka). 

The vomer is more or less concave at the upper sur&ce, and is 
adapted to the convex surface of the sphenoid bone; but the method 
of union of the two bones is not as simple as the above statement 
would imply. The posterior part of the vomer, including the wings, 
may be without union to the sphenoid bone. The two bones are 
thus separated by an interval, which is variable with the shape of 
the body of sphenoid itself. The arrangement suggests that during 
life either blood-vessels or indifferent tissue occupied the intervals, 
or that hyperostosis at the anterior part of the sphenoid — probably 
at the line of the pre-sphenoid — had forced the vomer down and 
thrown it off from attachment to the posterior part. In immature 
crania the vomer is very generally removed from the sphenoid pos- 
teriorly. The disposition seen in the adult skull may be a retention 
of a juvenile character. If it is not so it is remarkable that the 
region so commonly exhibits this retardation in nutrition, for it is 
comparatively rare to see any other arrangement of the parts. 

From among all the crania examined but 75 exhibit a departure 
from the above plan — i. e., in this number of specimens only did 
the vomer articulate directly with the sphenoid throughout. Is 
it not strange that the description of the union generally 
accepted should be that of the entire union ? Is it not suggest- 
ive that the retardation of the processes of development of the 
region should be greater in the crania of civilized races than among 
primitive people ? The greater number of examples of entire union 
were found in the ethnological collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences. 

While it is true that the lower animals uniformly exhibit the 
simple form of union, and on that account the plan may be con- 
sidered as an instance of reversion, it must be stated that in 65 im- 
mature skulls (none, however, of the negro or his congeners) exam- 



1 in the collection of the Academy not n aingle one was seen of 
such union, while all the examples showed by the extent of the 
groovinga on the side of the body of the sphenoid bone, and by the 
degree of convexity of the central part of the sur&ce, that the type 
was that of the variety described in my notes as " convex, hyper- 
ostosed," or "open posteriorly." 

If we accept the theory that the arrangement seen in primitive 
races is the same as in many lower animals, and therefore tliat the 
earlier races of men more readily resemble the skull of mammals 
generally, we are forced to conclude that development is more 
rapid in the primi'ive races tlian in civilized, and that a phuse of 
development which is transient in eavage races becomes permanent 
end fixed in the civilized. 

It is not unlikely that the retention of the juvenile characteris- 
tics iu a large proportion of skulls of civilized man may be asso- 
ciated in sooio individuals with enlargement of the adenoid tissue 
at the roof of the pharynx, and that these characters of the sphe- 
noid bone and the vomer may be due to the veins which pass from 
the mass, effecting anastomosis with the nasal veuous sinuses and 
the a pheno- palatine veins, and thus tending to keep up the large 
vascular tracks which lie between the body of the sphenoid bone, 
its internal pterygoid plate and the palatal bone. The size of the 
gape left by failure of the pterygoid and palatal plates to unite 
with the vomer, as compared to the widtb of the posterula, is not 
insignificant. (See Figs. 3, 4, C, 7.) 

The primitive vomer is chiefly found, as above mentioned, iu the 
crania of savages, while the hyperostosed vomer with incomplete 
sphenoidal union in those of civilized people. In addition it may 
be said that the last-named group includes a larger number of 
associated anatomical variations than is the case with the first 
named — a conclusion in harmony with the statement already 
^uolod, which is attributed to RetMus, that individual differences be- 

■ greater In proiwrtlon to the higher intellectual development. 

I illuslmtiou of the lack of uniformity of descriptiim of the 
B of the posterula the following citaUons are made : 


Quain's Anatomy (ed. 1876, p. 51) : " The alsB are lifted poste- 
riorly, aud articulate edge to edge with the lamella projectiug in- 
wards at the base of the internal pterygoid plate." 

L. Holden (Human Osteology, 1869, p. 101): "The diverging 
edges of the fissure, called the " wings," fit into the little furrows 
beneath the vaginal processes of the sphenoid bone." 

Ph. C. Sappey (Traite d'Anatom'iQ Descriptive, p. 214) describes 

the alse as the borders of the groove by which the vomer articu- 


lates with the sphenoid bone, and further states that they are re- 
ceived in the groove on the internal surface of the base of the 
pterygoid process. 

F. O. Ward (Human Osteology, p. 89) describes two projecting 
laminsB of the sphenoid bone overlapping and retaining the vome- 
rine alsd. 

Fio. 5. — Tbo posterula of a North American Indian (No. 951, Narra- 
gansett), showing entire union between the vomer with the sphenoid bono. 

1. Lateral superior foramen. 

2. Vagi mil process. 

8. Lateral inferior foramina. 
4. Palatal bone. 
6. Vomer. 

At the risk of repeating a few phrases the following detailed 

statements are here made : The crania named below are examples of 


ire anion of the vomer with the sphenoid bone: Of North 
aerican Indians— 541, 542, 1054, 1233, 1056, 1052, Miami ; 44, 
5, 454, 747, Menominee ; 118, 876,40, L-nap^; 739, 741.742, 
I, Mandan; 462, 457, Chinook; 950, 951, Narragansett; 1227, 
ackfoot; 897, Mohawk; 1730, Seminole; 91, Columbia R. Ind. ; 
14, Ohio Ind.; 461, Chickasaw; 1006, Ottawa; 747, Minitari; 
10, Shawnee; 1,315 unnamed. Of South American Indians — 
a, 652, Araucanian. Of Negroes— 1315, Golgon ; 549, 974, 913, 
)7, 968, 648; "Oceanic Negro," 435. Of other races— 573, 
:owalit8k; 94. Chinese; 1300, 572, Sandwich Islanders; 1342, 
Ulav; 1244, Hottentot; 1029. Fiji Islanders, and 969, 1263, 563, 
42,247, 400, 421, 1338, unnamed. 

The following embrace examples in which the sphenoid bone and 
^e vomer are united, with the exception of a small portion of the 
vomerine wings and the space between this lifted part, and the flat, 
"^H sphenoid Ixnly. In essential features the group is the same 
a* the foregoing: Of negroes— 905, 900, 904, 961, 968, 1102, 923, 
^3,909,973, 971, 972, 927, 916, 909; two of the nogro group 
D^rketi H)93, Golah, and 580, Macua. Of North American In- 
<J«An*-70.S, Sarainole; 954, Narragansett; 1009, Ottawa. Of 
^^htr races— i:ni, Bengalee; 550, Chinese. 

^rom among 164 skulls examined complete apposition of the 
^omtfr to the sphenoid bone was found in 94 instances. In con- 
^^m with the lack of union between the vomer and the sphe- 
^^^ bone may be named the frequent instances in which the parts 
^f the regioa become hyperostosed. The vomer is often of great 
"*'<^knei8 at the alae and upper part of the posterior border.* 

^^evaginals, as they extend medianly from the vertical plate, 
^''^ often massive and present a marked contrast to the thin brittle 
'"•^commonly found in this situation.* 

^746, Minitari; 744, Blackfoot; 740, Mandan; 977, Araucanian; 
*^Chbook; 605, Sioux; 407, Miami; 115, Lenape; 692, Garib; 093, 
VlAllUMCtt ; 895, Mohawk. 
'97,M, Kegro; 112, Naples, nine years (College of Physicians); 113, 



They may overlap vomer as follows: 692* Carib; 9ft3, 903,H»> 
gro ; 240, Aastralian ; 87, Peruvian ; 737» Otoe ; 1281, PeraTin, 
12 years old ; 986, Irish, 16 years old. 

Fio. 6. — The postcrula of an Irish girl, aged 16 years (No. dM, A. K.Si)i 
ahowing an extensive fissure between the vaginal process of the sphenoid boM 
and the palate bone on the right side. Both these parts fiul to joii tki 
vomer. On the left side the same processes not only join the vomer, bo^^ 
one place tend to overlap. 

1. Vaginal process. 

2. Palatal bone, a conspicuous interval is seen lying between tbil ^ 
ment and the vomer. 

8. Vomer. 

4. Process from vomer joining the vaginal process to form an imf*^ 

Open spaces indicate the failure of union between the va^nsl <*^ 
palatal elements and the vomer. 

The shaded space back of the vomer indicates the inequality of leftl^ 
tween the vomer and the body of the sphenoid bone. 

The vaginal and sphenoidal plates may be firmly united thfoOP" 
out, or permit a foramen of varying size to appear between th^ 
The plates may be depressed below the plane of the vomerine il^ 

As a rule, the plates agree with the also in general chaiaettf^^ 
t. e., when the plates are hyperostoeed the vomer is also; bat thij 
process may be reversed, and the plates be thin whea the ab 

^ 572, Sandwich Islander. 




The pltttea as a rule conceal lUe backward exteuaion of 
rlie aphenO'turbiaals. and lie over sod protect the veins and uerve 
of the canal, Tlius they are apt to he pushed downward with the 
vomerine a)» in instances of uausual imperfection of the spheaoido- 
vomerine union. 

Wlien buth the sohenoidal processes of the palatines and the vag- 
inal processes are defective, the apheno-turbinala are seen distinctly 
exposed, thus showing the value of the plates named in covering 
and in strengthening tiie body of the sphenoid.' 

The vaginal processes rarely extend backward beyond the vomer, 
and evince a disposition to approach toward the median line.* 

Jt is well to remember that it is possible to have the image of the 
choana as seen in the rhinal mirror narrowed by thickening of the 
internal pterygoid plate. 

lower end of the vomer may exhibit the tendency, so com- 
ity seen in the lower animals, of joining the palatal bones in 
of the posterior nasal spine. The vomer may be fully two 

illinietres within the nasal chambers.* I have seen it recede still 
farther within the chambers in the living subject. The exact posi- 
tion of the vomer becomes a matter of importance in determining 
the degree to which the inferior turbinated bone projects from the 
nasal chamber into the naao-pharynx. 

The wings of the vomer may be united as the bone lies against 
the sphenoid, or a well-defined notch may be detlued between them.* 

A faint rid^ is often seen extending vertically on the vomer. 
It answers to the line of union of the sphenoidal process uf the pal- 

1 1203, SL-minole. 

■nplMnruteen in Ko. 113,QenoH, 12yeuriold; 19, RutUane, 
■] American, No. 58, 6 yenn old [Oal. of Phya,), nnd a. Hindoo, 
No. 32, A. N. S. No. 8B (Col. of Phys.), n-i adult sliul 
I, )ho«i Ihi* anme peculiiirily. 
. TO, Auitrliin, 1(( yenra old (Ool. of Phys.). 
btia. Ool^ndni QOG, Sioux; 1227, Block foot. 

~ nominoe ; tOO, 407, G22, 542, Miumi ; 052, 953, 733, 
jtott; WJ, Pugei i^und Indinn; (lOJ, Seminole; 43^, Cheiimat 
a Indian ; 670, Obinaao ; and in 1205. 

7 y<!:ir» 


atal bone and the vaginal process. The surface in front of this 
ridge divides the region of the sphenoid base into two portions ; 
that in front of the crest is nasal and that back of the crest h pha- 
ryngeal. The relative size of the nasal and pharyngeal spaces is 
variable. In 47 examples the nasal part equalled the posterior in 
extent. In 15 examples^ the nasal part equalled two-thirds of the 
entire region. In one spacimen (No. 956) the nasal portion was 
little less than one-half. In 971, 973, 974 (Negroes without local- 
ity), the nasal portion was one-third. It equalled one-fourth to 
one-fifth of the whole. In a fourth N^ro (No. 983) the nasal 
portion was one-third on the left; side and one-fourth on the right. 


In instances of absence of union of the sphenoidal process of the 
palatal bone with the vomerine ala in adult crania, the posterior 
end of the conch is seen lying upon the base of the sphenoid bone. 
In the skull of a male Australian in the American Museum of 
Natural History I hav3 seen this process extend back to the suture 
between the defective sphenoidal process of the palatal bone and 
the vomer. I have in several instances seen the same disposition 
in the skull of the adult gorilla. 

An adult Esquimaux cranium, Army Medical Museum, exhibiU 
the conchs entirely free from the sphenoid bone posteriorly, and 
the suture, which united them to the palatals, open. 

Is it not a tenable hypothesis that many of the unusual disposi- 
tions of the canales basis vomeres may be correlated with delayed 
union of the sphenoidal conchs? Is it not probably true that the 
defects of union between the vaginal and sphenoidal process and 
the vomer are associated with exceptionally large or numerous veins 
between the body of the sphenoid bone and the processes named ? 
If this be conceded, but one step more is required to be taken to 
explain the frequency of congestions and hyperplasia in the nasal 

» 975, 926, 1093, 913, 972, 928, 648, 433, 978, 916, negroes without locality; 
648, negro of Liberia ; 423, negro of Mozambique ; 707, Seminole ; lOtt, 
1004, German. 


chamber when then is a butoty of adenoid disease at the pbaiyn- 
geal vault. (See p. 27.) 

Fra. 7.— Tha pwtamla of ■ North Amorioan Indian (Uptuooktt, Ko. 
1338), ibowitig Urge foramiaa for tha tnnumiwlon of nlu. (S»e at*0 
Fif . «.) 

1. Lateral «up«rior foramen. 

2. Ttginal procei*. 

S. Latent) inferior foramen. 

4. PalaUl bone. 

K. Vomer. 
In a we)l-de6aed group of cases cbarocteriied by ezce« of tena- 
dous mucus in the pharynx, a disposition to vascular obstruction in 
the nasal chambers, a sensation of weariness, if not of pain, in the 
«dee of the neck (which is especially liable to ensue upon a moderate 
use of the voice, as in reading aloud and in singing), it is found that 
the roof of the pharynx is occupied by small growths which do 
not appear to difier, either in locality or consistency, from the 
adsioid growths found in the same locality in young persons. I 
hare seen many instances in which the symptoms narrated had 
existed for many years entirely disappear twenty-four hours after 
the pharyngeal vault had been r&aped hy the Snger nail, the vege- 
tations removed, and the sur&ce subsequently entirely restored by 
the removal, with the forceps, of bits of remaining tissue. It is 
niiiiisMn to suppose that the increase of nasal congestion in such 
oMi is dependent upon unusual freedom of oommunication which 


exists between the veins of the nasal chamber and those of the pha- 
rynx by means of defects of the canales basis vomeres. Certainly 
it is a fact that no thickening of the walls of the choanss occurs in 
such coses, and that the communication between the nose and the 
pharynx, if it takes place at all, does so at planes below the mucous 
and sub-raucous tissues. 


In the living subject the angle at which the basilar process of 
the occipital bone joins the body of the sphenoid bone can be fre- 
quently detected by the finger being inserted in the naso-pharynx. 
An interruption of the contour-line between the two structures can 
be often detected. In individuals in whom the angle is high the 
entire region of the naso-pharynx is narrowed posteriorly, owing 
to the fact that the inclination of the basilar process renders it easy 
for the velum to ascend toward it This is especially marked in 
subjects which exhibit prominences on the bodies of the second and 
third cervical vertebra. 

Th^ basi-vomerine angle, when high, places the parts to a great 
disadvantage should the naso-pharynx be the seat of diseased action. 
Tenacious secretion forming, either in the nasal chambers or in the 
naso-pharynx, the material is apt to lodge at the apex of the nar- 
rowed space, to resist any effort on the part of the patient to dislodge 
it, and to make it difficult so to do on the part of the physician. 

A high angulation of the process in the living subject would 
predispose, d prior i, the naso-pharynx to those distressing conditions 
which result from the contact of the velum to the posterior wall of 
the pharynx. 

It may be surmised that irregular union of the occipital and 
sphenoid bones or their separation by a wide interval will be found 
associated with adenoid growths on the pharyngeal vault Clinical 
exi)erience confirms this ; but, as far as I know, a careful diasection 
of a subject in which adenoid masses exist is yet lacking to com* 
plete our knowledge of their localization. • 




The high inclioation of the basilar process would be at first sight 
a condition which would correlate with other cranial structures, but 
I have not found this to be the case in the living subject or in the 
crania which I have examined. It is true that in some crania the 
high angulation is associated with an inclined vomer, as seen at its 
posterior free border, and a high palatal crest. At one time I was 
prepared to assert that the high angle of union of the basilar process 
with the sphenoid bone and the vomer was associated with certain 
changes in the nasal chambers and in the proportions of the face, 
but examinations of more extensive series of specimens than those 
at my command will be required before any definite conclusions 
on this subject can be secured. To be enabled to harmonize the 
shape of the naso-pharynx with a series of fixed landmarks of the 
nose and face would be a most valuable desideratum and one to 
which I respectfully invite the attention of observers.^ (See re- 
marks at the end of the lecture on clinical measurements.) 

The existence of a high angle with a large conceptaculum cere- 
belli is sometimes note<l, ns well as a low angle with a small degree 
of convexity or descent of the conceptaculum ;' yet exceptions to the 
association can be found in sufficient numbers to forbid a correla- 
tion being established between the two. 

In the skull of Sandwich Islanders and some Esquimaux the 
basio-cranial angle is low. Since the human foetus at term exhibits 
uniformly a low angle or none, the adult crania which retain it may 
be said to be retarded in this particular. 

Liflsauer* has delineated and described the angle created by the 
union of the basilar process and the vomer. In a Tartar this angle 

* Dr. Jno. M. Mackenzie (Arch, of Laryngology, iv, 164) describes ex- 
amples of obliquity of the plane of the posterior nnres. No mention is mnde 
of iU correlation with peculiarities of occipito-sphenoidal union. 

'The funnel-shaped chamber which lies within the embrace of the con- 
eeptaculum and is defined anteriorly by a basilar process has been made the 
rabject of special study by Lissauer. (Archiv. fur Anthropologic, 1885, 16, 
Fi|^ 4 and 6.) 

* Loe. cit. XV, Fig. 9, p. 18. 


is 74 degrees, in a Cassube 98 degrees, and in a Negro 136 degrees. 
The difficulty in making a rhinological examination with a mirror 
placed in the naso-pharynx where the angle is 74 d^rees, or ap- 
proximately so, would evidently be much greater than when the 
angle is 136 degrees. Very commonly (as already remarked) a 
high degree ef angulation is associated with a large tubercle upon 
the body of the second cervical vertebra, which tends to diminish 
the diameter of the pharynx at the place at which the mirror is 



The study of the nasal chambers in the living subject presents 
facilities of determining by anterior and posterior inspection the 
following points : 

By anterior inepedion^ the floor of the chamber — the degree it is 
depressed below the plane of the lower margin of the nostril. 

The premaxilla — the degree it enters into the composition of the 
septum, and the size of the prominence it may make at the floor 
directly back of the plane of the lower margin of the nostril. 

The septum — how it may be deflected either to the right or to the 
left, and whether the entire septum, or a part only, be deflected. 

The inferior turbinal — the degree it may approach the floor and 
the septum ; the relation its superior border holds to the middle 

The middle turbinal — the contrast batween the vertical edge at 
the anterior and the part back of this border — whether the ante- 
rior part is inflated or laminar ; whether the lower border is in- 
flected or straight. The posterior part of the median surface, 
whether it is concealed by the inequality of the septum, or whether 
it is outlined as far as can be seen. The lateral (external) part, 
whether it is concealed in the recess which lies back of the plane 
of the ascending process of the superior maxilla or is distinctly 
outlined. The uncinate process, whether it is placed parallel to 
the lateral wall of the chamber or transverse to it • The bulbous 
anterior border of the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone, whether 
it is or is not visible. 



By posterior Inspection (by the rhinal mirror) — whether the choanse 
are of uuequal size ; whether the left middle turbinal is more verti- 
cally dbposed than is the right ; whether the vomer is distinctly 
contoured, or the contoar is indistinct by reason of lateral swell- 
ings ; whether the iqferior tarbinals are protruding into the naso- 
pharynx; whether the superior turbinals are or are not visible; 
whether the choanse and the septum at the choanse retain the em- 
bryonic form. 

From this long list it may easily be inferred that the interior of 
the nasal chamber yields many points for elucidation. 

In the study of the nasal chambers of the cranium the parts, 
while assisting at every stage the demonstration as made in the liv- 
ing subject, soon awaken in the mind of the observer separate lines 
of inquiry. It is not, therefore, desirable to confine observation to 
the clinical field, and I have arranged the results of my research 
under heads which appear to be more convenient. 

The bones of which the chambers are composed will be treated 
under different heads. Many of the examples selected showed 
more than one peculiarity. In a Peruvian skull/ for example, the 
middle turbinals, anteriorly, were small and primitive, the left bone 
being the smaller. The septum was deflected to the left along the 
entire length of the ethmo-vomerine suture. The left uncinate pro- 
cess was anchylosed to the ethmoid cells. 

Each of the points named in the foregoing description will appear 
under a distinct heading. The parts which have been made the 
subject of special inquiry are the following: 

1. The Middle Turbinated Bone. 

2. The Parts which enter into the Composition of the Septum. 

3. The Choanse. 

4. The Floor of the Nasal Chamber. 

5. The Deviations of the Septum. 

6. The Region at which the Frontal Bone forms Part of the 

Nasal Chamber. 

7. The Anterior Part of the Lateral Mass of the Ethmoid Bone. 

»No. 1705. 


1. The Middle Turbinated Bane. 

The middle turbinated bone is divided into two parts^an ante- 
rior on3-third and a posterior two-thirds, nearly. The anterior part 
is best seen when the nasal chamber is examined from in front, and 
the posterior part is best seen from behind. 

The anterior third. This portion is a plate of bone which ranges 
parallel to the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone or is de- 
flected outward at an angle. The free lower border may be abruptly 
bent in or out. The entire anterior part may become inflated. It 
is often of greater density than the posterior part (is often covered 
with spines or is greatly roughened), and may be separated there- 
from by a decided change in the inferior contour-line. At times a 
groove cuts ofi*the anterior from the posterior part. This was well 
seen in the skull of an Ottawa Indian.^ 

In the infant the anterior part is always thin and compressed. 
It is parallel to the perpendicular plate, as above described. The 
same disposition exists in many of the skulls of later childhood and 
in those of adult life. Out of 188 skulls in which the anterior part 
was examined the plates were as given in 70. 

The inferior or free border may be flat and wide, so that the ap- 
pearance of the part might be compared to a wedge whose apex is 
directed upward. Of this variety 60 examples were observed. 

Instead of being flat and wide the inferior free border may be 
bent abruptly upon itself or may present an acute projection which 
is directed either inward or outward. Eleven examples of such 
conformation can be cited. They were distributed among the races 
as follows : 8even of Peruvian*, one each of German*, ancient 
Roman*, Iroquois*, and Mexican* origin. 

It is an interesting fact that no example of median inflection of 
the lower border was noticed in the examination made of 78 negro 

» No. 1009. « Nos. 957, 30, 228, 1432, 100, 1476, 681. » No. U90. 
* No. 248. » No. 119. • No. 1015. 


The border may be inclined on both right and left sides, as was 
noticed in a Cofumbia River Indian^ and in a Peruvian.' 

In a second Ck)lambia River Indian* the deflection is seen to a 
marked degree on the left side, and in a Peruvian^ on the right. 

Among other forms of inflated middle tarbinals may be named 

one which resembles the terminal stroke of the German letter aII i* 

In others the shape is the same, but the direction reversed.^ In yet 
another the bone is parallelogrammatic, and may be a centimetre in 
width.* A symmetrical disposition of such a form of inflation 
is seen in the skull of a negro.'' 

Infrequently the anterior portion is slightly though uniformly 
inflated, and is distorted in the shape of a crescent, or is even 
S-shaped.' As a rule the inflation begins at the free anterior border 
and involves the entire portion ; but it is in some examples confined 
to the part immediately back of the anterior border, which remains 
narrowed and compressed, as in the infant.* 

As already remarked, changes in the superficies are found confined 
to the anterior portion, for the posterior part is uniformly smooth 
or marked by vessel-grooves only. Numerous bristle-like processes 
are found occupying the surface in some instances.^* 

The inflected part may be seen at any section of the surface of 
the anterior portion. In a Madagascar^^ and a Peruvian^* skull a 
large spine with a broad base projects from the outer side. I have 
often met with a similar spine in the living subject. 

The flat interior border may even be inflated in common with the 

»No. 678. «No. 13t>6. »No. 877. 7 

«No. 1447. »No. 976. 

*The " bulbo-ethmoidalis," by which tf)rm I embrace the inflation of 
the anterior limit to the ethmoidal mass, is distinct from a bulbous inflation 
of the pedicle of the middle turbinal, which is occasionally met with, but 
U not included in the description us given above. 

^ No. 976. 

'For examples see Peruvians, 1490, 1462, 1458 ; Narra^ansett, 693 ; Naum- 
keag, 567 ; San Miguel, 1636; Nantucket, 104; Ancient Mexican, 1003. 

•Peruvian, No. 84. ^^ Peruvian, No. 1460. 

" No. 1806. " No. 1465. 


rMt of the portion, and as a resalt the part be cial»#haprf, or, being 
flat on the inner, become markedlj cooTex on the ooter sorfiiee. 
In thoBkull of aMeziean* a spar on a deflected aepCnm on the right 
tide is firmlj indented in a clnb-shaped right middk tnrbtnaL In 
most examples, however, of inflated anterior portions with deflected 
septa the parts are conformed one to the other. 

With respect to the right and left disposition of the Tarieties 
named nothing can be said. A compreaaed primitiTe form of the 
anterior portion maj be awociated with a follow of the same kind 
or of anj of the forms alreadj given. 

In thirty examples- of the anterior portion studied in skulls of 
diiJdren under eleven jears of age the following dispoation k 

In six the anterior portion is compressed and primitive; in 
eleven the plane is the same as above, bat the lower border was 
abmptl J inflected ; in ten the lower border is flat and the portion 
more or leas wedge-shaped ; in two a moderate amount of diffused 
inflation, and in one a marked d^ree of the same is present. 

The extent to which the anterior portion maj advance into the 
external nose varies greatlj. In a Cimbrian and a Peruvian the 
bone is placed well within the r^on of the ascending process of 
the maxilla. I have observed the same peculiarity in the living 

Notwithstanding that the interior of the nose is protected bj 
stout bonj barriers, the parts maj be distorted or destroyed bj 
a variety of circumstances. In the practice of preparing the bodj 
for burial adopted bj the ancient Peruvians masses of woolen or v^e- 
table fibre were used to plug the nasal chambers. Lateral distor- 
tions of the turbinals are occasionally seen to be due to this cause.' 

When bodies are left exposed to the air immediately after death 
dipterous insects deposit ova in and about the nostrils. The rav- 
ages made by the larvae of the insects often destroy the turbinala. 
In a specimen of a skull of a Mandan Indian the anterior half of 

1 No. 1430, aged six yean. > No. 690. 


the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone is eaten away, and the entire 
remaining portion of the bone is closely packed with the pupa cases. 

The Posterior Two-thirds. — While the anterior part of the middle 
urbinal is apt to be vertical and compressed, so the posterior part 
is often horizontal at its upper part.^ The scroll, indeed, may be 
said to be an inferior volute from a horizontal line, as in the scroll 
of the Ionic capital. Hence, the term turbinal is characteristic of 
a portion only of the bone. 

The outer border of the posterior end of the horizontal part is 
usually notched. It is probable that the notch is for the accommo- 
dation of a vessel which is in connection with the structures occu- 
pying the spheno-palatine foramen. Occasionally, as is seen in a 
Bengalese skull,' a delicate bridge of bone converts the notch into a 

The ledge-like upper border of the middle turbinal may be in- 
clined or nearly vertical. These different shapes can be indicated 
(even when the turbinal is absent) by the direction taken by the 
upper crest on the palatal bone.* 

In the posterior nares the ends of the middle turbinated bones, 
in the great majority of instauces, are symmetrical and more or less 
curved. In 150 out of 234 skulls of adults examined the parts 
are of the kind described. 

In 44 specimens the scroll presented a semicircular outline 
thus: )j(. The curved lines represent the middle turbinals and the 
vertical line the vomer. Of this number, 3 exhibit the upper 
part of the middle turbinal horizontal, instead of curved. 

The varieties in which the middle turbinals were long and placed 

high up in the choanse are included in the list of the symmetrical 


'The horizontfil piirt is most likely homologous with tho ledge of the 
Diiftal chambers of quadrupeds where it sepanites the olfactory from tho re- 
spiratory tracts. 

« No. 26. 

*The middle turbinal may lie well within the nasal chamber, some dis- 
laaoe from the plane of the posterior end of the inferior turbinal. Example, 
No. 679, Eaquimaux. 



forms above given. In 90 examples of all races the middle turbi- 
nals are thus placed. Of this number 78 were Negroes and 2 Hot- 

In 47 the left middle turbinals are smaller and more vertically 
placed than the right, and exhibited a small horizontal upper bor- 
der. In 11 of these the left bone is compressed laterally and is 
straight The left contour line of the septum is angulated in 
three of these examples. A similar peculiarity is met with in 4 
immature skulls. The remaining 36 crania show various degrees 
of increased obliquity and curvature of the left bone over the right, 
and in a number of ways a diminbhed surface. 

2. The Parts which Enter Into the Composition of the Septum, 

The septum has been studied in the present paper for the most 
part in connection with its disposition to deviate from a vertical 

Several minor points were observed during the examination, 
which will be first recorded. 

The Perpendicular Plate. — ^The perpendicular plate advances for- 
ward to a variable degree. Even in the adult — it was seen in a 
Bengalese skulP — ^the anterior end of the plate may be placed as in 
the young subject. Yet in some specimens, as witnessed in a North 
American Indian,' the plate was in advance of the plane of the ante- 
rior nasal aperture. The nasal plate of the frontal bone may be 
concealed by the advancement of the perpendicular plate of the eth- 
moid bone beneath. This was noted in a Circassian skull.' In a 
second skull of the same race the plate is also well advanced and 
of enormous thickness. 

The plate may reach the nasal bones by a small surface, or may 
touch the bones along their entire lengths. The latter disposition 
is well seen in a Negro* and a Peruvian skulL* 

1 No. 25. s Upsarooka, No. 1228. 

» No. 762. * No. 914. » No. 418. 


Id the skull of an Araucanian^ a large opening is detected in 
the perpendicular plate at a point directly back of the nasal plate 
of the frontal bone. Openings elsewhere in the perpendicular plate 
are so common that no special mention of them need be made. 

The Vomer. — When the vomer at the posterior nares b not at 
the level of the openings, but lies at its lower part a little way 
within the chambers, the bone may be said to be recedent. It b a 
reversion effect, since it is commonly seen in the skulls of camivora 
and in important groups of ungulata. (See p. 31.) 

In a Peruvian' skull of five year^ and a Bengalese* skull of six 
years thb recedence may be said to be present. The same pecu- 
liarity is seen in the adult skull of a Narragansett Indian,* an 
Assiniboin,* a Golgonda,' a Sioux/ and a Blackfoot.' 

Recedence b so marked in a Maltese* skull that the bone unites 
with the maxillary crest at the maxillo-palatal suture. There is no 
upward extension of the spine of the palatal bone. The exact 
position of the vomer at the choanse in determining the posterior 
projection of the inferior turbinated bone b of clinical importance. 

The vomer may have two grooves — one for the triangular cartillage 
(it may be so obliquely placed as to appear to belong to the p^rie- 
ties) anteriorly, and one for a vein placed far back on the side. 
Examples of the obliquely placed groove for the triangular carti- 
lage are seen in an Araucanian^^ skull and in several skulls of 
North American Indians. 

3. Tlie Choance. 

The choanse vary remarkably in form and dimensions. They may 
be as large as 23"" long by 13"" wide, or as small as 13"" long by 
6"" wide. Usi^lly wide and of a rectangular form inferiorly, as 
the borders join the transverse palatal process, they may be oval. 
The larger varieties include the shape first named, and the smaller 
one the shape last named. 

»No. 63. « No. 1492; »48; *9.3l; * 1554 ; • 1315 ; MOO; 
•1227. •No. 117 (Col. of Phys.). "No. 651. 


The smaller varieties exhibit relatively long palatal crests when, 
indeed, they occupy one-third . or one-half of the septum at the 
choanse plane. Since this arrangement is seen in the fodtus at term, 
and the openings are oval or sub-rounded, it is fair to assume that 
the small oval variety is a form of arrested development. In a case 
of atresisB nasi seen in an adult I detected this variety of choanal 
shape. The small oval form is so often met with in clinical studies 
that the conclusion may be tentatively drawn that it aids in retain- 
ing mucus in the nasal chambers, and in this way an anatomical 
&ctor may materially aid in establishing a morbid state. For ex- 
amples in adult crania see a skull of a Miami Indian ^ and a Me- 
nominee.' In immature skulls, an Armenian,' an Austrian,* a 
Czech,* a Genoese,* a Sandwich Islander,^ a Ruthene,' and a Nea- 

It is well to remember, as already stated, p. 29, that it is possible 
to have the image of the choanse, as seen by the rhinal mirror, nar- 
rowed by thickening of the internal pterygoid process of the sphe- 
noid bone. 

4. Tlie Floor of the Nasal Cfiamber. 

In many subjects the plane of the lower border of the nostril i9 
higher than that of the floor of the chamber. The inferior turbi- 
nal lies a variable distance within this depression. The finger 
when inserted into the nostril will not, in such cases, enter the in- 
ferior meatus, but will pass into a space which is defined by the 
septum on the one hand and the upper part of the inferior turbi- 
nals on the other. An example of the skull showing the depressed 
floor is seen in a Menominee ^^ Indian. 

5. Deviations of the Septum. 
When it is recalled that the bony septum is compfltod not only of 
the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, but 

1 No. 1052. » No. 1222. « No. 68, Col. of Phys., 6 yean. 

* No. 60, Col. of Phys., 16 years. * '* 80, " " 17 " 

• " 113, ** " 12 *' T *' 143, " " 16 " 

8 n 19^ ti i* 7 ii 9 (( J 12, ** " 9 «* < 

" No. 44. 5 


of the frontal bone at the region of the vestibular roof, and small 
portions of the maxilla and of the palatal bones, it follows that if it 
is possible for defects to arise from faults of union, more than a 
single place for such defects must be sought for ; or, if by mere dis- 
tortion any one of the parts may be found out of the straight line, 
the localities at which such deviation may occur are many. 

In point of fact the consideration of some of the lines of suture 
and plates of bone need not be regarded. Deviations at the region 
of the frontal spine and at the region of the palatal bone almost 
never occur, but in the remaining component parts they are of fre- 
quent occurrence and are apt to occur are as follows : 

The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. 

The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone and the vomer 

acting as one factor. 
The vomer. 

The ethmoido-vomerine suture. 
The maxillary crest. 

As a rule, it may be said that deviations result from two struct- 
ures differ in nature uniting one with another under unfavorable 
conditions. The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone may be 
bent on a broad curve, while all the remaining parts are normal. 
This is well seen in a Chilian skull,^ in a Hindoo,' and in an Arab.' 
In the skull last named the plate is bulged to the left. 

The perpendicular plate may be in the position described and the 
vomer be bent with it. No hyperostosis need exist at the suture. 
This is well seen in a Peruvian skull.^ 

The perpendicular plate and the vomer may be straight, but not 
lie in the same vertical plane. In this way a '' fault '* is defined 
between the two. This peculiarity also is shown in a Peruvian 

The vomer may exhibit an angulation on the side, posteriorly — 
i. e., at a point near the choanse — and is, therefore, best seen from 

» No. 1099. » No. 432. » No. 499. 

* No. 1466. » No. 403. 


behind. The septum may be in other respects straight. The apex 
of the angulated part often presents a groove which closely resem- 
bles the sulcus found in localities marked by the course of vessels. 
In the skull of an Ottawa Indian' the ethmoido-vomerine spur bears 
a groove which is continuous with a distinct canal posteriorly. 
The followinp^ specimens of skulls may be referred to, in each of 
which the groove is present on the left side : A Columbia River 
Indian,' two Peruvians,' and an Anglo-American.^ 

In one additional skull — that of a Peruvian' — ^the angulation and 
groove are on the right side. 

That the chamber to which the septum inclines should be the 
smaller is shown by many examples.* 

Deviations to the right side are seen in two Peruvians,^ an 
Afghan,* a Circassian," an Armenian," a Finn," and a Utah Indian." 

The disposition for the ethmoido-vomerine suture, as well as the 
maxillary crest at the triangular notch, to be hyperostosed and to 
present spur-like projections to the left side are such striking feat- 
ures in the majority of crania that no more than a recognition ot 
their presence is here demanded."* 

In a skull of a Ruthene (No. 19, Col. of Phys.) from a child seven 
years old the perpendicular plate and the vomer slip by one another, 
are not united, but are simply in apposition. The apposed surfaces 
are 3"™ long. If the degree of variation had been expressed in re- 
sistance at the lin^ of normal union, it is difficult to see how deflec- 
tion could have been avoided. Adult skulls not infrequently show 
the nasal surface of the frontal bone with the nasal process retaining 
the long plate of bone in place of the short, compressed spine, as is 
usually described; Examples of this conformation are seen in 
three Egyptians,"* two Peruvians,"* and one each of Circassians,"* 

1 No. 673. «No. 1368 and 1407. « No. 62. * No. 67. 

^Egyptian, No. 819; Circassian, 765, i98 ; and a Malay, 459. 
• Nos. 412, 1407 ; ^ 1333 ; » 762 ; » 790 ; " 1548 ] » 140. 
I'See a pnper by the writer, Amer. Journ. Med. Sci., April, 1880, 70. 
w Nos. 799, 819, 804, aged 16 years. " No. 482. 
ift « 642,1187. ^ *« 26, aged 12 yean. 


Hindoo,' BengKlese,' k North American Indian (Lenap^), an* Anglo- 
American lunatic, and one unnamed. 


Pio. 8. — Tiew vithin the snterior naanl aperture of an adult oegro (No. 
927, A. N. S.) 

1. NbirI bone. 

2. Fronlfll bimo, forming at thia place a keel iiutead of aiplne. 
8. Parpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. 

4. Aacending procou of the maxilla. 
6. Lateral mau of the ethmoid bone. 

6. Inferior turbin«t<Kl bone. 

7, Alveolar process. 

Thus ten well-deRned examples of the nasal plate of the frontal 
bone were met with. With reference to this conclusion it is staled 
I have met it in 56 out of 76 negro skulia, and it would appear that 
we have in the nasal plate a valuable guide to the identity of thij 
rac«. These facts lead me to consider 

6. The Region at which the Fronial Bone Forma Part of tJie Nagal 

The frontal bone as It enters into the composition of the nasal 
chamber is usually described in forming a nasal spine.* 

I have found that in the child the nasal portion of the frontal 
bone is of a different form from that described, and that in the adult 

' No. 763. » No. 40. 

'Hoffman's "Lehrbuchder AnutomiadeaHenachcn;" deaoribea th«" para 
aaaalia " as yieldingasharp process of variable length — the spina naaaliatupe- 
nor — which eitends between the nasal bones and the perpendicular plate of 
tba ethmoid bone. This description may be accepted aa representative ot 
IImm found In the text-books. 


numbers of examples may be cited which do not answer to the ac- 
counts given by writers. 

In the child, from the fourth to the eighth year the nasal portion 
is never furnished with a spine, but, in its place, with a plate which 
extends the entire length of the interval between the nasal acfd 
ethmoid bones.' The plate joinsj the perpendicular plate of the 
ethmoid bone inferiorly. A shallow groove on either side of the 
plate defines the roof of the nasal chamber at this place. 

The nasal plate of the frontal bone is very rarely united to the 
perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone. That there exists in the 
nasal chamber, in the races other than the Negro, an occasional, 
and in the Negro a frequent, absence of bony union between the 
two component parts of the septum, is an interesting fact 

Good examples of such apposition without union are seen in 
Nos. 951, 957 (Narragansett Indians), No. 651 (Araucanian), and 
No. 13 (Chinese). In the Army Medical Museum at Washing- 
ton out of twenty Negro crania the parts above named are open 
in fifteen. 

Care should be taken not to confound a fissure of absorption in 
the perpendicular plate with the form of retention as above de- 
scribed. A defect of this kind is noted in a Peruvian skull.' 

Among the examples in which the conversion of the nasal plate 
into the nasal spine takes place it is interesting to observe the 
great sia^ which may be attained. In a Negro* the spine was found 
to be nearly as large as the nasal bone. In two Araucanian* skulls 
the processes are also very large. 

The nasal spine is found in an Afghan^ skull to form part of 
the periphery of the external nose where it was lodged between the 
nasal bones. 

Good examples are also seen in an Egyptian* and in a Nubian' 
skull. * 

^Good examples are presented in Nos. 426, 670, Chinese (A. N. S.). 
»No. 1705. «No. 914. 

*No8. 790.792. »No. 735. 

• No. 1817. ^ No. 829. 


That deviations from the vertical plane, which so commonly occur 
in the nasal septum, might be connected in some way with the 
changes that take place in the region of the nasal plate is not im- 
probable. It is known that the parts at the root of the nose are 
exceedingly firm, and that the nasal bones vary greatly in diameter 
from the outer to the inner surface. It is also known that the per- 
pendicular plate of the ethmoid bone is of inconstant proportion, 
but on the whole tends to advance. Hence, the nasal plate of the 
frontal bone may be compressed between these opposed directions 
of growth ; but if the nasofrontal parts are preternaturally fixed 
the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone may be deflected, or 
the entire septum be forced to expand in a region whose boundaries 
have been already fixed. 

The external nose during the period of transition from childhood 
to adult life changes greatly in shape. It is probable that at this 
time the substitution from the nasal plate to the nasal spine takes 
place, and that the deviation in some way correlates with the shape 
of the nasal bones in the adult. In the negroes, in whom the nasal 
bones are small aud flattened, both at the root and the bridge (the 
juvenile shape), the process in question retains the plate-like form, 
while in other races the prominence of the root and bridge is asso- 
ciated with increased frequency of change of the nasal plate to the 
nasal spine ; but in the alteration last named the increase of sep- 
tal deviation is also to be noticed, and an obliteration of the har- 
monic apposition of the spine with the perpendicular plate of the 
ethmoid is likely to occur. 

'Enough has been observed to warrant the tentative conclusion 
that a cause for deviation of the septum (especially in that pK)rtion of 
the septum into which the perpeudicular plate of the ethmoid en- 
ters) exists at the junction of the nasal spine of the frontal bone 
and the ethmoid, together with the rate and character of the change 
in the forms of the nasal bones. 

While this is a conclusion which the premises in many instances 
validate, it is true that no one explanation suffices for the explana- 
tion of all deviations. (See p. 45.) 



7. The ArUerior Part of the LcdercU Man of the Ethmoid Bone. 

This r^ioQ, as a rule, has a narrow border. The superior 
border of the middle turbinal aad the base of the uncinate process 
here unite. Occasionally, as is seen in a Peruvian skull,^ the three 
structures are separated by a large globose surface, which forms the 
boundary of the most advanced of the ethmoid cells. 

The Uncinate Process, — The uncinate process is flat and usually 
lies on the plane of the outer wall of the nose. In a low type 
of skull (this is well exemplified in a Hottentot,' in which it is 
firmly united to the inferior turbinal) the process may be found 
lying transverse to the long diameter of the nasal chamber, and of 
such dimensions as almost entirely to conceal the large middle tur- 
binal. This disposition is seen in the left side of a skull of a 
Negro,' and in a second from Santa Barbara, Gal. In two Peru- 
vian* skulls the uncinate process on the left side is united to the 
ethmoid cells. 

The degree to which the uncinate process extends in an antero- 
posterior direction is subject to considerable variation. It may be 
in contact anteriorly with the inferior turbinal, so that an opening 
on the lateral wall of the chamber alone exists between the pedicle 
of the uncinate and the ascending process of the superior maxilla. 
It may be entirely free from the inferior turbinal at this section of 
the chamber, so in place of a foramen a long interval is found between 
its antero-inferior limit and the maxilla and the inferior turbinal. 
The extent to which the opening into the maxillary sinus is nar- 
rowed is also subject to variation. The opening appears to be the 
smallest in the prognathic and the largest in the orthognathic form 

of crania. 


The sconce or crown constitutes in thelanguage of craniology the 
vertex. The main parts comprising it are so easily determined by 

» No. 1482. « No. 1107. 

* No. 964. « No. 1705, 1482. 



palpation that, so far as they are concerned, the clinical and ana- 
tomical study can be pursued on identical lines. Respecting the 
details, especially such as are seen in the sutures, it is only neces- 
sary to say that the topography of the general surface has been 
based, by common consent, on the arrangement of the parts at 
or near the sutures, and I have concluded to give the detaib of such 
localization the first place. 

The names proposed for the suture-divisions, eminences, and de- 
pressions are easily adapted to the nomenclature of BrSca. While 
it is acknowledged that multiplicity of terms is undesirable, I see 
no way out of the difficulty in presenting new names, since accu- 
racy of description is impossible without them. 

It is hoped that by their aid not only the vertex, but the scalp as 
well, can be mapped out for clinical purposes. 

The sagittal, coronal, and lambdoidal sutures show peculiarities 
of the several parts entering into their composition which are 
worthy of special description. 

To speak first of the sagittal suture, it is found that the portion 
which answers to the parietal end of the anterior fontanel and to 
the suture a short distance back from this opening is simpler in 
composition than the adjacent part of the suture.^ It measures 1 
to 2 centimetres in length. It is convenient to call this the hregmal 

The second portion of the sagittal suture is the longest and con- 
tains, as a rule, the largest serrations. These are either denticulate 
or lobate. The line answers to the region of the parietal tubera, 
and measures from 4 to 6 centimetres in length. In the normal 
cranium it represents the highest portion of the glabello-inial curve, 
and may receive the name of the intertubercU portion of the sagittal 

The part of the intertuberal portion which lies back of the breg- 
mal for a distance of 1* to 1* 5"™ is often of a distinct type of ser- 

' Out of the 66 negroes' crania with open sutures examined 21 retained 
finnate and 46 serrate bregmal portions. 


ration and may be deflected from the line of the intertuberal por- 
tion. It corresponds nearly to the position of a depression which 
is commonly symmetrical on either side of the suture as seen on the 
ondocranial surface. When well marked it may receive the name 
of the post-bregmcU portion. In Negroes it is commonly merged in 
the intertuberal. 

The third portion of the sagittal suture b the obelion of Broca.^ 
The parietal foramina lie on the sides and serve as guides to this 
the obdicU portion. 

Broca describes the obelion as having a length of 2", measuring, 
as it does, 1* either way from the foramina. The suture is very 
commonly harmonic, while it maj be sinuate, serrate,' or lobate, but 
rarely the last named. The vertex, as a rule, is rounded or ridged 
at the sides of the obelion, which thus appears to be depressed. 

The fourth and last portion of the sagittal suture also appears 
to be depressed. It extends from the obelial to the lambdoidal sut- 
ure. The serrations are coarse, and are often composed of denti- 
cles which exceed in length any seen in the foregoing divisions of 
the sagittal suture. In the growing subject it is often the thickest 
part of the suture. It measures from 1 to 2 centimetres in length 
and may be called the post-obelial portion. 

The coronal siUure is constantly divided into three parts — the in- 
ternal or ental, which answers to the anterior fontanel ; the mid- 
dle or mesal, and the external or ectal. The internal is simple or 
wavy ; the middle is denticulate and extends from the internal third 
to the stephanioD, while the external or ectal is again simple, and lies 
between the stephanion and the pterion. It is covered by the tem- 
poral muscle. The external or ectal may remain open while the 
remaining portion of the suture is obliterated (No. 38, Col. of 
Phys.). In some subjects, notably the Negro, the middle portion 

^Instructions Craniologiques et Cranioroetriques, Paris, 1876, p. 24. 
* Out of the 55 crania of negroes in the collection of the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences 85 exhibited sinuate obelial portions and 20 serrate. 


becomes simple when it runs forward parallel to the temporal ridge 
for a short distance before crossing it at the stephanion. 

In an Esquimaux skull (No. 200, A. N. S.) the line of the tem- 
poral fascia crosses an almost simple coronal suture 28™° from the 
bregma. The stephanion b practically unseen. 

Kuppfer und Bessel Hagen, in 281 skulls from East Prussia, found 
the coronal suture running along the temporal ridge a short dis- 
tance before crossing it in 5 per cent males and 6 per cent, females. 
In the skulls of the insane these observers noted the d^f^position in 
40 per cent W. Sommer (Virchow's Archiv., vol. 90) in a similar 
examination found this dispositioi) in 17 per cent of males and 7 
per cent, of females. 

The lambdoidal suture^ like theTcoronal, is divided also into three 
parts, which may be named, in a similar manner, the endal, mesal, 
and ectal. Of these the octal is the simplest in composition, and 
the mesal the most denticulated. Wormian bones, when present, are 
commonly situate in one or the other of these divisions, and not at 
their lines of juncture. The divisions appear to be subject to 
greater variation than in the cases of the sagittal and coronal su- 

W. Sommers (loc. cit.) found the lambdoidal suture concave for- 
ward in 90 per cent of skulls of the insane, and 10 par cent con- 
vex. No mention is made of the eminence which I have named 
meso-lombdoidal. It is fair to assume that it was present in those 

' Broca practically makes similar subdivisions of the coronal and lamb- 
doidal sutures in his method of studying the relations which exist between 
the cranium and the cerebrum. (See Revue de Anthropologic, v. 1, p. 36.) 

*InNo. 461, Clickitat (Columbia river) and 730 (Seminole) the lam- 
bdoidal suture is completely occupied by a number of Wormian bones. 
The divisions of the sutures, as above named, are lost, and the entire re- 
gion presents an elliptical figure. In No. 208, Nisqually, A. N. S., the 
suture is nearly straight und with few serrations. Out of 60 negro crania 
examined the lambdoidal suture was straight, or nearly so, in 21, and arranged 
as described above in 39. In Esquimaux crania the outer part of the lamb- 
doidal is much smaller than is usually found in skulls of other races, and 
the meto-lambdoidal is less convex forward. 


in which the satore was convex, inasmach as this convexity is most 
marjced in, if not confined to, the mesal part of the snture. (See 


The eminences of the vertex which have been separately named 
are the frontal, the parietal or the tuberal, and the occipitaL In 
addition, I venture to name five others, as follows : 

The meso-coronal. 
The metopic. 
The para-tuberal. 
The meso-lambdoidal. 

The tneao-earonal emineneey lies on the frontal bone jost in 
advance of the meso-coronal portion of the suture, about two 
centimetres above the stephanion. It may involve the suture 
itself, when the corresponding part of the parietal bone is also 
elevated. It is marked in many Peruvian crania, but is often 
absent in the skulls of Negroes and Esquimaux. 

The metopic eminence is a median elevation of the frontal bone 
over the interfrontal suture. It is inconstant, but may amount to 
a conspicuous carination which can be seen often in the living 

The para-tuberal eminence is a rounded elevation which lies be- 
tween the parietal tuber at its posterior limit and the obelion. It 
is commonly present. It b least developed in the Esquimaux. 

The m^&tO'lambdoidcU eminence lies on the parietal bone in advance 
of the lambdoidal suture at its middle portion, or it may cross the 
suture and involve the occiput. It is marked in synostotic crania 
of the criminal type. It is very well seen in a skull of a Krim.^ 
In some crania it appears to be continuous with the tubera. 

In No. 1561, Esquimaux (A. N. S.), the vertex is marked by a 
large adventitious but distinct swelling (measuring 2 centimetres 

1 Coll. Phys. 


long by 1 wide), which lies between the tuber and the lambdoidal 
fiature. In No. 1562, of the same race, an elevation extends from 
the tuber to the sagittal suture. It limits the inclination of the 
parietal bone towards the occiput 

The temporo'frontal eminence. — Under this head may be men- 
tioned a swelling which is felt occasionally in the living subject 
directly to the outside of the temporal ridge as it is defined on the 
frontal bone. It forms a low obtuse prominence, measuring about 
3 centimetres in diameter. It is best discerned in young indi- 
viduals, since in adults it is obscured by the massive temporal 
muscle. I have found the temporo-frontal eminence, so frequently 
in Peruvian crania that it may be included among the characters 
distinguishing them. In a Marquesas skull, in the A. N. S., a 
similar prominence is marked. 

The deprenion$ which can be detected on the vertex are arranged 
as follows : In advance of the bregma ; this constitutes the pre-hreg* 
mal. At the centre of the fontanel, or embracing in a general 
way the region of the fontanel ; this is the bregmal. At the line 
of the coronal suture and the part directly back of it ; this is the 
coronal. At the broad interspace between the frontal bone and the 
tubera ; this is the post-coronal^ and appears to be an extension of 
the foregoing. An apparent depression is defined at the obelion. 

The coronal depression has been described by Prof J. Cleland 
(Philosoph. Trans., vol. clx, 1870). It can be easily defined in the 
living subject. Abundant means are at hand for confirmation of 
this statement. Children exhibit the peculiarity as well as adults. 
It is generally seen in short high heads, which also retain a short 
sagittal suture and an abrupt curve to the mid- vertex. Bolleston 
(British Barrows, 1877) names skulls which show this peculiarity 
** cut off; " it appears to be the same variety as is described by 
Liasauer (Archiv. f. Anthropologic, 1885, p. 9) under the name of 
" sagittal EjTummung.'' 

When the two coronal depressions are associated with large tu- 

56 THE 

berm and pttim-tobera, and the inteiral betwee n them (tu., the obe- 
licn mod the post-ebelion) is on a \omst plane than the occipital 
angle, the varietr of skull named bj Pra£ Cleland, " trilobate," is 
defined. Trilobate skulls have heea foond hj Prof. RoUeeton ^ in 
the barrows of England. In the College of Physicians, No. 87, 
Camiolian, and No. 10, Hollander, exhibit the peculiarity. I have 
detected one in a Peruvian, another in N. A. Indian (No. 747, 
A. N. S.), ^ a thinLin a Tschutchi Indian (No. 3, A. N. S.). An 
imperfectlj developed form is seen in a Nantucket Indian child 
aged 12 years. W. H. Flower gives an example in Catalogue Os- 
teol. Collection, CoL of Phvs. and Surgeons, Lond., 1879, 172. The 
natiform skull of congenital syphilis appears to be of the same 
nature as the tribolate. 

The pottcoTonal depression is often associated with the general 
roundness and fullness of contour of the frontal bone just in front 
cff the coronal suture. This is well seen in No. 1492, Peruvian 
TA. N. S.), aged five years, and in 890, Ibid, 

Instead of the coronal depression being marked the bregma may 
be greatly depressed, the sagitta shortened, and the occiput knobbed. 
Such crania are frequently seen, and in the living subject make it 
exceedingly difficult to determine accurate measurements from the 
line into which the bregma enters. The subjects are apt to exhibit 
hyperostosis of the sutures of the hard palate, and to have small 
choanae. Examples are seen in two Italian skulls in the College of 
Physicians (Nos. 110 and 113). 

Occasionally a depression is seen above the temporal ridge and 
corresponds to the curve of this elevation. It is well seen in an 
Esquimaux cranium (No. 677, A. N. S.). 

Hie Ridges of the Vertex, — The ridges of the vertex are those at 
the sagittal suture, above the temporal ridge, and at the sides of the 
obelion and the post-obelion. 

The ridges of the sagittal suture constitute the carinations de- 

^"The precipitous dip downward of the posterior half of the pariotall 
which is so characteristic of brachycephaly generally.— /&u£, p. 682L 


scribed by anthropologists. They may be restricted to the subdi- 
visions of the sagittal as above proposed. Thus the post-obelial 
and the intertuberal parts are often separately and distinctly cari- 
nated. The bregmal and post-bregmal parts may be carinated, 
while the rest of the sagitta is normal. The post-obelial, obelial, 
and the posterior half of the intertuberal parts have been found to 
be carinated, together with the bregmal and post-bregmal, the ante- 
rior part of the intertuberal alone remaining normal. The cari- 
nated portion of the sagitta may extend the entire length of the 
suture, excepting only the post-obelial. This arrangement is ad. 
mirably seen in the figures of a woman's skull in Welcker's mono- 
graph (infra^ xiii. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4). 

The ridge which conforms to the temporal ridge is relatively in- 
frequent. It is found in heavy male skulls as far as my observa- 
tions go. It should be easily felt in the head of the living subject 
The enormous lateral ridges of Uintatherium are probably develop- 
ments of the temporal ridp^es, thus showing the extraordinary influ- 
ence muscle-tmction can exert over bony surfaces. If the exact 
degree of influence of all the muscles having bony attachments 
could be measured, osteology would be placed upon a philosophical 

Instead of the sagittal suture at the obelion and the post-obelion 
being depressed it may remain unchanged. The margins of the 
parietal bone remain also unchanged, while a ridge-like elevation 
of bone passes obliquely from the sagitta, at the end of the inter- 
tuberal portion, backward and outward to the meso-lambdoid 
eminence. Such conformation is well marked in the skull of 
a Chinese in the College of Physicians. In a living individual 
retaining such a peculiarity it is highly probable that a large tri- 
angular depression could be felt at the posterior part of the vertex. 


The interior or endo-cranial view of the vertex confirms the pro- 
posed division of the sagittal suture. The several parts are as dis- 


tmctl J separated as on the exterior, and, as the interior plane of 
the sagittal snture tends to rramin open when the exterior is closed, 
the evidence of the disposition is here often alone avulable. 

The side of least expansion of the parietal bones corrdates with 
increase of thickness of the inner plate. The elevation of the 
inner plate of the unexpanded side is easily detected by the finger. 

In No. 24 of the Collie of Physicians the vertex-sutares are 
open, the brumal, post-bregmal, obellal, and post-obelial parts are 
serrated, both exteriorly and interiorly, while the intertuberal (the 
post-bregmal portion being here counted a separate quantity) is 

In No. 50, of the same collection, the interior view of skull is har> 
monic throughout, the bregmal being alone distinguished by its 
obliquity to the rest of the sagittal suture. 

The relations of the depressions (presumably for the Pacchionian 
bodies) are, if of simple form, very commonly on either side of the 
intertuberal portion of the suture at tlie post-brumal division. In 
thirty examinations of uormal crania I have found but five where 
the depression was either abseut or merged with a depression placed 
still farther back. 

When the vitreous plate is thickened at the region of the former 
anterior fontanel and extends aloug the lines of the sutures so as 
to form a lozenge-shape figure, depressions for the Pacchionian 
bodies are often seen at its sides. It is rare to see depressions at 
the obelial or the post-obelial parts, though they may be oftener 
found on the frontal bones below the frontal eminences. Between 
the parietal tubera and the sagittal suture at the obelion an emi- 
ucnee is frequently found which almost equals the tuber in size. 
It is very commonly found in the skulls of Peruvians. 

As iu all other anatomical quantities, the subdivisions of the 
sutures of the vertex are subject to variation. 

The simple statement upon which such subdivisions may be ren- 
dered tenable is one universally conceded, namely, that structures 
in their range of variation show traces of their origin and rates of 


growth. That the bregma! and post-obelial portions of the sagittal 
suture are distinct from the remaining portion is probable when it 
is recalled that both portions are completed after birth in the 
process of obliteration of the fontanels. That the post-bregmal 
portion may be a good subdivision is also probable, since it answers 
pretty nearly to the position of the Pacchionian bodies and from 
the fact that in the parietal bone of the young subject this portion 
is seen to be pectinated, while the intertuberal is nearly smooth. 
The intertuberal portion represents the shortest distance from the 
tuber to the suture. The obelial portion has an admirable raison 
d 'dre in being the region of the parietal foramina. 

The following notes in illustration of the manner in which the 
foregoing statements may be employed in description of crania may 
be found useful : The specimens are all in the College of Phy- 

No. 114, native of Elba: 

Sutures open. 

Bregmal, 1*'5""; post-bregmal, 1" 5""; intertuberal, 4* 5"*" ; obe- 
lial, 2* ; post-obelial, 1*. 

No. 30 : 

Acrocephalic, synostotic. 
Bregmal and post-bregmal, 4*. 

Entire region elevated ; not carinate ; intertuberal^ 4*, slightly 
carinate; obelial, 2" 5"", flat; post-obelial, 2**, carinate. 

No. 92, Uskoke : 

Left coronal suture closed ; obelial portion lobate ; post-bregmal 
with markedly oblique axes to the serrations, in contrast to the 
transversely disposed serrations of the intertuberal portions. 

No. 38, Kabardine : 
Both coronals obliterated ; no wisdom teeth, yet the basi-cranlal 
•atore is closed; bregmal, i«2™"; post-bregmal, 1* 2~"; intertu- 


bend, 5^ 5^*; obelud, 2*; posi-obelial, 2". Hie obeliml is serrmte; 
po0t-br^[iiial depression is markedly derdi^ied. 

No. 34, Erim : 

Sjnostotic, forehead prominent ; resembles skull of Pomeranian 
weaver described by B. Davis; metopic eminence conspicaoos. 
Entire rqpon of bregmal, post-br^^mal portions, and the anterior 
half of the intertabend is elevated, bot broadly carinate. The 
posterior half of the intertnberal b smooth ; the obelial and post- 
obellal portioDs carinate. 

No. 98, Gypsy : 

Vertex remarkably ''cut off" posteriorly. Entire snture-line is 
carinate except the post-obelial portion. 

Australian skull (Col. of Phys.) : 

Sagittal suture open ; brumal, 1* ; post-brumal, 1* ; intertnberal^ 
&* ; obelial, 2* ; post-obelial, 2*. 

In the skulls of Esquimaux, A. N. S., the vertex is "cut off;" 
the intertnberal, exceptiog the post-brumal part, is carinate in 
No. 678. The entire intertnberal is carinate in No. 279; the 
para-obelial eminence continuous, with a smaller ridge which ex- 
tends one-half the length of the intertnberal portion of the sagittal 
suture in No. 677. 

The right and left sides of the vertex are almost always asym- 
metrical. The left side at the forehead is commonly more project- 
ing than the posterior part of the parietal bone of the same side. 
The reverse of these proportions is seen on the right. At the level 
of the occiput the left part may be projecting. Thus a circumfer- 
ential measurement of the left side at the level of the frontal emi- 
nence may show the curve exaggerated anteriorly while diminished 
posteriorly, and a similar measurement taken fit>m frontal emi- 
nence, so as to include the occiput above the inion, will show both 
anterior and posterior parts exaggerated on the left side as com- 
pared with those on the right 


Linear measorementa taken in the median line from the glabella 
to the inion will represent more nearly the curve of the left side of 
the calvarium than do those taken on the right. The measurements 
last named may differ so widely from those of the left side as to 
throw the point given by Thrane for the fissure of Rolando on the 
right side as much as one-half inch out from that of the left 

The vertex in the space included at the sides by the temporal 
ridges — at the front by the corona and at the back by the 
lambda — is subject to local atrophic changes. Bounded depressions 
measuring one or two centimetres across and one to three millime- 
tres in depth are scattered irregularly over the sur&oe. There is 
no diseased action elsewhere in the skulls showing thb peculiarity, 
and no evidence can be presented that the depressions themselves 
ore of morbid origin. They have been seen always in crania show- 
ing early signs of advanced age, and some of them are found in dis- 
tinctly senile skulls. Examples are seen in several of the skulls of 
Arabs (A. N. S.). A Narragansett^ and a Chinese skull' also ex- 
hibit the depression. 

In a cranium in the possession of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences the vertex has been mapped out and the localities named after 
the phrenological method of Gall and Spurzheim. It is interesting 
to note that a number of the enclosures which constitute what is 
known in the language of phrenology as the ''organs" answer 
accurately to the eminences which I have named as above. Thiis 
the para-tuberal eminence becomes the organ of *' ambition," the 
meso-lambdoidal eminence that of " friendship," etc. The " organ " 
of "philoprogenitiveness" appears to be always well developed in 
females, and frequently so in males. I find no reference to 
this association of parts in the writings of phrenology, and I am, 
therefore, led to infer that it is a co-incidence only that the emi- 
nences which I have named happened also to have attracted the 
attention of the phrenologist. 

> No. 951. »No. 94. 


Xoix.— H. Welcker (WachsUiuin and Bfto des mensditichen Sdiiddft, 
1862, Fig. 7, p. 17) dirides the sagitul satnre into fkre parti. Tlieie dirk- 
lons are the same as I suggest in the text. Mr attention was called to 
Welcker 's work br Dr. Frank Baker after I had deliTered the lecture^ In- 
Stead of naming the parts separstel j, Welcker indodes them in the nnmbers 
1, 2, 8, 4, and 5. It will be noticed that this writer r^ains the post-hregmal 
division, which I hare included with some doabL The ref e r ence of 
Welcker to the entire soljeci b Tery brief and is embr^ed in the follow- 
ing language : '* Far more aocarate examination of the shape of these su- 
tures I hare illustrated (Plate iii, Fig. 7) lire regions, of which No. 1 is on 
the coronali ; No. 5 borden on the lambdoida, while No. 4, which lies be- 
tween the straight parts of the parietal foramina, is a trifle smaller than the 
other dirisions." 

BoUeston (British Barrows, 1877, 628), probably influenced by the same 
authority, speaks of the sagittal suture as divided into flfths. The post- 
obelial is the '' posterior flfth " of this writer, and the obelial the " penulti- 
mate fifth." 



Satures often indicate the manner in which the bones have grown. 
As already stated, the comparatively deep serrations in the middle 
of the sagittal and coronal sutures correspond to the most preco- 
cious extensions of growth-force in those directions. Premature 
union of two opposed portions of bone, namely, at the surfiuxs of 
greatest acceleration, may lead to a suture at such portions, b^g 
raised above the plane of the adjacent surfcuse. The carinated por- 
tion of the sagittal suture is an illustration of this peculiarity. A 
group of instructive examples b seen in the sutures between the 
maxilla and the bones adjacent; thus the malo-maxiliary at its 
lower part, where two obtuse processes project, the process pertain, 
ing to the maxilla bdng the larger ; the inequality and even rugosity 
of the same suture, as it aids in defining the lower border of the orbit ; 
the union of the horizontal plates of the maxill» by means of which 
an upward extension results, uding in the composition of the nasal 
septum ; a downward extension of the same in the form of a thicken* 
ing and even of an exostosis, which lies upon the roof of the mood 
and also in the nasal spine, which is formed at the intermazilltt 


lature and projecta from the lower anterior margin of the nasal cham- 
ber. These changes on the line of union of the maxilla with the malar 
bone, and with its fellow of the opfKwi te side of the body, indicate that 
the direction of pressure during the growth of the bone has been 
greater at the sides toward the malar bone and at the median line of 
the face than elsewhere. It has been least between themazillsB and 
the nasal bones and between the mazillse and the palatals, which 
would indicate that the maxilla has grown forward and from side 
to side earlier and more aggressively than it has grown upward and 
backward. In this statement it is assumed that each nasal bone lies 
above the ascending process of the maxilla rather than in front of it. 
The backward extension of the maxilla against the palatal bone in 
the line of the dental arch demands special consideration, since it 
belongs to the means of accommodation of the molar teeth. Such 
as it is, however, the pressure of the extending bone in this direc- 
tion leads to increased thickening of the palatal bone in all directions^ 
and forms the pyramidal process. This process may be looked upon 
as an exemplification of an active suture-formation, which leads 
to hyperostosis of a part, although only one of the bones interested 
becomes entirely involved. 

The maxilla in two places shows the effects of nerves and vessels 
in modifying suture lines. The roof of the infra-orbital canal 
is closed in a variable manner by the approximation of two portions 
of the maxilla at the inferior border of the orbit. Very commonly 
the border is thickened and an additional element of roughness and 
unevenness presented to that already noticed in the malo-maxillary 
suture. In like manner the maxilla as it joins the malar bone at the 
orbito-temporal septum exhibits one to three fissures in the imma- 
ture bone (for the accommodation of minute vessels and nerves), 
which by the closure determine the positions of new grooves, ^ow, 
the growth in the direction of the orbito-temporal septum is vari- 
able. The maxillary process may reach the sphenoid bone or it 
may terminate at the malar. If it attains the bone first named, 
tlie malmr bone is excluded from the spheno-maxillary fissure. If it 


<)o4^liol 90 attain, the malar eaters iato the compositioa of the fis- 
9af«^ (See p. 11.) 

Tt^ oonaectioQ which exists between nutritive prooeaees and 
yrooves oaused by the positions of blood vessels is considered on 
puge 70. It becomes difficult at times to decide which is the moat 
efitetive in inducing the position of sutures. For example: While 
the masseteric ridge answers in position to the intermalar suture, it 
also corresponds to the position of a vessel groove. The groove is 
commonly seen in the immature skull. It is, however, conspicuous 
in the skull of an adult idiot.^ 

In illustration of the fact that nutrition of bone is apt to be in- 
fluenced by the position of sutures the following may be mentioned: 
Nodules of a size of a millimetre, sessile in form and of hard con- 
sistence, are occasionally seen on the frontal bone near the median 
line. They are to be attributed to localized hyperostoses in the 
neighborhood of the interfrontal suture.' 

The frontal bone directly in advance of the coronal suture is 
oflen the seat of a convexity only secondary in height to the frontal 
eminence. It is especially well developed in Peruvian crania. A 
second eminence, more generally distributed, is seen on the same 
bone in the temporal fossa, directly below the temporal ridge.' 

The coronal suture is deflected forward slightly as it is crossed 
by the temporal ridge. In 31 out of the 64 skulls of negroes ex- 
amined the suture extended parallel to the ridge for about two 
centimetres before it crossed it. In no other skull, save in a Semi- 
nole Indian^ and a Carib,^ was a similar peculiarity noticed. It 
thus b3Comes a character which should be sought for in describing 
the cranium of the negro. (See Vertex, p. 53.) 

The borders of muscular impressions, such as the temporal ridge 
is to Ihe impression for the temporal muscle, may be said to modify 

iNo. 1190, German, A. N. S. 

' No. 1035, Apache; 742, Mandan ; 647, and three Peruvians. 

' This is well seen in 316, a young Malay ; 1029, Fiji ; and 44, Menominee. 

* No. 708, Academy of Natural Sciences. *692, ibid. 


the bone itself, and may even lead to the 8eparati6n of the bone in 
two parts. This is apparently the case in the instance of a double 
parietal bone as figured by Professor Turner in the skull of an Ad- 
miralty Islander.^ The line of origin on the inner surface of the 
malar bone answers to the position of the suture in two instances of 
double malar bone which I have studied.' In four crania' traces of 
a suture were seen on the maxillary portion of the hard palate ex- 
tending obliquely forward and outward at or near the maxillo-pal- 
atal junction. They may unite with the junction last named at the 
median line or lie a little to the ectal side. 

The squamosal suture (parieto-temporal) ends posteriorly at the 
mastoid process somewhat abruptly. A process of the suture is apt 
to be directed upward and backward from the hinder part of this 
suture on the level of the temporal vein-groove. Although small, 
the process practically limits tbe squamosal region in this direction, 
since the curves which are continuous with the tuber of the parietal 
bone here begin. The slope from the side of the skull to the occi- 
put is also announced.^ 


An interesting region for variation is seen in the inferior border 
of the orbit. Tbe border may be said to lie below a curved line 
which is continued across the orbit along the upper limit of the 
zygoma. Tbe bones which enter into the composition of the border 
are the malar and the superior maxilla. 

The malar comprises the outer half, nearly, of the border. As a 
rule, the anterior limit reaches a point about 4"* from the infra- 
orbital canal, but in place of this it may end over the canal, or may 
reach the ascending process of the maxilla. 

"The Challenger Rep. X, 57. * 1255, Ostrogoth; and 180, Chinese. 

•Not. 20, GO, 80, 136, 139, College of Physicians. 
*8ee 1482 (A. N. 8.), Peruvian, right side 

5 T 


The nwiTillmiy portion is divided into the part over the infirm- 
ofbttal fbnuDen and the part answering to the base of the ascending 
procen of the maxilla. 

The first of these divisions is exceedingly variable. The remains 
of the sntore at the roof of the infira-orbital foramen, osnally ending 
at the border, maj extend to the malar.^ The entire sutural arc of 
the orbital border maj be depresBed below the rest of the carve, 
and a minute spicule on the median side appears to indicate that 
fibrous tissue had bridged or occu{Hed the interval caused hj the 

N^roes firequentlj exhibit the above-named variety. The 
line of the suture over the foramen is often hjperoetosed, so as 
to assume a rounded form which may be irr^ularly roughened. 
Such a variation is often found in large, heavy crania.* The 
ascending process of the maxilla entering into the composition of 
the border may be sharply ridged and abruptly raised above the 
planes of the floor of the orbit* 

In No. 151G, Malay, the infra-orbital suture does not extend to 
the inferior border of the orbit, but reaches the malar bone. A 
well-defined groove is seen on the inferior orbital border in 1450, 
Australian; 44, Menominee; and 739, Mandan. 

In the same group, with the rugose suture over the infra-orbital 
foramen, may be placed the rather decided ledge-like hyperostosis 
which marks the maxilla directly above and in front of the palatal 
as it lies over the spheno-palatine foramen. 

» 1816, Malay (A. N. S.), aged eight years. 

* Well illustrated in a skull of Lenape (North Araerican Indian), No. 40, 

•The suture over the infra-orbital foramen is raised or rugose in many 
examples of crania. In this connection see 1451, 1262, Australian ; 747, 
Minitari ; 740, Mandnn. The suture is often open. Examples are seen in 
Xos. 1300, 1342, Sandwich Islanders; Nos. 69, 708, 707, 733, and 720, Semi- 
nole; Nos. 951 and 955, Narnigansett ; Nos. 1227, 745, 1288, Blackfoot ; 
1322, Pottiiwatomie ; and 739, Mandan. 



The foramina of the skull are chiefly of interest in exhibiting re- 
tentions of embryonic states. The most striking of these states are 
seen at the base of the skull, at the region of the union of the vomer 
with the sphenoid bone and the sphenoidal processes of the palatal 
bone and pterygoid process, as already seen^ (p&go 23). 

The foramina may be asymmetrical ; the foramen ovale less so 
than the others. A second group of retention — ^variations is seen at 
the surface of the sphenoid bone, where it lies against the petrosal 
to form the petroso-sphenoidal suture. Along the lines of this 
suture are found the oval foramen, the spinous foramen, and the 
canalis innominata. The suture widens not infrequently at the outer 
end to form an opening, which may receive the name of the petroso- 
sphenoidal foramen. The oval, spinous, and petroso-sphenoidal 
foramina may be confluent, or the spinous and petroso-sphenoidal 
may alone unite, or the oval and the spinous. The canalis innomi- 
nata' may be large or absent. lu the skull up to the fourth year 
the spinous and petroso-sphenoidal openings are always united. I 
have often remarked that the spinous foramen may be entirely 
absent on one side.' In some lower animals, as is seen in the Vir- 
ginian opossum, the foramina retain throughout life the type seen 
in this disposition to coalescence. 

The development of the tympanic bone is peculiar, for instead of 
uniformly extending in all its proportions a large foramen is always 
seen on the bone at its inferior surface. The significance of the 
opening is unknown. 

The foramen is very variable in form and position. As a rule, 
it recedes with age from the aperture of the meatus, so that in adult 
examples the retained foramen is almost always a centimetre or 
more from the outer free margin. Examples of the retention of the 

* For a good example see No. 924, negro. 
'The foramina ovale are at times asymmetrical. 

* No. 142, Marquesas (A. N. S.), furnishes an example. 


foramen in adult life are by no means infrequent. In fourteen 
skulls of Esquimaux examined eight showed the tympanic foramen 
of defect. I have never seen the foramen in a Sandwich Island or 
Tahite cranium. Extended examinations might show variable per- 
centage of occurrences in the different races. That the foramina 
are factors in the distribution of pus in peri-meatal abscesses there 
can be no doubt. 

The oval foramina of the sphenoid bone are oAen unequal in 
size and of different shapes. The form may be so slightly changed 
from the circular that the term oval is scarcely applicable to it. 
This is oflen seen in Esquimaux crania. The rounded shape is 
frequently found associated with the short skull and the oval form 
with the long skull. When an asymmetry of the openings exists it 
is rational to entertain the opinion that the side of the skull which 
shows the greater elongation is also the side which will retain the 
most elliptical foramen. 

If the base of the skull were perfectly symmetrical the line of the 
bosio-craiiial suture, produced outward to the right and left, should 
intersect the oval foramina at a fixed point ; but, in fact, the inter- 
section is variable. This is in part owing to the differences in the 
8hai>es of the openings, as already noted, and in part to the torsion 
of the anterior segment of the skull. (See page 18.) 

The carotid canals may be asymmetrical. The left canal, when 
asymmetry is present, is ordinarily the smaller.^ 

The foramen lacerum medium may be entirely absent, as is the 
rule with the lower animals. The union of the apex of the i)etrosal 
element against the body of the sphenoid bone is more frequently 
seen in long, narrow skulls than in others, but may be seen in<le- 
pendently of skull form. 

The foramina on the side of the skull are the familiar mastoid 
and the alisphenoid foramina. The latter are infrequently present. 
They are the orifices of small diploic veins which come to the sur- 

^ For good examples see 1548, Swede ; 914, negro (A. N. $.). 


face, probably to unite with the deep temporal veinsr. The spheno- 
palatine foramina are relatively of large size in the skull of the 
young subject. lu an adult Tchutchi skulP these foramina were 
6"" in diameter. 

The foramina of the vertex are few in number. The parietal 
foramina may be larger than usual, or they may disappear and 
abrupt openings may occur through the outer plate so as to expose 
the diploe along the line of the temporal ridge. They are more 
common on the frontal portion of the crest than elsewhere. 

The variations of the front of the skull pertain to the anterior 
lacerated foramina, the infra-orbital foramina, and the opening along 
the line of the frontal suture. The differences in the anterior lac- 
erated foramina are chiefly those of symmetry. The infra-orbital 
foramina vai^ chiefly in the manner by which the fissures of the 
maxilla close and the extent of the forward growth of the malar 
bone. Foramina occasionally appear at the median line of the 
forehead, and are doubtless due to the partial failure of the two 
halves of the frontal bone entirely to unite. 

The foramina which transmit important structure are commonly 
modified from fissures, and in reversion easily assume again the 
stage of the fissure. Since they so originate, it is easy to account 
for their presence near the margins of fissures (as is seen in the for- 
amen ovale and foramen spinosum, near the fissure between the 
sphenoidal and petrosal elements). In like manner the parietal 
foramina appear at the side of the sagittal suture. Exceptions to 
this rule are seen in a small canal (occasionally present) which 
transmits a vein between the squamosal and parietal bones, and in 
a foramen in a Peruvian sl^ull.' 

> No. lOSO, A. X. S. 

'No. 17, from San Mateo, which exhibits an opening between the frontal 
and parietal bones. 



Inspection of the bones of the human subject shows that the sur- 
faces are not. infrequently marked by superficial grooves which 
appear to be the tracks of blood-vessels. Such markings are best 
seen in the long bones, which exhibit the usual appearances of 
chronic inflammation. Assuming that the impression made upon 
the bones are proportionate to the amount of increase of volume of 
the bone, and that the vessels remain fixed, a simple problem is 
presented by means of which the observer can determine the signifi- 
cance of blood-vessel tracks in other than in inflammatory conditions. 

The vessel-grooves on the periphery. — The cranium yields a num- 
ber of examples of these grooves. In the forehead, especially of 
specimens in which the forehead is rounded, numbers of deep, 
narrow grooves an inch or more in length are seen extending up- 
ward and backward from near the supra-orbital foramen or from the 
outer side of the frontal eminence and iu line with the supra-orbital 
foramen or supra-orbital notch. In rare instances a simple small- 
groove lies near the frontal portion of the temporal ridge.* I have 
seen both the above-named grooves present in a child of nine months 
of age. They appear earlier than the grooves described in the suc- 
ceeding paragraphs. 

Grood ex&mples of the frontal vessel-grooves have been found in 
skulls of all nationalities. They are not uncommon in the negro, 
when the narrow, convex forehead appears to favor their appear- 

1 See No. 760, Copt, for a good example and many negro crania. 

' For example see : Nos. 905, 912, negro ; No. 4S8, Ohio Indian ; No. 
1086, Apache; No. 87, Peruvian; No. 1024, Fiji; No. 1214, Hamilton, 
Ohio, Indian; No. 1043, Pawnee; Nos. 78, 44, 36, 1222, Menominee; 
Nos. 749, 650, Minitari ; Nos. 744, 745, Blackfoot ; No. 1057, Miami; 
Nos. 644, 742, Mandan ; Nos. 89, 1383, 1288, unnamed. 


It has been found iu one side of the skull only, as seen in the 
skull of a Sandwich Islander/ 

In a second skull of a Sandwich Islander (No. 695) the frontal 
grooves are absent, but a number of foramina perforating the outer 
plate of the boue are directed upward. It would appear that diploic 
Teins had passed into the frontal veins, which had in their turn 
failed to make any impression upon the bone itself. 

Many crania show a vertically placed groove, which is more oi 
less arborescent, and rather shallow as compared to the frontal, 
lying upon the squamosal, a short distance above the external audi- 
tory meatus and reaching as far as the upper limit of the bone, or 
even croa<«iug the parieto-squamosal suture and describing a curve 
upward and forward over the parietal boue, a short distance below 
the temporal crest. In a few examples the track originates in the 
parieto-squamosal when the squamosa itself is free. 

The grooves are absent on surfaces from which muscles arise, as 
is seen on the occiput.' The squamosal groove is an apparent ex- 
ception to this conclusion. May it be said that the temporal muscle 
makes but little traction at the region of the groove ? 

The region of the asterion is quite commonly the seat of numerous 
closely disposed grooves which are deep and sharply defined. It 
will be observed that in the above examples the grooves are deepest 
where the skull is thick, as on the convex frontal bone and in the 
massive region of the asterion, and most shallow when the bone is 
the thinnest, as over the squamosal ; also that they may communi- 
cate with the diploic veins, as in the forehead, or even anastomose 
with an intra-cranial vein, as in the parieto-squamosal suture.' 

» No. 572. 

• 1 have observed a branched depression of unknown signific^ince above 
the nucha-mark in the skull of a Hindoo child four years of age. 

• For good examples of squamosal vessel-grooves see the following : 542, 
Miami ; 670, Chinese; 741, Mandan ; 1043, Pawnee; 1288, 1051, Hottentot; 
69, »87, 1283, 28, unnamed. 


Linear grooves of doubtful origin on the periphery. — A number of 
grooves are seen on the superior maxilla as it enters into the com- 
position of the outer wall of the orbit and of the boundaries of the 
spheno-maxillary sinus which closely resemble those caused by ves- 
sels. They are seen as fissures in the skull of the child and as 
linear depression in the skull of older subjects. Should they be 
accepted as vessel-grooves, the interesting question is raised : May 
not such irregular fissures as are here seen on the maxilla as it ex- 
tends upward toward the orbital wall be caused by the presence of 
vessels, and may not the irregular sinuate edges on the margin of a 
growing bone of the flat class be generally associated with such 
modifying causes? 

The malar bone occasionally exhibits a transverse linear groove 
upon the middle of the inner (temporal) surface. (See page 8.) 
It corresponds to the division between the masseteric and the tem- 
poral surfaces as seen in the child at three years, and to the line of 
the suture which so rarely divides the malar into two parts. 

Vessel-grooves on the encranial surface. — Among the grooves on 
the endocranial surface of the parietal bone which are of undoubte<l 
influence, the form of the surrounding parts, is the conspicuously 
broad and deep depression which lies directly back of the coronal 
suture. The constriction so commonly seen in the periphery in 
this portion of the skull cannot be disassociated with the position 
of these vessels. The nutritive processes appear to be at first stim- 
ulated by the presence of this line of vessels, but after union with 
the frontal bone it remains stationary and permits the adjacent por- 
tion of the skull to rise above it. At the antero-inferior angle of 
the parietal bone the groove is converted into a canal and the inner 
layer of the bone notably thickened. In crania which exhibit a 
tendency to thickening of the vitreous plate the vessel-grooves are 
deep, sharply defined, and resemble the tracks made by insect-larvse 
in old wood and in neglected books. The diploe is often exposed 
at the bottom of these grooves. Doubtless the diploic vessels freely 
unite with the vessels. 


Vessel-grooves within the nasal chamber. — ^The naslil bone is often 
marked with a groove which extends the entire length of the sur- 
face within the nasal chamber and lies near the maxilla-nasal 
suture. A similar groove is often found on the ascending process 
of the maxilla near and parallel to the sam3 suture. 

The temporal ridge, as it is crossed by the coronal suture, is occa- 
sionally depressed, or the line of the ridge may be said to exhibit a 
fault at the point of section of the coronal. This arrangement is 
seen oftener in the skulls of negroes than those of other races.^ 

The temporal ridges divide the dome of the cranium (t. e., the 
parts included in the sides and vertex of the brain case) into the 
natural divisions within which the characters of the minor details 
are distinctive. The vertex between the ridges is almost uniformly 
marked by more numerous diploic openings (apertursa emissarise). 
The vessel-grooves are absent. In some examples the strise which 
radiate from the tubera median ward and backward are retained 
and distinguish the adult cranium.' 

In narrow "ill-filled" skulls the temporal ridge may overlie the 
parietal tuber, as I have observed in a cranium of a convict, or 
greatly underlie it, as is seen in No. 77 of the College of Physicians 

Among the processes of bone which were noticed in the course of 
the examination may be mentioned the following: 

A number of small but stout spines, each measuring a millimetre 
or two millimetres in length, which were appended to the frontal 
portion of the temporal ridge and directed downward ; the spines 

* The foll<»wing nre the numbers of negro crania in A. N. S. showing this 
peculiarity: No. 912, to a marked degree; also 975, 110*2, 920, 994, 1094, 
918, 907, 902, 918. 

The ridge is well leen in No. 1800, Sandwich Islander ; 1064, German ; 
207, Puget Sound ; 133, Cossack ; 89. Adrian ; 99, Armenian (the four 
last named are in the College of Physicians). 

• The temporal ridges often limit the distribution of morbid processes and 
the changes due to old age. The diameter of the vertex measured between 
the two temporal ridges varies greatly in individuals. In tapeinocephalic 
and in all long, narrow crania the distance is smaller than in other types. 


were sligbtlj curved. Tbej were undoubtedly developed in the 
direction of the vertical fibres of tbe temporal muscle.^ 

Tbe pneumatic process of tbe occipital bone was met witb in 
six' instances. In six of tbese tbe process was on tbe left side. 

Tbe paroccipital process may be bent inward and flattened,' and 
in one instance was found to articulate on tbe left side witb tbe 

Regions of great density of bone structure. — Tbe disposition for 
some parts of tbe cranium to sbow dense ivory-like thickenings is 
very noticeable. Tbe causes which induce the vascular cancellous 
tissue to assume greater density witb diminution of blood-vessel 
supply would be interesting to trace. Four localities are named 
for the occurrence of this change — 1st, the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone; 2d, the inner or vitreous plate of the bones entering 
into the composition of the vertex;^ 3d, the margins of tbe jugular 
foramen, notably the anterior; 4th, occasionally in the interior 
of sinuses, as seen in the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses. 

The disposition to ivory-like density is often morbid (this prob- 
ably includes the third and fourth groups as given above), and 
may even be present in the vitreous plate of the vertex. Scarcely 
a cranium can be found in our dissecting-rooms in which solid 
nodules are not found in some part of the interior of the cal- 
varium, especially at the frontal portion on either side of the me- 
topic line. Many individuals exhibit dense, white, low eminences 
of the general internal surface at the region of tbe bregma. They 
are lozenge-shaped and measure four to six centimetres in diameter. 

^See No. 1271, North American Indian; No. 742, Mandan; No. 998, 

*No. 1229, Upsarooka; 20, Bengalee; 78, 85, Menominee; 204, Che- 
nook; 707, Seminole. 

*See skull of Alaskan in museum of Princeton College,' N. J. 

* No. 706, German. 

^ This is seen to be the case to a remarkable degree in the skull of an 
Esquimaux (No. 1554) in the Army Medical Museum. 


The formations as they exist in the sinuses are nodular and appar- 
ently lead up by easy grades to the ivory-exostoses recognized by 
the physician as distinctly pathological.^ 



It will be remembered that one of the objects in view in under- 
taking the study which is now completed was to ascertain the degree 
of correlation, if any existed, which could be traced between struct- 
ural peculiarities in the region of the moutl:^ of the nasal chamber, 
of the naso-pharynx, and other portions of the cranium. A laryn- 
gologist has an opportunity of taking measurements in the mouth, 
throat, and adjacent parts which is withheld from the general ob- 
server. It goes without saying that for genei&l craniological pur- 
poses it will be impossible for measurements within the nose and 
throat to be made. The contrast between any of these regions in 
]>atients is so great it was suggested that a series of observations 
might be of some importance. The following is an example of the 
kind of measurements which can be secured in the living subject: 

In a woman aged twenty -six, suffering from chronic nasal catarrh, 
it was found that the distance from the axis tubercle (which is very 
plainly seen when the velum is lifted) to the cutting edge of the 
right superior incisor at the median line was 8* 1"""; the distance 
from the vault of the naso-pharynx to the lower border of the ante- 
rior nasal aperture, 7' 7°*°*; the distance from the glabella to the 
post-remal prominence, 18"; the circumference of the head taken 
on the line of the parietal tubera was 54^ 

It will be noted in the above that the axo-incisorial measure- 
ment ends at the edge of the incisor. It is acknowledged that this 
is undesirable, since the inclination of the teeth is a variable quan- 
tity. Indeed, any point about the dental arches is subject to the 
same criticism, but does not apply with any greater force in this 

* For II general essay on hyperostosis in man and afiimil* pcj GtTvais 
Journal de Zoologio, 1876, p. 421. 


measurement than to other craniological lines into which the teeth 
may enter. It is also difficult to determine the anterior limit of the 
line extending from the vault of the naso-pharynz to the anterior 
nasal aperture (pharyngo-uarial line), for the reason that the depth 
of the soft parts covering the nasal aperture is variable; but such 
an ending is aot more inconstant than that of the auterior nasal 
spine, which is relied upon generally as a point from which meas- 
urements may be taken. The individual who furnished these 
measurements had a high basi-cranial angle. Indeed, it was im- 
|X)ssible to inspect th^ vault of the pharynx of this subject with 
satisfaction, since the anterior position of the body of the axis con- 
joining with the acute angle of the vault made it difficult to depress 
the mirror so as to obtain a satisfactory image of the space. 

In addition to the above the following observations were made: 
The lower jaw with marked outward deflection of the left angle; 
the antegonial depression marked ; the mentum high ; the bregmal 
depression marked; the post-coronal depression absent; the deep 
depression in the region of the obelion present; the para-tuberal 
and meso-Iarabdoidal eminences well developed. 

It is submitted that a series of measurements made on this simple 
scheme might yield interesting results. The material I have col- 
lected is insufficient for study at this time. 

The study of the skull in children often throws light upon the 
nature of morbid processes. In this connection I have special ref- 
erence to minor changes, some of them, indeed, so slight as to escape 
notice if the standards of comparison be those which the observer is 
usually expected to entertain — such, for example, if the gross 
changes recognized as cretinic, hydrocephalic, etc., be selected as 
basis for study. I allude more particularly to such appearances as 
would follow a delayed disappearance of the anterior fontanel, the 
result of which is a saucer-shaped concavity at the anterior portion 
of the vertex. Another peculiarity is an unduly marked convexity 
on either side of the sagittal depression. This need not be suffi- 
cient to constitute the natiform skull (see page 56), but to su{ 


with this variety a common interest, namely, a disposition to pre- 
mature disappearance of the sagittal suture associated with retarded 
ossification of the parietals, as a result of which they become unduly 

The third variety is confined to the anterior cranial segment — 
t. e,, a phase of deformation in which all i\ie peculiarities are in the 
frontal bone or in the bones of the face. The frontal eminences 
may be too near one another; the metopic suture may be here and 
there carinated; the muscular ridge at the anterior border of the 
temporal fossa may be unduly prominent; the inferior border of 
the orbit at the region of the union of the malar bone and the line 
over the infra-orbital canal may be roughened, etc. Many of these 
peculiarities are associated with errors in the shape of the mouth 
and the nasal chambers, and easily come within the range of ana- 
tomical studies which are suggested by clinical observations on 
catarrhal diseases of the respiratory mucous surfaces. 

Addendum. — The number of skulls stated on 8th line from bottom page 
29 refers to others than those in the collection of the Academy of National 





Angle, basi-cranial 84 

Antegonium 12 

Basi-cranial angle 34 

Bone itructure, great density of. 74 

Bones, processes of 78 

Bregma 61 

Bregmal depression. 55 

Chambers, nasal 86 

Choane 48 

Coronal depression 55 

Coronal suture 52 

Cranial segment, anterior 16 

Cranium, clinical notes of 75 

Depression, bregmal 55 

Depression, ^ronal 55 

Depression, post-coronnl 56 

Depression, pre-bregmal 55 

Depressions on vertex 55 

Deviations of septum 44 

Eminence, meso-coronul 50 

Eminence, meso-lambdoidal 54 

Eminence, metopic 54 

Eminence, para-tuberal 64 

Eminences and depressions of 

vertex 64 

Eminence, temporo- frontal 66 

Ethmoid bono 60 

Fissure, sphcno-mnxillary 11 

Foramina of skull 67 

Frontal bone 47 

Grooves 70 

Grooves, linear, of doubtful ori- 
gin.... -. 72 

Intertubera 67 

Jaw, lower 11 

Lambdoidul suture 63 

Linear grooves of doubtful ori- 
gin ..„ 72 

Longitudinal line 17 

Lower jaw 11 

Malar bone 6, 11 

Malo-maxillary suture 60 

Meto-coronal eminence 60 

M6so>lambdodial eminence 64 


Metopic eminence 64 

Middle turbinated bone 88 

Nasal chamber 86 

Nasal chamber, floor of 44 

Norma basilaris 15 

Obelion 52 

Para-tuberal eminence 54 

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid 

bone 42 

Post-bregma 52 

IPost-coronal depression 56 

Posterula 22 

Post-obelion 62 

Pre-bregmal depression ^ 55 

Processes of bones 78 

Process uncinate 50 

Ridges of vertex 54 

Sagittal suture 51 

Septum, deviation of 44 

Septum, nasal 42 

Skull, foramina of 67 

Spheno-maxillary fissure 11 

Spheno-turbinals 82 

Squumoso-mulnr series 16 

Sutures _ 02,06 

Suture, coronal 62 

Suture lambdoidal 63 

Suture, malo-maxillary 60 

Suture, sngittal 61 

Temporo-frontal eminence . 65 

Transverse line 16 

Turbinated bone, middle 38 

Uncinate process 60 

Vertex 60, 67 

Vertex, eminences and depres- 

sionsof 64 

Vertex, ridges of 64 

Vessel-grooves on endocranial 

surface 72 

Vessel -grooves on periphery 70 

Vessel -'grooves within nasal 

chamber 73 

Vomer 26,43 

Zygomatic arch 5 









rpu li^ 




Tills AVOHK 






















Thifl is Bimilnr to my Index to the Literature of the Spectroscope, 
published in the Miscellaneous Collections of the Smithsonian Institution, 
vol. XXXII, for 1888. 

All of the titles are given in full in the author-index ; but in the sub- 
ject-index, to save useless repetition, only the authors and the places 
where their works are to be found are given — except in the case of books. 

Applications of thermodynamics have been found, and kept, to the 
number of more than double the titles here given. They were omitted so 
as not to overload the index with matter of little or no use. But, of 
course, no titles have been left out which belong to the applications 
named in the table of contents. 

The work has been brought down to the middle of the year 1889. 

Alfred Tuckerman. 

Newport, R. I., 

July, 1890. 




I. Subject-Index 1 

Apparatus 1 

History 2 

Books 4 

General Papers in Periodicals 18 

Application of thermodynamics to — 

Affinity 22 

Astronomy 28 

Avogadro's Law 26 

Boiling Pointe 26 

Caoutchouc, (See Rubber.) 

Capillar}' Action 27 

Carnot's Theorem — 28 

Climate 28 

Cold 28 

Chemical Combination 86 

Compression 40 

Concussion 42 

Condensation and Contraction.- 42 

Correlation of Forces 48 

Density 43 

Diffusion 46 

Dissipation of Energy 46 

Dissociation 47 

Elasticity 60 

Electricity 62 

Energy 66 

Engines 67 

Entropy , 61 

Equations 61 

Evaporations 62 

Expansion 68 

Explosives 67 

Fluids 71 


I. Subject-Index — Continued. 

Force 72 

Friction 78 

Gases, (Kinetic Theorj- of) 76 

Hamilton's Principle 84 

Ice. (See Cold.) 
Integral. (See Equations.) 

Light -_ 84 

Liquids 84 

Mariotte's Law 86 

Molecules 86 , 

Outflow 89 

Pressure 90 

Priority 92 

Radiation 98 

Refrigeration. (See Cold.) 

Rubber 96 

SalU 98 

Saturated Vapors .— 99 

Second Proposition 90 

Sohds 100 

Solutions 101 

Stationary Motions 102 

Temperature 102 

Tension 105 

Virial 106 

Viscosity 106 

Vital Force 107 

Volume- - 109 

Work 110 

Zero, Absolute 112 

II. Author-Index, (with titles in 
ftill). 116 



By Alfred Tuokebuah. 


(For tall title* tee Indox of Authon.) 


1853. Bankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. (1853) 561. 

1855. Beaumont et Mayer. Comptes rendus, 40 (1865) 988 ; Ooamoa, 6 

(1855) 590 ; Dingler's J. 137 (1856) 73 ; Amer. J. SoL [2] 20 

(1856) 261 ; Jahresb. (1855; 30.— See Morin, Comptes rendus, 
42 (1856) 719 ; and Moigno, Cosmos, 7 (1856) 203. 

1858. Schinz (C). [Book.] Stuttgart: 1858. 8vo. 

1861. Dupr« (A.). Comptes rendus, 50 (1860) 588; Do. 52 (1861) 
1185; Do. 54 (1863) 907, 972, 1065. 

1873. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 77 (1873) 971. 

. Foster (G. C). Chem. News, 28 (1873) 173 ; Dingler's J. 210 

(1873) 176 ; Ber. chem. Ges. 6 (1873) 1386, Abs. ; Jahresb. 
(1873) 53. 

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. Hopkins. Rept. Brit Assoc. (1863) xlv ; Amer. J. Sci. [2] 19 

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. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4] 6 (1853) 143 ; Instit (1853) 382 ; 

Jahresb. (1853) 44 

. Eankine ( W. J. M.). Phil. Trans. (1853) 535 ; Edinb. Proc. 3 

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. . Phil. Mag. [4] 5 (1853) 6, 437. 

Reech. J. des sci. math^mat. (Liouville) 18 (1853) 357 ; Jahresb. 
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Regnault Comptes rendus, 36 (1853) 680 ; Aun. Phys. u. Chem. 
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Thomson ( W.). Edinb. Trans. 20 (1853) 475 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 9 

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1854. Helmholtz (H. von). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 91 (1854) 241.— See 

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1856. Baumgartner (G.). Tageblatt d. naturforsch. Ges. in Wien, 

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1866. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 11 (1856) 214, 281, 379, 433; 

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1867. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phvs. u. Chem. 100 (1857) 353; Phil. Mag. 

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1859. Baumgartner (G.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 38 (1859) 379. 

. Bosscha. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 108 (1859) 162. 

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1861. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 241. 
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1862. Cosa (Delia). Rend, di; Bologna, (1861-62) 101. 
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1863. Oazin (A.). Mem. Soc. Sci. nat. Seine et Oise, (1863) 1. 


1863. Claufliufl (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 120 (1863) 426 ; C's Ab- 
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. Dronke. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 119 (1863) 388, 583. 

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. Gill (J.). PhU. Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 109 ; 27 (1864) 84, 478 ; 28 

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. Hiiha (G. A). Cosmos, 22 (1863J 283, 734 ; Mondes, 4 (1864) 


. Saint-Robert. Cosmos, 22 (1863) 200. 

. Schmidt. Civil Ingenieur, 9 (1863) v, 1. 

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. Tyndall (J.). Phil. Mag. [4} 25 (1863) 368.— See W. Thomson, 

same vol., 429 ; Tait, same page ; Tyndall's reply, Do. 26 (1863) 

18154. Baumgartner (G.). Griinert's Archiv, 42 (1864) 211. 

. Buff (H.). Ann. Chem. u Pharm. 115 (1864) 306; Jahresb. 

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. Caligny. Instit. (1864) 30. 

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. . [4] 2 (1864) 185. 

[4] 3 (1864) 76. 

[4] 4 (1864) 66, 426. 



1864. Herepath (J. Bird). North British Rev. 40 (1864) 40.— See Rankine 

Phil. Mag. [4] 27 (1864) 313. 

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. Bauschinger. Z. Math. u. Phys. 10 ii (1865) 109. 

. Cantoni (C). Istit. Lombarb. rend. (1865) 78. 

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Cotterill (J. H.). Phil. Mag. [4] 29 (1865) 299. 

Dahlander. Oefversigt af forhandl. Stockholm, (1864); Ann. 
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. Mouline. Comptes rendus, 60 (1865) 24. 

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. Schroeder van dor Kolk (H. W.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 126 

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1866. Babinet. Comptes rendus, 63 (1866) 581, 662, 903. 

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1868. Burbury (S. H.). Comptes rendus, 67 (1868) 1117. 

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1869. Clausius (R.). Comptes rendus, 68 (1869) 1142. 
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1870. Cook (H. W.). Rept Brit. Assoc. (1870) 38.— See J. Croll. Phil. 

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. Rankine (W. J. M.). PhU. Trans. 160 (1870) 277 ; PhU. Mag. [4] 

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. Thomson (J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 142 (1870) 337 ; Ber. chem. 

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70 (1870) 1283; Do. 71 (1870) 270, 522; Jahresb. (1870) 75. 

1871. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 63 ii (1871) 526, 679 ; 

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. Clausius (R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 42 (1871) 1 ; Jahresb. (1871) 62. 

^ . Highton (H.). Chem. News, 28 (1871) 52, 165 ; Jahresb. (1871) 

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1872. Mayer (J. R.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 20 (1871-72) 55. 

1873. Berthelot. Bull. soc. chim. [2] 19 (1873) 485. 
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1873. Fatigati (H. Serrano y). N. Arch. ph. nat. 48 (1873) 262 ; Phil. 
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.. Norton (W. A.). Amer. J. Sci. [3] 5 (1873) 186; Jahresb. (1873) 

-. Osselin (A.). Comptes rendus, 77 (1873) 346. 

•. Phillips. Ann. J&cole normale, [2] 2 (1873) 1. 

1874 Challis. Phil. Mag. [4] 47 (1874) 25. 

. Ledieu (A.). Comptes rendus, 78 (1874) 30, 1345, 1393. 

. West (G.). Comptes rendus, 78 (1874) 1858. Observation par 

M. Wurz, m^me vol., 1400. 

1875. Him (G. A.). Comptes rendus, 81 (1875) 130. 

1876. Berthold (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 157 (1876) 342 ; Jahresb. 

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. Him (G. A.). Comptes rendus, 82 (1876) 52. 

. Joule (J. P.). Kept. British Assoc. (1876) 276 ; Nature, 14 (1876) 

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(1877) 1 ; Do. (1878) 102; Do. (1879) 36. 

. Puschl (C). Ber Wiener Akad. 73 ii (1876) 51. 

. Srily (C). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 160 (1876) 435 ; Jahresb. (1877) 

87; Phil. Mag. [5] 2 (1876) 254. 

1877. Berthelot Ann. de I'ficole norm. [2] 6 (1877) 63 ; Ber. chem. 

Gee. 10 (1877) 897, 900; Comptes rendus, 84 (1877) 407, 477; 
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. BolUmann (L.). Ber. Wiener Akad. 75 ii (1877) 62, 78 ii (1878) 

7 ; Jahresb. (1877) 87. 

'•^ X Comptes rendus, 84 (1877) 442, 491 ; Jahresb. (1877) 


1877. R^sal (H.) Comptes rendus, 84 (1877) 975. 

. Ritter (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 160 (1877) 454 ; n. P. 2 (1877) 


1878. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Trans. 169 (1878) 365 ; Proc Roy. Soc. 27 

(1878) 38 ; Jahresb. (1878) 63 ; Ber. chem. Ges. 11 (1878) 411. 


-. Klingel. . Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 158 (1878) 160.— See H. L. Bauer, 
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.. Puschl (C). Ber. Wiener Akad. 77 ii (1878) 471. 

1880. Rowland (Henry A.). Proc. Amer. Acad. n. s. 7 (1879-80) 75- 
200 ; Do. 8 (1880-81) 38-45 ; Amer. J. Sci. [3] 19 (1880) 319 ; 
Ann. Phys. u. Chem., Beiblatter, 4 (1880) 713-15 ; Jahresb. 
(1880) 83. 

. Waltenhofen (A. von). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 9 (1880) 81 ; 

Ber. Wiener Akad. 80 ii (1880) 137; Jahresb. (1880) 83. 

. Beketoff (N.). Ber chem. Ges. 13 (1880) 2404. 

1881. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. Wiener Akad. 84 ii (1881) 136. 
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1882. Haga (H.). Arch, neerland. 17 (1882) 261-288 ; Jahresb. (1882) 

94 ; Ann. Phys. u. Chem. (1882) 1 ; Amer. J. Sci. [3] 23 (1882) 

. Walter (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 16 (1882) 500. 

1883. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. Wiener Akad. 88 ii (1883) 861 ; Jahresb. 
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. Budde (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 20 (1883) 161. 

. Meyer (Lothar). Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. 218 (1883) 1 ; Ann. 

Phys. u. Chem., Beiblatter, 7 (1883) 520 ; Chem. News, 47 (1883) 
264; Jahresb. (1883) 112. 

. Reynolds (O.). Nature, 29 (1883) 112. 

1884. Ledieu (A.). Comptes rendus, 98 (1884) 69. 

s Ostwald (W.). J. prakt. Chemie, [2] 29 (1884) 88^ 
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1884. Webster (A. G.). Proc. Araer. Acad. 12 (1884) 490 ; Phil. Mag. 

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1885. Ramsay (W.) and Youug (S.). Rept. British Assoc. (1885) 928. 
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(1886) 33, 135 ; Do. 22 (1886) 32 ; Nature, 34 (1886) 138.— See 
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1886. Ayrton (W. E.) and Perry (J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 255; 
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1887. Cowper (E. A.) and Anderson (W.). Rept. British Assoc. (1887) 

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. Thomson (J. J.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 42 (1887) 297 ; Beiblatter, 12 

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. Wald (F.). Z. physikal. Chemie, 1 (1887) 408. 

1888. Braun (R). Ann. Phyd. u. Chem. 33 (1888) 337. 

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1888. Cowper (C.) and Anderson (W.). Rept British Assoc (1888) 562. 

. Deventer (C. M.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 92-97 ; B^blatter, 12 

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Helmholtz (H. von). Memoirs. Vol. i. Translated ander the 
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Kalischer (S.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 531. 

Ostwald (W.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 127-148. 

Pickering (S. U.). Proc Chem. Soc. Nov. 15, 1888 ; Chem. News, 
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Roozeboom (H. W. B.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 449-482. 

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1820. Berzelius (J.). Ann. chim. et phys. 14 (1820) 363. 

1824. Avogadro (A.). Memd. Accad. Torino, 28(1824) 1 ; Do. 29 (1825) - 

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1862. Berthelot et L. P^n de Saint-Oilles. Ann. chim. et phjs. [3] 66 
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1866. Deville (H. Sainte-Claire). Phil. Mag. [4] 32 (1866) 365. 

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1874. Wright (C. R. Alder). Phil. Mag. [4] 48 (1874) 401. 
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1879. Muir (M. M. Pattisou). Phil. Mag. [5] 8 (1879) 181. 

1882. Wright (C. R. Alder). Phil. Mag. [5] 13 (1882) 265 ; 14 (1882) 
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1886. Boltzmann (L.). Ber Wiener Akad. 94 ii (1886) 1 ; Phil. Mag. 

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1887. Meyer (L.). Phil. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 504, translated and comm. 

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1799. La Place. M^canique celeste. Paris, Tomes i et ii (1799) ; T. in 
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1841. Draper (J. W.). Phil. Mag. [3] 19 (1841) 195. 

1852. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 4 (1852) 358. 

1854. Thomson ( W.). Phil Mag. [4] 8 (1854) 409 ; Comptes rendus, 39 
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1855. . Phil. Mag. [4] 9 (1855) 36 ; Edinb. Trans. 21 (1857) 


1860. Waterston (J. J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 19 (1860) 338. 

1861. Sasae (M.). Comptes rendus, 52 (1861) 976. 


1862. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 23 (1862) 158. 

1863. Challis (Prof.). Phil. Mag. [4] 25 (1863) 460. 

. Mayer. Phil. Mag. [4] 25 (1863) 241, 387. 417. [Translation of 

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1867. Croll (J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 34 (1867) 449. 

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1870. Zoliner (F.). Phil. Mag. [4] 40 (1870) 313 ; 46 (1873) 290, 343. 

1872. Hall (M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 43 (1872) 476, from Monthly Notices, 
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1874. Crookes (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 48 (1874) 65, from Proc. Roy. Soc. 

22 (1874) 37. 

1875. Chase (P. E.). Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc 14 (1874-5) 141-147. 
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1876. Croll (J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 2 (1876) 241 ; 6 (1878) 1. 

. Loschmidt (J.). Ber. Wiener Akad. 73 ii (1876) 128, 366; 

Jahresb. (1876) 63. 

1877. Preston (S. T.). Phil. Mag. [5] 4 (1877) 206, 364. 

1878. Preston (S. Tolver). Phil. Mag. [5] 5 (1878) 117, 297. 

1879! . Nature, 19 (1878-79) 460-2, 555 ; 20 (1879) 


. Ritter (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 5 (1878) 405, 543 ; 6 

(1879) 135; 7 fl879) 157, 304; 8 (1879) 157; 10 (1880) 130; 
11 (1880) 332, 978; 12 (1881) 445; 13 (1881) 360; 14 (1881) 
61 ; IB (1882) 166; 17 (1882) 322; 18 (1883) 488; 20 (1883) 
137, 897. 

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1880. Budde (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 10 (1880) 553. 

. Chase (P. E.). Phil. Mag. [5] 10 (1880) 70, from Proc Amer.. . 

Philos. Soc. April 16, 1880. 

1882. Thomson (W.). Edinb. Proc. 11 (1880-82) 8 


1882. Faye, Phil. Mag. [5] 14 (1882) 400, from Cuiuptes rendus, 95 
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. Hirn (G. A.). Comptes rendus, 95 (1882) 812 ; Phil. Mag. [5] l4 

(1882) 478. 

1883. Cook (E. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 15 (1883) 400. Reply by Sir W. 
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1883. Langley (S. P.). Phil. Mag. [5] 15 (1883) 153-183, coram, by 
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1886. Siemens (W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 453 ; Ber. Berliner Akad. 

13 (1886) 1. 

1887. Fisher (O.). Phil. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 145. 


1824. Avogadro (A.). Mem. Accad. Torino, 28 (1824) 1 ; Do. 29 (1825) 
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1869. Naumanu (Alex.). Bor. chem. Ges. 2 (1869) 690; Phil. Mag. [4] 

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1870. Thompson (J.). Ber. chem. Ges. 3 (1870) 828, 829 ; Z* f. Chem. 

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1884. Krebs (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 22 (1884) 295. 

1886. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 94 ii (1886) 613 ; Phil. 
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« (C). Ber. chem. Ges. 20 (1887) 1433 ; Beiblatter, 12 (1888) 



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1825. Bostock (J.). Annals of Phil. n. s. 9 (1825) 196. 

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1857. Kopp (H.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 49 (1857) 338. 

I860. . Phil. Trans. 150 (1860) 257 ; Proc. Roy. 8oc May 3, 

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1861. Dufour (L.). Phil. Mag. [4] 22 (1861) 16., Abs. from Comptes 
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1863. Burgess (J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 25 C1863) 29. 

1864. AUuard (M.). Ann. chim. et phys. [4] (1864) 243. 

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1869. Tomlinson (C). Phil. Mag. [4] 37 (1869) 161. 

1870. Kundt (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. No. 7, 1870 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 

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1871. Boltzmann (L.). Phil. Mag. [4] 42 (1871) 393. See Burden, Do. 

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1874. Clarke (P. W.). Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. 12 (1874) 272; 14 
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1876. Moutier (J.). Instit. (1876) 76, 84, 165 ; Jahresb. (1876) 64. 

1879. Wiebe (H. F.). Ber. chem. (Jes. 11 (1879) -788. 

1885. Carnelly (T.). Melting and Boiling Point Tables. Vol. i. Lon 
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1887. Puschl (C). Monatshefte f. Chemie, 8 (1887) 338 ; Beiblatter, 12 

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1888. (Jerber (P.). Nov. Act Leop. Kat. Akad* 52 (1888) No. 3, p. 1 03 ; 

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1852. Joule (J. P.) and Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 4 (1852) 481 ; 
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1857. Wolf (C). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 49 (1857) 230. 

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1869. Beer (A.). Einleitung in die mathematische Theorie der Elasticitat 
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1862. CroU (J.). Rept. British Assoc. (1862) ii, 21. 

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1851. Smyth (C. P.). Edinb. Phil. J. [4] 51 (1851) 114; Jahresb. 
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1793. Wistar (C). Amer. Phil. Soc. Trans. 3 (1793) 125 ; 4 (1799) 72 

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•. Sooresby (W.). Mem. Wernerian Soc. of Edinburgh, 2 (1817) ii, 1 ; 
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-no. Ann. chim. et phys. 9 (1818) 305. 



1820. Laplace (M. de). Ann. chim. et phys. 13 (1820) 410; 14 (1820) 

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1823. La Rive (A. de) et Marcet (J.). Ann. chim. et phys. 23 (1823) 


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1829. Avogadro (A.). Mem. Accad. Torino, 33 (1829) 49. 

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1842. Agassiz (L.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 6 (1842) 465, 469 ; 7 

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1848. Martins (Ch.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 22 (1848) 496. 
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1849. Boussingault Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 25 (1849) 363. 
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1850. Thomson (W.). Edinb. Proc. (1850) 267 ; Phil. Mag. [3] 37 

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1851. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 81 (1851) 168 ; Phil. Mag. 

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1852. Assmann. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 85 (1852) 1. 

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1854. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 8 (1854) 357. 
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1858. Forbes (J. D.). Phil. Mag. [4] 16 (1858) 544. 

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. Tyndall (J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 16 (1858) 333; Phil. Trans. (1858) 

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1860. Martins (Ch.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 58 (1860) 208. 

Outi. Comptes rendu8» Dec 24, 1860 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 


1861. Edlund (K). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 114 (1861) 13.— See Caaosiiw, 

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. Faraday (M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 146, abs. from Proc Roy. 

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. Moseley (H.). Phil. Mag. [4] 23 (1862) 72, abs. from Proc. Roy. 

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. Rudorff (Fr.). Phil. Mag. [4] 23 (1862) 560, abs. from MonaUber. 

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1863. Clausius (R.) Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 120 (1863) 431. 

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. Herschel (J. F. W.). Proc. Roy. Soc. June 18, 1863 ; PhU. Mag. 

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1864. Croll (J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 27 (1864) 380. 

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-. Martins (Ch.) et Chancel (G.). Ann. chim. et phys- [4] 26 (1872) 

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.. Muller (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 152 (1874) 476. 

.. Plaff (P.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 155 (1874) 169, 825 ; PhU. Mag. 
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1875. Moutier (J.). Bull. soc. philomat [6] 12 (1875) 38 ; 13 (1876) 60. 
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1878. Moutier (J.). Bull. soc. philom. [7] 3 (1878) 78. 

1879. Fischer (O.). Phil. Mag. [5] 7 (1879) 381.* 

. Hagenbach (J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n: F. 8 (1879) 666 ; 10 

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. Koch (K. R.) und Klocke (Fr.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 8 

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1880. Carnelly. Ber. chem. Ges. 13 (1880) 2230. 

. Forel (F. A.). Phil. Mag. [5] 9 (1880) 305 ; Comptes rendus^ 

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1881. Butlerow (A.). Bull. St. Petersbourg Acad. 27 (1881) 274; 

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. Koch (K. R.) und Klocke (Fr.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 14 

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. Tommasi (D.). Phil. Mag. [5] 13 (1882) 75; Comptes rendus, 93 

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. WuUner (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. [2] 13 (1881) 105.— See 

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. Kold6ek (F.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 15 (1882) 88. 

. Raoult (F. M.). Z. physikal. Chemie, S 


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. Vieille. Comptes rendus, 96 (1883) 116. 

1884. Cailletet Phil. Mag. [5] 19 (1884) 65. 

. Petterason (O.). Phil. Mag. [5] 17 (1884) 156, from Amer. J. ScL 

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. Turpin (G. 8.) and Warrington (A. W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 18 (1884) 


. Lommel (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. P. 22 (1884) 614. 

. Pierre (V.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 22 (1884) 143. 

1885. CroU (J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 19 (1885) 30. 

. Koch (K. R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 25 (1885) 438. 

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. Wroblewski (S. von). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 25 (1885) 371. 

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'. Eyckmann (J. F.). Z. phys. Chem. 6 (1888) 964. 
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•ff-Orubs (R.). Berlin, 1888, 4to, v, 150 pp. 




1811. Bostock (J.). Nicholson's Jour. 28 (1811) 280. Reply by Dalton , 
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. Hall (M.). Nicholson's Jour. 30 (1811) 193. 

1817. Gay-Lussac. Ann. chim. et phys. 1 (1817) 214. 

1819. Berzelius (J.). Ann. chim. et phys. 11 (1819) 58, 113, 225. 

. Thenard. Ann. chim. et phys. 10 (1819) 335; 11 (1819) 85, 208. 

1821. Navier. Ann. chim. et phys. 17 (1821) 357. 

. Wollaston (J.). Ann. chem. et. phys. 16 (1821) 45. 

1836. Hess. Ann. chim. et phys. 61 (1836) 331. 

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1841. Dulong and Hess. Phil. Mag. [3] 19 (1841) 19, 178. 

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1844. Andrews (T.). Phil. Mag. [8] 25 (1844) 93 ; Amer. J. Sci. 46 

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. Favre et Silbermann. Comptes rendus, 18 (1844) 695 ; 20 (1845) 

1565, 1734; 21 (1845) 944; 22 (1846) 483, 823, 1140; 23 
(1846) 199, 411; 24 (1847) 1081 ; 26 (1848) 595; 27 (1848) 
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1845. Hess. Comptes rendus, 20 (1845) 190. 

1846. Joule (J. P.). Comptes rendus, 22 (1846) 256. 

1847. Matteucci. Arch, de Geneve, 4 (1847) 375. 
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1848. Andrews (T.). Phil. Mag. [3] 32 (1848) 321, 428. 

1849. . Kept. British Assoc. (1849) 63. 

1851. Joule (J. P.). Comptes rendus, 33 (1851) 11. 


1851. Woods (T.). Phil. Mag. [4] 2 (1851) 268 ; 3 (1852) 43, 299 ; 4 

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1852. Andrews (T.). Phil. Mag. [4] 4 (1852) 497.-See reply by Dr. 

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. Favre (P. A.) et Silbermann (J. T.). Adq. chira. et phys. [3] 34 

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. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4] 3 (1852) 481 ; 5 (1853) 1 ; Instit. 

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1853. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 5 (1853) 6. 

1854 Wittwer. Phil. Mag. [4] 7 (1854) 528, abs. from Comptea rendus, 
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1856. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4J 12 (1856) 155, 321. 

. Woods (T.). Phil. Trans. (1856) ; Proc. Roy. 8oc. 8 (1856-7) 211. 

1858. Kirchboff (Q.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 103 (1858) 203. 
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1859. Raoult. Comptes rendus, 49 (1859) 81 ; Instit. (1859) 230 ; Jahresb. 

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1860. Cooke (J. P., Jr.). Amer. J. Sci. April, 1860 ; Phil. Mag. [5] 9 

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. Deville (H. Sainte-Claire). Comptes rendus, 50 (1860) 534, 584.— 

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1861. Mann. Z. Math. u. Phys. (1861) 72. 

1862. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 116 (1862) 72 ; C.'s Abhandl. 

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> ■ 

^ «-^-*v Mifi^Davy. Comptes rendus, 54 (1862) 1103; Instit. (1862) 

" ' Arch. ph. nat. 14 (1862) 402. 

Bt). Edinb. Proc. 4 (1857-62) 616. 


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1864. Schroder van der Kolk. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 122 (1864) 439, 

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1865. Berthelot Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 6 (1865) 290, 292, 329, 442. 

. Raoult (F. M.). Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 2 (1865) 317 ; 4 (1865) 

392.— SeeFavre, Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 40 (1865) 293 ; Jahreeb. 

(1865) 101. 

1866. Brodie (B. C). Phil. Trans. 156 (1866) 781 ; PhU. Mag. [4] 32 

(1866) 227 ; Proc Roy. Soc. May 3, 1866. 

. Dupr6. Comptes rendus, 62 (1866) 791. 

. Gill (J.). PhiL Mag. [4] 32 (1866) 420. 

. Harcourt (A. Vernon) and Esson (W.). PhiL Trans. 156 (1866) 

193; 157(1867)117. 

1867. Berthelot. Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 12 (1867) 122 ; Comptes rendos, 
64 (1867) 413; J. de Pharra. 5(1867)336; Jahresb. (1867) 74. 

. Harbord (J. B.). Phil. Mag. [4] 34 (1867) 106. 

. Schroder van der Kolk. Ann. Phys. n. Chem. 131 (1867) 277, 

408 ; PhiL Mag. [4] 36 (1868) 433 ; Z. f. Chemie (1868) 188 ; 
Jahresb. (1867) 74. 

1868. Berthelot. Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 18 (1868) 5. 

1871. . Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 22 (1871) 134; PhiL Mag. [4] 42 

(1871) 152 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. April 27, 1871. 

1873. . Comptes rendus, 76 (1873) 1106. 

. . Comptes rendus, 77 (1873) 24. 

. Moutier (J.). Comptes rendus, 76 (1873) 365 ; PhiL Mag. [4] 45 

(1873)236; Jahresb. (1873) 110; Chem. CentralbL (1873) 382 

1874. Berthelot Comptes rendus, 78 (1874) 162, 1670 ; 79 (1874) 1242. 

1875. Markownikoff. Comptes rendus, 81 (1875) 668, 728 et 776. 

. Moutier (J.). Comptes rendus, 80 (1875) 40 ; PhiL Mag. [4] 49- 

(1875) 154. 

1876. . BulL soc pbUora. [6] 13 (1876) 51. 



1877. Berthelot. Ann. de Tficole norm. [2] 6 (1877) 63 ; Ber. chem. 
Ges. 10 (1877) 897, 900 ; Comptes rendus, 84 (187/) 407, 477, 
1408, 1467 ; 85 (1877) 651, 919. 

. Maumen6 (E.). Comptes rendus, 85 (1877) 914, 1026. 

. Brodie (B. C). Phil. Trans. 167 (1877) 35. 

. Moutier (J.). Bull. Soc. philora. [7] I (1877) 39. 

. Wright (C. A.). Nature, 16 (1877) 377 ; Kept. British Assoc. 

(1877) 1 ; Ber. chem. Ges. 11 (1878) 1218. 

1878. Berthelot Comptes rendus, 86 (1878) 628; Ber. chem. Ges. 11 

(1878) 365. 

.. Hood (J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 6 (1878) 371 ; 8 (1879) 121. 
.. Moutier (J.). Bull. soc. philom. [7] 2 (1878) 60. 
-. Phipson (T. L.). Comptes rendus, 86 (1878) 1196. 

1879. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 89 (1879) 119 ; Do. 90 (1880) 1511 ; 
91 (1880) 256. 

. Moutier (J.). Bull. soc. philora. [7] 3 (1879) 31. 

. Naquet ( A.\ Moniteur scieutif. Nov. 1878, Mars et Avril, 1879 ; 

Phil. Matr. [5] 7 (1879) 418. 

1880. Berthelot. Comptes reiulue, 90 (1880) 1511 ; 91 (1880) 701. 
. Beketoff (N.). Ber. chem. Ges. 13 (1880) 2404. 

1881. Carnelly (T.). Phil. Mag. [5] 11 (1881) 28. 

1882. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 94 (1882) 916, 1619. 

. Helmholtz (H. v.). Ber. d. Berliner Akad. (1882) 22, 825; 

Jahresb. (1882) 134. 

. Schroder (H.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. P. 15 (1882) 636. 

1883. Berthelot. Comptes rendus. 96 (1883) 1186. 

, Boltzmann (L.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. SS n (1883) 861 ; Ann. 

Phys. u. Chem. [2] 22 (1884) 39 ; Jahresb. (1884) 151. 

'. Helmholtz (H. v.). Ber. d. Berliner Akad. (1883) 647; Jahresb. 
(1883) 108. 

% Laurie (A..P.); Phil. Mag. [5] 15 (1883) 42. 


1883. Mackey (W. M'D.). Phil. Mag. [5] 16 (1883) 429. 

1884. Guthrie (F.). Phil. Mag. [5] 18 (1884) 495. 

. Hood (J. J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 17 (1884) 352. 

. Thomson (J. J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 18 (1884) 233. 

1885. Hartley (W. N.). Phil. Mag. [5] 19 (1885) 55. 

. Hood (J. J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 20 (1885) 323 ; Ber. chem. Ges. 18 

(1885) R. 519, 653; Jahresb. (1885) 117. 

1886. Becker (G. F.). Amer. J. Sci. [3] 31 (1886) 120 ; Ber. chem. Ges. 

19 (1886) Ref. 195. 

1887. Armstrong (H. E.). Phil. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 73. 

. Ramsay and Young. Chem. News, 56 (1887) 18 ; Beiblatter, 12 

(1888) 36, abs. 

. Urech (F.). Ber. chem. Ges. 20 (1887) 56. 

. Landero et Prieto. Comptes rendus, 103 (1886) 934 ; Beiblatter, 

12 (1888) 7, abs. 

. Fitzgerald (G. F.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 42 (1887) 216 ; Beibliitter, 12 

(1888) 33. 

1888. Parker (J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 25 (1888) 406. 

•. Pickering (S. U.). Proc. Chem. Soc. Nov. 15, 1888 ; Chem. News, 
58 (1888) 262. 


1825. BerthoUet (C. L.). Annals of Phil. n. s. 9 (1825) 184, abs. from 
Mem. Soc. Arcueil, 2 (1825) 42. 

1851. Rankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Jour. 51 (1851) 128. 

1853. Koosen. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 89(1853) 437 ; Jahresb. (1853) 37. 

1857. Joule (J. P.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 8 (1857) 564 ; Ann. chim. et phys. 
[3] 52 (1857) 120. 


1858. Joule (J. p.). Phil. Trans. (1859) 133 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. 9 (1858) 

1862. Thomson (W.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 64 (1882) 504 ; Edinb. 
Trans. 20 (1862) 1. 

. Tschermak (G.). Ber d. Wiener Akad. 44 ii (1862) 137, 141. 

1863. Clausius (R.). Comptes rendus, 56 (1863) 1115.— See Dupr6, same 
vol. 960. 

-. Dupr^. Comptes rendus, 56 (1863) 960. — See Clausius, same vol. 

-. . Comptes rendus, 57 (1863) 774. 

1864. . Comptes rendus, 58 (1864) 539.— See Do. 59 (1864) 490, 

665, 705, 768. 

1872. Amagat (£. H.). Comptes rendus, 75 (1872) 479 ; Ann. chim. et 
phys. [4] 28 (1872) 274 ; 29 (1873) 246. 

1877. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 84 (1877) 477. 
. Heath (J. M.). Phil. Mag. [5] 4 (1877) 14. 

1878. Amagat (E. H.). Comptes rendus, 87 (1878) 432. 
1880. Roth (F.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 11 (1880) 1. 

1882. Sarrau (E.). Comptes rendus, 94 (1882) 639 ; Phil, Mag. [5] 13 

(1882) 306. 

1883. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 96 (1883) 1186. 
1886. Amagat (E. H.). Comptes rendus, 103 (1886) 429. 

1887. . Comptes rendus, 105 (1887) 1120. 

. Isambert (F.). Ann. chim. et phys. [7] 11 (1887) 538. 

. Tait (P. G.). Edinb. Proc. Dec. 19, 1877 ; Nature, 36 (1887-88) 


1888. Amagat (E. H.). Comptes rendus, 107 (1888) 522. 

% Puschi (P.). Wiener Anzeiger, (1888) 123; Ber. d. Wiener. 
Akad. 96 ii, (1888) 1028. 


. Rudoltf-Griibs (K.). Compreesioua-Kaltemaechinea. 4u>. Berlin 
1888. V, 150 pp. 
[See also Condeiisatbn, and Pressure.] 


1869. Mayer(A.M.). Proc. American Assoc 18(1869)64. [Waterfalls.] 

1870. Hageubach (E.). Phil. Mag. [4] 40 CI870) 462, abs. from Ann. 

Phys. a. Chem. do. 7, 1870. 

1873. Ledieu (A.). Comptes rendua, 77 (1873) 94, 163, 260, 325, 414. 

455, 517 ; Jahresb. (1873) 51. 

1874. Tresca. Nature, 10 (1874) 400. 


1827. Ivory (J.). Phil. Mag. n. s. I (1827) 89, 165. 

1844. Joule (J. P.). Proc Roy. Soc 5 (184.3-50), abs. ; Phi!. Trans. 

(1844) 1 ; Phil. Mag. [3] 25 (1844) 1 ; 26 (1845) 369. 
1861. Clausiue (R.). Anu. Phys. u. Chem. 114 (1861) 37.— See E. 

Edluod, Ann, Phys, u. Chem,, same vol., 13, 

1863. . Comptes reiidus, 56 (186.3) 111.5. 

1879. Cbappuis (P.). Ann. Phya. u. Chem. n. F. 8(1879) 1 ; Nachtrag, 


1881. Moser (J.). Ann. Phyt u. Chem. [2] 14 (18«1) 62. 

188-2. Wiedenmnn (E.). Ann. Phys. n. Cbaia.l^#, 17 0^82) 98S. 

l'^87. Bimie(8.). Bnraeil deetr»vaiizdiimi^gQ|JP^i;y»jliH^TC 



1836. Melloni. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 37 (1836) 486, 39 (1836) 31 ; from 
Ann. chim. et phys. 69 (1836) 418. 

1847. Seguin. Comptes rendus, 25 (1847) 420 ; Cosmos, 2 (1853) 568. 

1848. Goodman (J.). Phil. Mag. [3] 32 (1848) 172 ; from Manchester 

Soc. Mem. 8 (1848) 1 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 2 (1851) 498 ; abs. from 
Proc. Roy. Soc May 22, 1851 ; Rept. Brit. Assoc. (1848) 53.— 
See Tyndall, Phil. Mag. [4] 3 (1852) 127. 

1855. Thomson ( W.). Edinb. J. [2] 1 (1855) 90 ; Comptes rendus, 40 
(1855) 1197; Jahresb. (1855) 25. 

1858. Maason. Ann. chira. et phys. [3] 53 (1858) 257. 

1864. Seguin. Cosmos, 26 (1864) 296. 

1870. Heath (J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 40 (1870) 51. 


1806. IWton (J.). Nicholson's Jour. 13 (1806) 377 ; 14 (1806) 128. 

1811. Gay-Lussac. Ann. de Chimie, 80 (1811) 218. 

1812. Grotthuss. Ann. de. Chimie, 82 (1812 (34, from Schweigger's Jour. 

f. Chemie, 3 (1812) 219 ; Nicholson's J. 35 (1813) 30. 

1820. Berzelius et Dulong. Ann. chim. et phys. 15 (1820) 386. 

1822. Despretz ( Ce's.). Ann. chim. et phys. 21 (1822) 143. 

1825. Hallstrom (G. G.). Ann. chim. et phys. 28 (1825) 56 ; Annals of 
Phil. n. s. 9 (1825) 155, abs. from Stockholm Trans. (1823). 

^'Tory (J.). PhU. Mag. n. s. 1 (1827) 89, 165. 

I (J.). Ann. chim. et phys. 50 (1832) 170. 


1833. Mitscherlich (E.). Ann. chim. et phys. 55 (1833) 5. 

1838. Bineau (A.). Ann. chim. et phye. [2] 68 (1838) 416 ; [3] 18 (1846) 

1845. Regnault (V.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 14 (1845) 211. 

1847. Southern (J.). Phil. Mag. [3] 30 (1847) 113. 

1851. Wateraton (J. J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 2 (1851) 565 ; Kept. Brit Assoc 
(1852) II, 2; Phil. Trans. (1852) 83. 

1853. Potter. Phil. Mag. [4] 6 (1853) 161 ; 23 (1862) 52. 

. Eankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. 20 (1853) 475; PhiL Mag. 

[4] 9 (1855) 523; Jahresb. (1855) 24 

1854. . Edinb. Trans, 21 (1854) 63; 24 (1857) 57 ; 

PhU. Mag. [4] 8 (1854) 409 ; 9 (1855) 36 ; Comptes rendus, 39 
(1854) 529. 

1856. Deville (H. Sainte-Claire). Phil. Mag. [4] 11 (1856) 144. 

1859. Rankine (\V. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 18 (1859) 316. 

. Challis. Phil. Mag. [4] 17 (1859) 401. 

1860. Deville (H. Sainte-Claire) et Troost (L.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 

58 (1860) 257 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 19 (1860) 207, abs. 

. Fairbairn (W.). Phil. Trans. 150 (1860) 185. 

. and Tate (T.). Proc. Roy. Soc. May 10, 1860 ; PhU. 

Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 230. 

1861. Waterston (J. J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 401. 

1864. Phipson (T. L.). Phil. Trans. (1864) 1 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. 13 
(1863-64) 240, abs. 

. Rankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. 23 (1864) 147. 

1865. Edmonds (T. R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 29 (1865) 169 ; 30 (1865) 1. 
. Wanklyn (A.). Phil. Mag. [4] 29 (1865) 111. 

1866. Deville (H. St. Claire). Comptes rendus, 62 (1866) 1157; PhiL 

Mag. [4] 32 (1866) 387, abs. 


1866. Cahoure.* Comptes rendu8,63(1866) 16; Phil. Mag. [4] 32(1866) 
388, abs. 

1870 Heath (J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 39 (1870) 347. 

1874. Pu3chl (C). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 69 ii (1874) 324; Jahresbcr 
(1874) 59. 

1879. Fromme (C). Ann. Phya. u. Chem. n. F. 8 (1879) 352; Phil. 
Mag. [5] 8 (1879) 421. 

•. Gibba (J. W.). Amor. J. Sci. [3] 18 (1879) 1. 

1880. Winkelmann (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 9 (1880) 208, 358. 
. . Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 11 (1880) 474. 

1881. Gerosa. Atti Accad. Lincei, [3] 10 (1880-81) 75. 
. Schoop (P.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 12 (1881) 550. 

1882. Babo (L. von) und Warburg (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 17 

(1882) 390 ; Phil. Mag. [5] 14 (1882) 51 ; Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 
77 II (1882) 509. 

. Goldstein (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 15 (1882) 277 ; Phil. 

Mag. [5] 14 (1882) 402 ; Ber. d. Berliner Akad. (1881) 876. 

. Haga (H.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 15 (1832) 1. 

1883. Bender (C). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 20 (1883) 560. 

1884. Warburg (E.) und Sachs (J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 22 

(1884) 518. 

1885. Amagat (E. H.). Comptes rendus, 100 (1885) 633. 

1887. Scott (A.). Edinb. Proc. 14 (1887) 410. 

. Vicentini (G.) e Omodei (D.). Atti Accad. Torino, 23 (1887) 8. 

1888. Bott (W.). Jour. Chem. Soc Dec. 6, 1888 ; Chem'. News, 68 

(1888) 288. * 

-. Fuchs (K.). Repert. d. Physik, 24 (1888) 298. 



1840. Melloni. Ann. Phys. u. Chera. 49 (1840) 577 ; 53 (1841) 47. 
1866. Dupr6. Coraptes rendus, 62 (1866) 1072. 
1870. Thomsen (J.). Ber. chem. Gea. 3 (1870) 829. 

1878. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 4 (1878) 341 ; Phil. 

Mag. [5] 6 (1878) 237.— See Preston (S. T.), Nature, 17 (1877- 
78) 31, 202. Jahresb. (1878) 64. 

1879. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 78 ii (1879) 733 ; Jahresb. 

(1879) 90. 

1884. Kirchhoff (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 21 (1884) 563. 

1887. Burbury (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 24 (1887) 471 ; 25 (1887) 129. 

1888. Gouy et Chaperon. Ann. chim. et phys. [6] 13 (1888) 120. 

. Obermayer (A. v.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 81 ii (1880) 1102 ; 85 

II (1883) 147 ; 87 ii (1884) 188 ; 96 ii (1888) 546. 

. Schlidlowsky (F.). Phil. Mag. [5] 25 (1888) 78, abs. from J. Soe. 

phys. chim. Russe, 1886. 

. Weinhold (A). Z. f. phys. u. chem. Unterricht, 1 (1888) 262. 

Dilatation see Expansion. 


1852. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 4 (1852) 304 ; Jahresb. (1873) 1 14. 
.1879. Tail (P. G.). Phil. Mag. [5] 7 (1879) 344. 
1882. Burbury (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 13 (1882) 417. 
1886. Becker (G. F.). Amer. J. Sci. [3] 31 (1886) 115. 
[See Energy below.] 



1853. Tilghmau (R. A.). Amer. Philosoph. Soc. Trans., n. a. 10 (18M) 

1857. Deville (H. St. Claire). Comptes rendus, 45 (1857) 857; luBtit. 
(1857)393; Ann. Chem. u, Pharm. 105 (1857) 383 ; Jnhreab. 
(1857) 58. 

185.4. Boedecker. Instit. (1859) 219 ; Jahresb. (1859) 28. 

1860. Deville (H. Sainte-Claire). N. Arch. ph. nat. 9 (1860) 51 ; Phil. 

Mag. [4] 20 (1860) 448 ; Jahresb. (I860) 24. Remarks by Th. 
Woods, Phil. Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 202. 

1861. Uann. Z. f. Matb. u. Pbys. (1861) 72. 

I8«3. Deville (H. St. Claire). Phil. Mag. [4] 25 (1863) 537; ahs. from 
Comptes rendus, Feb. 2, 1863. 

1865. ClauBius (R.). Arch. deGen^ve. Oct., 1865 ; Ann. Pbys. u. Chera. 

127 (1866) 477 ; Pbil. Mag. [4] 31 (1866) 28.— See Phil. Mag. 
[4] 24 (1862) 81, and Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 116 (1862) 73. 

, Deville (H. Sainte-Claire). Comptes rendus, 59(1865) 873; 60 

(1865)317; Phil. Mag. [4] 30 (1865) 252,abs.; Bull. hoc. cbini. 
[2] 3 (1865) 366: 5(186-5) 104. 

. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 30 (1865) 407. 

1866. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 127 (1866) 477 ; 141 (1870) 

427; Ergiinzbd, 6 (1874) 602. E.Buddedazu, 141 (1870)428. 

. Deville (H. Sainte-Claire). Bull. boc. chim. (1866) U5. 

1867. Clausiua (R.). Zamminer'a Jahreeb. (1867)40; Liebig'e Jahresb. 

(1867) 81. 

. Deville (H. SatDte-Clairn). CDmpt«s rendus, 63 (1867) 19 ; 64 

(1867) 66 ; Inslit. (1867) 17 ; Jahresb. (1867) 79 ; Ann. Chera. 
u. Pharm. 141 (1867) 46.— See Schroder van der Eolk, Ann. 
Phys. u. Chem. 129 (1867) 495. 


1867. Gernez (D.). Phil. Mag. [4] 33 (1867) 479, aba. from Comptes 

rendus, Nov. 19, 1866. 

. Naumann (A.lex.). Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. Supptbd. 5 (1867) 341 ; 

Jahresb. (1867) 84. 

. Pfaundler (L.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 131 (1867) 55; Z. f.Chem. 

(1867) 573 ; Jahresb. (1867) 81. 

. Schroder van der Kolk (H.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 129 (1867) 

481 ; 131 (1867) 425; Arch, norland. 1 (1866) 418; 2 (1867) 
221 ; Jahresb. (1867) 80. 

1868. Graham (T.). Phil. Mag. [4] 36 (1868) 63 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. June 

11, 1868. 

1870. Budde (R). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 141 (1870) 426; Jahresb. 

(1870) 113.— See Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 116 (1862) 1, and 
Clausius's Abhandlungen, 1864, i, 264. 

1871. Peslin. Ann. chira. et phys. [4] 24 (1871) 208. 

. Tichborne (C. R C). Kept British Assoc. (1871) 81 ; Proc. Irish 

Acad. [2] 1 (1870-74) 169. 

1872. Berthelot et Louguiuine. Comptes rendus, 75 (1872) 100. 

. Gladstone (J. H.) and Tribe (A.). Rept. Brit. Assoc. (1872) 75, 


1873. Debray (H.). Comptes rendus, 77 (1873) 123 ; Jahresb. (1873) 


. Myers (J.). Ber, chem. Ges. 6 (1873) 11 ; Jahresb. (1873) 110; 

Chem. News, 27 (1873) 110. 

•. Horstmann (A.). Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. 170 (1873) 192 ^ Jahresb. 
(1873) 114. 

.. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 4 (1873) 304 ; Jahresb. (1873) 114. 

1874. Mohr (P.). Ann. Chem. u. Pharm. 171 (1874) 361 ; Jahresb. 
(1874) 110. 

% Pfaundler (L.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. Jubelbd. (1874) 182 ; J. 
prakt. Chem. [2] 10 (1874) 37 ; Chem. CentoaU. (1874) S 
Jahresb. (1874) 110.— Seo ^. 




1877. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 85 (1877) 880 ; 96 (1883) 1186. 
. Hicks (W. M.). Phil. Mag. [5] 3 (1877) 401 ; 4 (1877) 80, 174. 

— . Pareau (A. H.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 1 (1877) 39 ; 2 (1877) 

— . Petri. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. P. 2 (1877)^04; Phil. Mag. [5] 
4 (1877) 470, abs. 

— . Tichborne (C. R. C). Proc. Irish Acad. [2] 2 (1875-77) 230. 

1878. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 87 (1878) 619. 

. Debray (H.) et Deville (H. St.-C.). Comptes rendus, 86 (1878) 

517 ; 87 (1878) 441 ; Phil. Mag. [5] 6 (1878) 394 ; Jahresb. 
(1878) 117. 

. Wiedemann (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 5 (1878) 46. 

1881. Lemoine (Q.). Comptes rendus, 93 (1881) 265, 312; Jahresb. 

(1881) 1133. 

1882. Chroustchoff (P.). Comptes rendus, 95 (1882) 221. 

1883. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 96 (1883) 1186. 

. Vogel (H. W.). Ber. d. Beriiner Akad. (1882) 905 ; Phil. Mag. 

[5] 15 (1883) 28. 

. Wiedemann (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 18 (1883) 509. 

1885. Natanson (E. und L.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 24 (1885) 454. 
. Riidorff (F.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 25 (1885) 626. 

1886. Duhem (P.). Ber. chem. Ges. 19 (1886)) R. 592. 

. Ramsay (W.) and Young (S.). Parts I and II, Phil. Trans. (1886) 

I, 71, 123; Part III, Phil. Trans. (1886) ii, 1; Part IV, 
Trans. Chem. Soc. (1886) 790 ; Phil. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 435 ; 
24 (1887) 196. 

1887. . Phil. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 129. 

•. Arrhenius (Sv.). Z. phys. Chem. 1 (1887) 631. 

-^ Fooaserean (J.). Ann. chim. et. phys. [7] 11 (1887) 663 


1887. Frowein (P. C. F.). Z. phys. Chem. 1 (1887) 5, 362. 

. Ramsay and Young. Phil. Mag. [5] 24 (1887) 196 ; Beiblatter, 

12 (1887) 35, abs. ; Z. phys. Chem. 1 (1887) 277, 433. 

1888. Chatelier (H. Le). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 782. 

. Lescoeur (H.). Recherches sur la dissociation des hydrates salins 

et des compost analogues. Lille: L. Danel. 1888. 8vo. 
158 pp. 

. Ostwald (W.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 270. 

. Planck (Max). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 343. 

.. Wiedemann (E.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 241.— See Ostwald, 
same vol. 243. 


1821. Laplace (M. de). Ann. chira. et. phys. 18 (1821) 181,273; 21 
(1822) 22. 

1823. Thenard et Dulong. Ann. chim. et. phys. 24 (1823) 380. 

1827. Ivory (J.). Phil. Mag. n. s. 1 (1827) 1. 

1828. Prevost (P.). Ann. chim. et phys. 38 (1828) 41 ; Mem. de Geneve, 

4 (1827) 1. 

1829. Avogadro (A.). Mem. Accad. Torino, 33 (1829) 237. 

. Dulong. Ann. chim. et phys. 43 (1830) 74, 88, 110; Phil. Mag. 

n. 8. 7 (1830) 235 ; Le Globe, Dec. 9, 1829. 

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1862. Clebech (A.). Theorie der Elasticitat fester Korper. Leipzig, 

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1846. . Manchester Phil. Soc. Mem. [2] 7 (1846) 87. 

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. . Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 87 (1852) 415 ; C.'s Abhand- 

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649 ; Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 54 (1858) 105. 
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45 (1857) 56. 


1853. Riess (P. T.). [Book.] Frictional Electricity. Berlin, 1853. 2 

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1854. Thomson ( W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 7 (1854) 347 ; Quar. J. Mathemat. 

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1855. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 10 (1855) 354, 411. 

1856. Baumgartner (G.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 22 (1856) 513. 

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1858. Buys-Ballot. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 103 (1858) 240. 

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1859. Boescha. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 108 (1859) 162. 

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1865. Lindig (F.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. Sept. 1864 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 29 
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1867. Gerlach. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 131 (1867) 480 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 
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1867. Joule (J. P.). Rept British Assoc. (1867) 512. 


1869. Edlund (E.). Phil. Mag. [4] 38 (1869) 263, ubs. from OefVereigt 

af Forhandl. Stockholm, April 14, 1869. 

1870. Bleekrode (L.). Phil. Mag. [4] 40 (1870) 310, abs. from Aon. 

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1871. Siemens (C. W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 42 (1871) 150 ; Proc. Roy. See. 

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1876. Edlund (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 159 (1876) 420; Phil. Mag. 
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. Lippmann (G.). Comptes rendus, 82 (1876) 1425. 

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1877. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 160. (1877) 420. 

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. Moser (J.). Naturforsch. Versammlung in Munchen, Sept. 1877 ; 

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. Wiedemann (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 145 (1872) 235, 364 ; 158 

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1879. Cohn (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 6 (1879) 385. 

'. Dater. Comptes rendus, 88 (1879) 1260. J 

Moati»(J.). Bull. Soc phUom. [7] 3 (1879) 88. 

Bi|^ Oomples rendos, 88 (18 


1880- Fletcher (L. S.). .Phil. Mag. [5] 10 (1880) 436. 

1881. Hoorweg (J. L.). Anu. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 12 (U881) 76. 
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1882. Budde (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 15 (1882) 558 ; n. F. 21 

(1884) 277 ; n. F. 25 (1885) 564. 

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(1882) 539 ; 87 ii (1883) 82. 

1883. Edlund (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 19 (1883) 287. 
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1884. Claufiius (B.). Ann. Phys. u. Chera. n. F. 21 (1884) 385. 

. Czapeki (S.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 21 (1884) 209. 

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. Lippmann (G.). Comptes rendus, 99 (1884) 895. 

1885. Fletcher (L. S.). Phil. Mag. [5] 20 (1885) 1. 
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. Rayleigh (Lord). Phil. Mag. [5] 20 (1885) 361 ; Nature, 32 

(1885) 536. 

1886. Case (W. E.). Proc. Boy. Soc. 40 (1886) 345. 

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1887. Krehs (G.). Z. phys. u. chera. Unterricht, 1 (1887) 118. 

1888. Battelli (A.). Nuova Cimento, [3] 23 (1888) 64. 

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"Ktochoff (P.). Comptes rendus, 108 (1889) 1003. 




1853. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 5 (1853) 102 ; Jahresb. (1853) 46 ; 

Instit. (1855) 202. 

1854. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 91 (1854) 60L 
1859. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 17 (1859) 250, 347. 
1863. Airy (G. B.). Phil. Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 329. 

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. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 388, 436. 

. Tait (P. G.). PhU. Mag. [4] 25 (1863; 429 ; 26 (1863) 144. 

1865. Bohn (Prof.). PhiL Mag. [4] 29 (1865) 215. 

1866. Clausius (R.). PhU. Mag. [4] 32 (186S) 1 ; Z. f. Mathemat. 11 i 

(1866) 31. 

1871. Odling (W.). Chem. News, 23 (1871) 243, 256 ; Ber. chem. Ges. 

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1872. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 43 (1872) 160. 

1873. Moon (W. R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 46 (1873) 219 ; 47 (1874) 291. 

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1878. Clausius (R.). Comptes rendus, 87 (1878) 718. 

1879. Lodge (O. J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 8 (1879) 277; Jahresb. (1879) 89. 

1880. Trowbridge (J.). Proc. Amer. Acad. n. s. 7 (1879-80) 235. 

1880. BolUmanu (L.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. [2] 11 (1880) 529 ; Jahresb. 
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. Meyer (O. E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 10 (1880) 298 ; Jahresb. 

(1880) 82, abs. 

1882. Browne (W. R.). Jour. Phys. Soc. Nov. 11, 1882 ; Phil. Mag. 
15 (1883) 35.— See note by Tunzelmann, same vol. 
Browne's reply, same vol. 228. Tunzelmann's answer* 

Bnrbarj (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] I 


1883. Abney (W. de W.) and Festing. Phil. Mag. [5] 16 (1883) 224. 

1886. Siemens (W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 453; Ber. d. Berliner 

Akad. 4. Marz, 1886. 

1887. Dufet (H.). Soc fran9. de phys. (1887) 117. 

. Helm (G.). Die Lehre von der Energie. Leipzig, 1887. 8vo. 

Beiblatter, 12 (1888) 407, abs. 

. Larmor (J.). Proc. Phil. Soc. Cambridge, 6 ii (1887) 95. 

. Michelson (M. W.). J. do Phys. 6 (1887) 467 ; Phil. Mag. [5] 

25 (1888) 425. 

. Tilly (J. M. de). Bull. Acad. Belg. 14 (1887) 975. 

18S8. Forkas (J.). Z. phys. Chem, 2 (1888) 148. 

. Langley (S. P.). Amer. J. Sci. [3] 36 (1888) 359. 

. Michelson (W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 25 (1888) 425. 

. Planck (Max). Erhaltung der Energie. Leipzig, 1887. 8vo. 

Beiblatter, 12 (1888) 134. 

1889. Langley (S. P.). Phil. Mag. [5] 27 (1889) 1. 

ENGINES. (Caloric a^td other.) 

1807. Cayley (Sir G.). Nicholson's Jour. 18 (1807) 260. 

1821. Prosny (M. de). Ann. chim. et phys. 19 (1821) 165. 

1824. Carnot. Puissance motrice du feu. Paris, 1824. 8vo. Jahresb. 
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18'39. S^guin (B. R.). Influence des chemins de fer. Paris, 1839. 8vo. 

1847. Eeguault (V.). Principales lois physiques des machines & vapeur. 
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ISoO. Thomson (\V.). Phil. Mag. [3] 37 (1850) 886. 

1851. Joule (J. P.). PhiL Mag. [4] 2 (1851) 150; Instit (1852) 16. 


1851. Rankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. (1851) 235. 

. Reech. Machine d air. Paris, 1851. 8vo. 

. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 1 (1851) 474. Reply by ClauBius, 

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1852. Rankine (W. J. M.). Rept. British Assoc. (1852) ii, 128. 
. Thomson (W.). Phil. Trans. (1852) 78. 

. Vaux (De). Bull. Acad. Belg. 19 in (1852) 296. 

1853. Aitkin. Cosmos, 2 (1853) 393. 

. Barnard (F. A. P.). Amer. J. Sci. [2] 16 (1853) 218, 232, 292, 

351, 431 ; 17 (1853) 153. 

Belleville. Cosmos, 2 (1853) 268. 

Cazalat (Galy-). Bull. Soc. d'encour. (1853) 44. — See Fraachot, 
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Cazavan. Cosmos, 3 (1853) 342. 

Cheverton. Mech. Mag. 58 (1853) 148, 170. 

Gebauer. Jahresb. d. schlesischen Ges. zu Breslau, (1853) 310. 

Fr^chin. Instit. (1853) 248. 

Lemoine. Instit. (1853) 88, 107 ; Comptes rendus, 36 (1853) 263. 

Liais. Comptes rendus, 36 (1853) 260 ; 37 (1853) 999. 

Lissignol. Arch, des sci. phys. 24 (1853) 209. 

Moser. Polytechn. Centralbl. (1853) 1220. 

Nickl^. Amer. J. Sci. [2] 15 (1853) 418. 

Norton. Amer. J. Sci. [2] 15 (1853) 393. 

Poppe. Dingler's Jour. 127 (1853) 401. 

Rankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. (1853) 195, 205. 

Redtenbacher. Dingler's Jour. 128 (1853) 86. 

Reech. Comptes rendus, 36 (1853) 526 ; Bull. Soc. encour. (1868) 
204, ^ 

>. Sehlen. Dingler's pol. Jour. 127 (1853) 245. 


1858. Tremblay (Du). Ann. des Mines, [ >] 4 (1858) 219. 

. . Ann. des Mines, [5] 4 (1853) 203, 281. 

. Wilson. Mech. Mag. 58 (1853) 364. 

1854. Barnard (F. A. P.). Amer. J. Sci. [2] 18 (1854) 161. 

. Ericsson. Polytechn. Centralbl. (1854) 183. 

. Ewbank. Mech. Mag. 61 (1854) 411 ; 62 (1854) 78. 

-: — . Franchot. Comptes rendus, 38 (1854) 131. 

. Liais. Mem. Soc. Cherbourg, 2 (1854) 113. 

. Napier and Raukine. Repertory of Patent Inventions, [2] 23 

(1854) 385. 

. Poole. Repertory of Patent Inventions, [2] 24 (1854) 506. 

• — . Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Trans. (1854) 115; Proc. Roy. Soc. 6 
(1850-54) 388, abs. 

— . . Edinburgh Jour. [2] 1 (1854) 1. 

. Shaw. Mech. Mag. 61 (1854) 97. 

• . Wre<le. Mech. xMag. 60 (1854) 65. 

1855. Hirn(G. A.). Cosmos, 6 (1855) 679; 7 (1855)455; 
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. Napier and Rankine. Mechanics* 1628; Dingler's Jour. 

135 (1855). 241 ; Jahresb. (1855) 30. 

. Newton (A.). Repertory of Patent Inventions, [2] 26(1855) 120. 

. Seguin. Comptes rendus, 40 (1855) 5. — See Siemens, same vol. 309. 

1856. Cheverton. Mech. Mag. 64 (1856) 82. 

. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chera. 97 (1856) 441, 513; C.'« 

Abhandlungen, i, 155 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 12 (1856)241,338,426; 
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-. Ericsson. Mech. Mag. 64 (1856) i, 487. 

-. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4] 12 (1856) 385. 

.. Pascal. Mech. Mag. 64 (1856) 241. 


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1883. ffirn (G. A.). Coraptes rendus, 96 (1883) 361, 413. 

. Witz (A.). Comptes rendu8, 96 (1883) 1310 ; 97 (1883) 523. 

1884. Charpentier (P.). Comptes rendus, 98 (1884) 1262. 

1887. Pictet (R.). Nature, 37 (1887) 167. 

. Anderson (W.). Practical Treatise on Heat Engines. London, 

1887. 8vo. Beiblatter, 12 (1888) 406. 

1888. Bontgen (R.). Principles of Thermodynamics, with special appli- 

cations to hot-air, gas and steam-engines. 2. edition, translated 
and enlarged by A. Jay Du Bois. New York, 1888. 8vo. 
703 pp. 


1866. aausius (R.). Z. Math. u. Phys. 11 1 (1866) 31 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 
32 (1866) 1. 


1856. Reech. Jour, des math6mat. 21 (1856) 58. 

1861. Hari^-Davy et Troost. Comptes rendus, 53 (1861) 904. 

1862. Baumgartner (G.). Z. f. Math. u. Phys. (1862) 127. 
. Kahl. Z. f. Math. u. Phys. (1862) 127. 

1863. Boole. (G.). Phil. Trans. 153 (1863) 485. 

. Qausius (R.). Comptes rendus, 57 (1863) 339 ; Mondes, 6 (1864) 

687, r^ponse k M. Dupr^. 

18M. Dupr4. Comptes rendus, 58 (1864) 539 ; 59 (1864) 490, 665, 705, 


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1799. Rittenhouse (D.). Trans. Aiuer. Phil. Soc. 4 (1799) 29. 

1802. Gay-Lu8sac. Ann. de Chimie. 43 (1802) 137. 

1817. Dulong et Petit. Ann. chim. et phys. 2 (1817) 240. 

. Gay-Lu8sac. Ann. chim. et phys. 1 (1817) 108; 2 (1817) 130. 

. Gay-Lussac et Dalton. Ann. chim. et phys. 1 (1817) 110. 

1810. Petit. Ann. chim. et phys. 9 (1819) 196.— See Pattu.same vol. 91. 

1821. Walter et Gay-Lussac. Ann. chim. et phys. 19 (1821 j 436; 
Institut, 29 avril, 1822. 

1823. Biggs (M.). Thomson's Annals of Phil. n. s. 6 (1823) 415; 7 
(1824) 133. 

1824.- Crichton. Annals of Phil. n. s. 7 (1824) 241. 

. Enimett (J. B.). Annals of Phil. n. s. 8 (1824) 254. 

1829. . Phil. Mag. n. s. 5 (1829) 419. 

■ . p:rmaii (G. A.). Ann. chim. et phys. 40 (1829) 197. 

. Ewart (P.). Phil. Mag. n. s. 5 (1829) 247. 

1832. Meikle (H.). Phil. Mag. n. s. 11 (1832) 243. 

1H42. Magnus. Ann. chim. et. phys. [3] 4 (1842) 316. 

. Regnault (V.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 4 (1842) 5, 64 ; 5 (1842) 


1844. Joule (J. P.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 5 (1843-50) 517, abs. ; Phil. Trans. 
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1847. Pierre (J. I.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 19 (184/) 193 ; 20 (1847) 
5; 21 (1847) 336; 31 (1851) 118; 33(1851) 199.* 

1849. Regnault (V.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 26 (1849; 257 ; Comptes 
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185a Berthelot (M.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 30 (1850) 232. 


1851. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 82 (1851) 263 ; C.'s Abhond- 
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. Smyth (C. P.). Edinburgh Jour. 51 (1851) 114. 

1852. Kopp (H.). Phil. Mag. [4] 3 (1852) 268, abs. from Ann. Chem. 

u. Pharm. 81 (1852) 1 ; Ann, chim. et phys. [3] 34 (1852) 338. 

1853. Koosen. Ann. Phys. u. Chem, 89 (1853) 437 ; Jahresb. (1853) 37. 

1854. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 8 (1854) 357. 

. . Phil. Trans. (1854) 115 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. ft 

(1850-54) 388, abs. 

1857. Joule (J. P.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 9 (1857) 3. 

1858. . PhU. Mag. [4] 16 (1858) 54. 

. Kirchhoff (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 104 (1858) 1. 

1859. Andr6eff(E. d'). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 56 (1859) 317. ♦ 

. Drion (Ch.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 56 (1859) 5. 

18G0. Calvert (F. C.) and Lowe (G. C). Phil. Mag. [4] 20 (1860) 230 ; 
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. Joule (J. P.). Manchester Soc. Mem. [2] 15 (1860) 143. 

1861. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 114 (1861) 37.— See E. 

Edlund, same vol. 13. 

. Mendelejeff. Phil. Mag. [4] 22 (1861) 520 ; Liebig's Anu. July, 


1862. Fairbairn (W.). PhU. Trans. 152 (1862) 591. 

. Reye (Th.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 116 (1862) 424, 449. 

1863. Clausius (R.). Comptes rendus, 56 (1863) 1115. 

. Potte?. Phil Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 347. 

. Reech. Comptes rendus, 57 (1863) 505. Note de M. Dupr^ m6a» 

voL 589. R^ponse de M. R. 634. 

. Waterston (J. J.). PhiL Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 116 ; 27 (1864) 34& Jj 

1864. Fiseau. Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 2 (1864) 143. 
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1865. Matthiessea (A.). Proc. Roy. Soc. Dec. 21, 1865, June 21, 1866 ; 
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1866. Cazin (A.). Coraptes rendus, Jan. 2, 1866; Phil. Mag. [4] 31 
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.. Fizeau (H:). Ann. chim. et phya. [4] 8 (1866) 335. 

•. Hirn (G. A.) et Cazin (A.). Comptes rendus, Dec. 31, 1866 ; Phil. 
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1868. Cazin (A.). Comptes rendus, June 8, 1868 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 36 

(1868) 238. 

. Fizeau (H.). Phil. Mag. [4] 36 (1868) 31, transl. from Coipptes 

rendus, 66 (1868) 1005, 1072 ; Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 135 (1868) 
372 ; Jahresb. (1868) 48. 

1869. Cazin (A.). Comptes rendus, Aug. 9, 1869 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 38 

(1869) 322. 

. Moutier (J.). Comptes rendus, 68 (1869) 95 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 38 

(1869) 76, abs. 

. Regnault (V.). Comptes rendus, Oct. 11,1869; Phil. Mag. [4] 

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1870. Phillips. Coraptes rendus, 71 (1870) 333; Jahresb. (1870) 111. 

1871. Marignac (C). Arch, des Sci. ph. nat. Nov. 1870 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 

41 (1871) 134. 

. Govi. Atti Accad. Torino, 6 (1870-71) 122, 193. 

1872. Amagflt (E. H.). Comptes rendus, 74 (1872) 1299. 

. Buff (H.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 145 (1872) 627 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 

44 (1872) 544. 

1872, Dahlander (G. R,). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 145 (1872) 147 ; Jahresb. 

(1872) 59. 

1873. Amagat (E. H.). Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 29 (1873) 246. 

. R^l (H.). Comptes rendus, 75 (1872) 1475 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 45 

(1873) 77. 

'. Herwig (H.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 147 (1873) 161 ; PhiL Mag. 
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1873. Kurz (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. Erganzbd. 6 (1873) 314 ; Jahresb. 

(1873) 55. 

. Kohlrausch (F.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. No. 8, 1873; Phil. Mag. 

[4] 47 (1874) 156. 

1874. Recknagel (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. Erganzbd. 6 (1874) 278. 

. Wullner (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 153 (1874) 440. 

. Mallet (R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 49 (1875) 231 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. June 

11, 1874. 

1875. Marsh (B. V.). Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 14 (1874-75) 114. 

1876. Clarke (F. W.). Smithsonian Miscell. Coll. 14 (1878) 58. 


.' Ledieu (A.). Comptes rendus, 82 (1876) 132 et 192. 

. St. Venant (M. de). Comptes rendus, 82 (1876) 33. 

. Thorpe (T. E.) and Rucker (A. W.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 24 (1876) 

159 ; Phil. Trans. 166 (1876) 405. 

1877. Glatzel (P.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 160 (1877) 497. 

. Hirn (G. A.). Comptes rendus, 84 (1877) 592, 632, 680. 

. Winkelmann (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 1 (1877) 430 ; 

Jahresb. (1877) 58. 

1878. Boltzmann (L.). Comptes rendus, 87 (1878) 593. R^pouse de M. 

L6vy, m^me vol. 649. Nouvelles remarques de M. Boltzmann, 
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1879. Pictet (R.). Comptes rendus, 88 (1879) 1315. 

1880. Nichols (E. H.) and Wheeler (A. W.). Proc. Amer. Assoc. A^g- 

28. 1880; Phil. Mag. [5] 11 (1881) 113. 

1881. Korteweg (D. J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 12 (1831) 136. 
. Volkmann (P.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 14 (1881) 260. 

1882. Hovenden (F.). South London Microscop. Club, Dec. 1882, p. 1. 
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1884. Bartoli. Atti Accad. Lincei. [3] 19 (1883-84) 577. 
-. Charpentier (P.). Comptes rendus, 98 (1884) 85, 425 


1885. Pagliani (S.). Atti Accad. Torino, 20 (1884-85) 54. 

. Wiedemann (E.) und Ludeking (Ch.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. No. 

6. 1885 ; Phil. Mag. [5] 20 (1885)'220. 

. Wroblewski (S. v.). Comptes rendus, 100 (1885) 979 ; Jahresb. 

(1885) 141. 

1886. Ayrton (W. E.) and Perry (J.). ' Phil. Mag. [5] 22 (1886) 325, 

read before the Physical Soe. March 27, 1886. 

. Langlois (M.). Comptes rendus, 102 (1886) 1231. 

. Lucaa (F.). Comptes rendus, 103 (1886) 1251. 

. Thorpe (T. E.) and Rucker (A. W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 

431, read before the Physical Soc. April 10, 1886. 

1887. Andrews (Th.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 43 (1887) 299, 305, 308. 

. Duda (Th.). Ber. d. Gymnasium zu Brieg, 1886-87, p. 1. 

. Nicol (W. W. J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 385. 

. Vicentini (G.) e Omodei (D.). Atti Accad. Torino, 23 (1887) 8. 

188«. Antoiue (Ch.). Comptes rendus, 106 (1888) 116. 

. Craur (C). Electrotechn. Zeitschr. 9 (1888) 426. 

. Le Chatelier (H.). Comptes rendus, 107 (1888) 862. 

. Puschl (C). Wiener Anzeiger, (1888) 43. 

. Vicentini (G.) e Omodei (D.). Rend. Accad. Roma, 4 (1888) 805 ; 

5 (1888) 18, 39, 75. 

1889. Pionchon. Comptes rendus, 108 (1889) 992. 


1797. Goettling. Ann. de chimie, 23 (1797) 75. 
-. Lucas le jeune. Ann. de chimie, 23 (1797) 81. 
% Bumford (Count). Nicholson's Jour. 1 (1797) 459, 616. 


1799. Brugnatelli. Ann. de chimie, 29 (1799) 327. 

1800. Howard (E.). Nicholson's Jour. 4 (1800) 173, 200, 249 ; Phil 

Trans. (1800) 204. 

1803. Accum (F.). Nicholson's Jour. 6 (1803) 1. 
. Robert. Ann. de chimie, 44 (1803) 321. 

1804. Bartholdi. Ann. de chimie, 48 (1804) 249. 

. Veau de Launay. Nicholson's Jour. 9 (1804) 203. 

1805. Laugier (A.). Ann. de chimie, 55 (1805) 303 ; 56 (1806) 13 <. 

1806. Wollaston (W. H.). Nicholson's Jour. 15 (1806) 31 ; Phil. Trans. 

(1806) 1 ; Proc. Roy. Soc. Nov. 1805. 

1809. Guyton-Morveau et Carnot. Ann. de chimie, 71 (1809) 70 ; 74 
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. Sage (B. G.). Nicholson's Jour. 23 (1809) 279, from Jour.- de 

phys. 65 (1809) 425. 

1813. Thenard et Berthelot. Ann. de chime, 86 (1813) 37. 

1817. Clarke (E. D.). Th6mson's Annals of Phil. (1817) 1 ; Ann.chim. 
et phys. 3 (1817) 39 ; 5 (1817) 441. 

1819. Gibbs (G.). Amer. J. Sci. 1 (1819) 87 ; Ann. chira. et phys. 10 
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1823. Comity des Poudres etc. Ann. chira. et phys. 23 (1823) 217. 

1824. Haycraft (W. T.). Annals of Phil. n. s. 8 (1824) 245. 

1825. Magnus (G.). Ann. chim. et phys. 30 (1825) 103 ; Annals of Phil. 

n. s. 12 (1826) 464, abs. 

1836. Baudrimont (A.). Ann. chim. et phys. 61 (1836) 319 ; 62 (1836) 

1847. Crura (W.). Phil. Mag. [3] 30 (1847) 426. 

. Draper. Phil. Mag. [3] 30 (1847) 299. 

. Porrett (R.) and Tescheraacher (E. F.). Phil. Mag. [3] 30 (1847) 

258, 273. jj 

Schoenbein. Phil. Mag. [3] 31 (1847) 7. 

Bansome (T.). Phil. Mag. [3] 30 (1847) 1. 


1849. Hare. Phil. Mag. [3] 34 (1849) 227 ; 37 (1850) 525. 
1853. Ashby (J. E.). Phil. Mag. [4] 6 (1853) 77. 
1859. Thomas (L.). Phil. Mag. [4] 17 (1859) 366. 

1861. Berthelot. Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 61 (1861) 468. 

1862. Bianchi. Phil. Mag. [4] 24 (1862) 407, abs. from Comptee rendus, 

July 14, 1862. 

1863. Airy (G. B.). Phil. Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 329. 

. Brettes (Martin de). Comptes rendus, 57 (1863) 904. 

. Karolyi (L. von). Phil. Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 266 ; Ann. Phy«. u. 

Chem. April, 1863. 

1867. Abel (F. A.). Phil. Mag. [4] 33 (1867) 545 ; Proc Roy. Soc- 
April 4, 1867 ; Phil. Trans. 157 (1867) 181. 

1869. Dufour. Phil. Mag. [4] 37 (1869) 478, abs. from Comptes rendus, 

Feb. 15, 1869. 

1870. Abel (F. A.). Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 21 (1870) 97. 

. Hagenbach (E.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 140 (1870) 486 ; 143 (1871) 


. Bodynski (J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 141 (1870) 594 ; 145 (1872) 


1871. Berthelot. Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 22 (1871) 130; 23 (1871) 223. 
. Bleekrode (L.). Phil. Mag. [4] 41 (1871) 39. 

. Melsens. Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 24 (1871) 218. 

. Violette (H.). Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 23 (1871) 306. 

1872. Volpicelli. Comptes rendus, 73 (1872) 492 ; Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 

146 (1872) 307. 

1873. Champion et Pellet. Chronique d'Industrie, Jan. 29, 1873 ; Ptil, 

^i^. [4] 46 (1873) 256. 

1874. Castan (F.). Comptes rendus, 78 (1874) 1200. 

1875. Gemez (D.). Phil. IMag. [4] 49 (1875) 157 ; Comptes rendus, 80 

(1875) 44. 



1878. Schutzeriberger (P.). Comptes rendue, 86 (1878) 598 ; Jahresb. 

(1878) 43. 

1879. Boutmy (H.). Comptes rendus, 89 (1879) 414. 

1880. Mallard et Le Chatellier. Comptes rendus, 91 (1880) 825. 

. Sarrau et Vieille. Phil. Mag. [5] 9 (1880) 455 ; Comptes rendus, 

90 (1880) 1058. 

1881. Berthelot Comptes rendus, 93 (1881) 18. 

. Mallard et Le Chatellier. Comptes rendus, 93 (1881) 146. 

. Sarrau et Vieille. Comptes rendus, 93 (1881) 213, 269. 

1882. Debus (H.). Phil. Trans. 173 (1882) 523. 

•. Deville (H. St. C). Comptes rendus, 94 (1882) 1557; Phil. Mag. 
[5] 14 (1882) 152. 

-. Pfaundler (L.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 17 (1882) 175. 
.. . Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 17 (1882) 176. 

1883. Berthelot. Comptes rendus, 96 (1883) 672, 1186. 

. . Sur la force des mati^res explosives. Paris, 1883. 2 

vols. 8vo. Jahresb. (1885) 177. 
.. Witz (A.). Comptes rendus, 96 (1883) 1310. 

1884. Liveing (J. D.) and Dewar (J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 18 (1884) 161. 

1885. Berthelot et Vieille. Ann. chim. ct phys. [6] 4 (1885) 13 ; Jahresb. 

(1885) 177. 

. Wesendonck (K.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 26 (1885) 81. 

. Witz (A.). Comptes rendus, 100 (1885) 1131. 

1886. Threfall (R.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 165. 

Munroe (Charles E.). Index to the Literature of Explosives. 
Part I. Baltimore, 1886. [This is to be a complete list of all * , 
the hooks and papers on Explosives, especially for the use o^ 
military men, compiled by an officer of the United States N — ^ 
What is given above is only the application of thermody 
to explosives and explosions.] 



1847. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [3] 31 (1847) 173; Comptes rendus, 25 
(1847) 309. 

1850. Dulong. Ann. chim. et phys. [2] 41 (1850) 113; Jahresb. (1850) 


1851. Joule (J. P.). Manchester Soc. Mem. [2] 9 (1851) 107 ; Ann. 

chim. et phys. [3] 50 (1857)381. 

1853. Joule and Thomson. Phil. Trans. (1853) 357. 

. Rankiue ( W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. (1853) 535 ; Ediub. Proc- 3 

(1854) 2^3. 

1854. Joule and Thomson. Phil. Trans. (1854) 321. 

1855. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 9 (1855) 523 ; Edinb. Trans. 20 

(1853) 475 ; Jahresb. (1855) 24. 

1857. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4] 14 (1857) 211, 381. 
. Thomson (W.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 8 (1857) 566. 

1858. Joule (J. P.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 9 (1858) 490 ; Phil. Trans. (1859) 


1860. Joule and Thomson. Phil. Trans. (1860) 325. 

1862. Croll (J.). Rept. Brit. Assoc. (1862) ii, 21. 

1863. Joule and Thomson. Phil. Trans. (1863) 579. 

1864. Dupr^. Comptes rendus, 58 (1864) 1061. 

1869. Massieu (F.). Comptes rendus, 69 (1869) 858; Mem. divers 
savants, [2] 22 (1876) 1. 

1872. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 43 (1872) 227. 

1878- Qibbs (J. W.). Trans. Connecticut Acad. 2 (1873) 309. 



1802. Dalton (J.). Manchester Soc. Men. 5 ii (1802) 585 ; Ann. de 
chimie, 44 (1803) 40, 217, 218. 

1829. Avogadro (A.). Mem. Accad. Torino, 33 (1829) 237. 

1845. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [3] 27 (1845) 205 ; 28 (1846) 205. 

1851. Ck)lding (A.). Vidensk Selsk. Skrift. Kjobenhavn. 2 (1851) 121, 


1852. Waterston. Kept. Brit. Assoc- (1852) n, 11 ; Instit (1853) 370 ; 

Jahresb. (1852) 66. 

1856. Seydlitz. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 99 (1856) 562. Hoppe dagegen, 
Do. 101 (1857) 143. 

. Thomson (W.). Phil. Mag. [4] 11 (1856) 447. 

1857. Fuchs. VerhandL d. Presburg. Ver. 1 (1857) 3. 

1859. Leconte (J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 19 (1860) 133, from Amer. J. Sci. 
Nov. 1859. 

1861. Maxwell (J. C). Phil. Mag. [4] 21 (1861) 161, 281, 338.— See 

Challis, same vol. 250. 

1862. Codaz7-a. Cimento, 15 (1862) 61. 

1863. Sorby (H. C). Phil. Mag. [4] 27 (1864) 145 ; Proc. Roy. Soc 

April 30, 1863. 

1864. Akin (C. K.). Phil. Mag. [4] 28 (1864) 470 ; 29 (1865) 205. 

. Schroeder van der Kolk (H. W.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 122 

(1864) 439, eoS ; Ann. chim. et phys. [4] 4 (1865) 193 ; Phil. 
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1865. Edmonds (T. R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 29 (1865) 169. 

1866. Babinet. Comptes rendus, 63 (1866) 581, 662, 903. 
. Dupr^ Comptes rendus, 63 (1866) 268. 

1867. Schroeder van der Kolk (H. W.). Ann. Phya. i 

277, 408; Phil. Mag. [4] 36 (1868) 433. 


1870. Clausius (R.). Anu. Phys. u. Chem. 141 (1870) 124 ; Jahresb. 
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. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 40 (1870) 288 ; Nature, 2 

(1870) 440, abs. 

1874. Ledieu (A.). Comptes rendua, 78^(1874) 1182. 

. Purser (J.). Rept. Britbh Assoc. (1874) 23. 

. Weinberg (J.). Anu. Phys. u. Chem. Ergbd. 6 (1874) 586; 

Jahresb. (1875) 47. 

1875. Chase (P. E.). Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 14 (1874-5) 651. 

1877. Stoney (G. J.) and Moss (R. J.). Phil. Mag. [5] 4 (1877) 67. 

1879. Fitzgerald (F. G.). Phil. Mag. [5] 7 (1879) 15. Remarks by 
Prof. Reynolds, same vol. 179. 

1882. Browne (W. R.). Phil. Mag. [5] 15 (1883) 35 ; read before the 
Physical Soc. Nov. 11, 1882. Note by Tunzelmann, same vol. 
152. Browne's reply, 228. Answer by Tunzelmann, 299. 

1884. Czapski (S). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 21 (1884) 209. 

1887. Crookes (W.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 42 (1887) 345 ; Beiblatter, 12 

(1888) 188. 

. Thore (J.). Une nouvelle force? Paris, 1887. 8vo. — See Crookes, 

Fitzgerald and Stoney above. 

1888. Lindemann (F.). Nature, 38 (1888) 458, 578. 
. Thomson (Sir W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 25 (1888) 116. 


1798. Rumford (Count). Phil. Trans. 88 (1798) 80, 286; Nichobon's 
Jour. 2 (1798) 106. 

Rbeier. Ann. de chimie, 26 (1798) 113. 

nr.). Nicholson's Jour. 26 (1810) 30 ; J. de phys. 65 



1816. Thomson (Dr.). Annals of Phil. 7 (1816) 241. 

1824. Watson (J. T.). Amer. J. Sci. 8 (1824) 276. 

1826. Graham (T.). Annals of Phil. n. s. 12 (1826) 260. 

1838. Becqucrel. Comptes rendus, 7 (1838) 363. 

1847. Joule (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [3] 31 (1847) 173 ; Comptea rendus, 25 
(1847) 309. 

. Fitter. Mech. Mag. 46 (1847) 492. 

1855. Decher. Dingler's Jour. 136 (1855) 415 ; Jahresb. (1855) 29. 

. Hirn (G. A.). Bull. Soc Mulhouse, (1855) Nos. 128, 129 ; Dingler'a 

J. 136 (1855) 405 ; Jahresb. (1855) 29-30. 

1859. Joule (J. P.). Kept. Brit, Assoc. (1859) ii, 12. 

1862. Him (G. A.). Cosmos, 21 (1862) 257. 

1863. Abel (F. A.). Phil. Mag. [4] 26 (1863) 355. 

1866. Cooke (J. P.). Phil. Mag. [4] 31 (1866) 241 ; Amer. J. Sci^ 
January, 1866. 

1872. Jellett (J. H.). Theory of friction. New York, 1872. 8vo. 

220 pp. Phil Mag. [4] 43 (1872) 469. 

1873. Lcdieu (A.). Comptes rendus, 77 (1873) 94, 163, 260, 325, 414, 

455 et 517 ; Jahresb. (1873) 51. 

. Maschke (O.). Arch, des Sci. phys. nat. 46 (1873) 271 ; Phil. 

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1877. Puluj (J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 1 (1877) 296. 

1878. Puluj (J.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. July 1, 1878; Phil. Mag. [5] 

6 (1878) 157. 

1881. Koch (S.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 14 (1881) 1 ; 19 (1883> 

1884. Cantone. Atti Accad. Lincei, [3] 19 (1883-84) 263. 

1887. Arrhenius (Sv.). Z. phys. Chemie. 1 (1887) 285. ' * 

1888. De Heen (P.). BuU. Acad. Belg. 15 (1888) 57» : 





1827. Ivory (J.). PhU. Mag. n. s. 1 (1827) 89, 165. 

1829. Avogadro (A.). Mem. Accad. Torino, 33 (1829) 49. 

. Dulong. Le Globe, Dec. 9, 1829 ; Phil. Mag. n. s. 7 (1830) 235, 

Ann. phys. et chem. 43 (1830) 74, 88, 110. • 

1844. Joule (J. P.). Proc Roy. Soc. 5 (1843-50) 517; Phil. Mag. [3] 

25 (1844) 1 ; Phil. Trans. (1844) 1. 

1845. Holtzmann. Warme und Elasticitiit der Gase und Ddrapfe. 

Mannheim, 1845. 8vo. Jahresb. (1851) 28. 

1850. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 2 (1851) 509 ; Rept. Brit. 
Assoc. (1850) 1. 

18.51. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 82 (1851) 274; C« AbhancJ- 
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. Rankine ( W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 2 (1851) 509 ; Jahresb. (1851) 


. . Edinb. Jour. 5 (1851) 128. 

. . Edinb. Trans. (1851) 147; Phil. Mag- [4] 7 

(1854) 1, 111; Jahresb. (1854) 36. 

18.53. . Phil. Mag. [4] 5 (1853) 483. - ^ ^ 

1853. Joule (J. P.) and Thomson (W.). Phil. Trans. (1853) 357 ; Phil. 
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. Kooscn. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 89 (1853) 437 ; Jahresb. (1853) 37. 

. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 5 (1853) 437. 

IS.54. . Phil. Trans. (1854) 115; Proc. Roy- Soc. 6. 

(1850-54) 388, abs. 

1855. Magnus (G.). Phil. Mag. [4] 9 (1855) 44. 

. Seguin. Comptes reudus, 40 (1855) 5. — See Siemens same vol. 309. 

1856. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 98 (1856) 173 ; Amer. J.Sci- 

[2] 22 (1856) 402 ; Jahresb. (1856) 27.— See Rankine. Phil. 
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1856. Kronig. Chem. Centralbl. (1856) 725 ; Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 

51 (1857) 491. 

1857. Bunsen (R.)* Gasometry ; comprising the leading ph3r8ical and 

chemical properties of gases. Translated by H. £. Roscoe. 
London, 1857. 8vo. Phil. Mag. [4] 14 (1857) 146. 

1858. Kirchhoff (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 104 (1858) 1; 103 (1858) 


1859. Baumgartner (G. v.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 38 ii (1859) 379. 
. Bemouilli. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 107 (1859) 490. 

. Bourget (J.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 56 (1859) 257. 

. Jochmann. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 108 (1859) 153 ; Z. f. Math. u. 

Phys. (1860) 24, 96. 

. Maxwell (J. C). Phil. Mag. [4] 19 (1859) 19; 20 (1860) 21, 33. 

. Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 18 (1859) 316. 

1860. Clausius (R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 19 (1860) 434. 

. Fairbairn (W.). Phil. Trans. 150 (1860) 185, the Bakerian Lec- 

•. Joule (J. P.). Manchester Phil. Soc. Mem. [2] 15 (1860) 143. 

-. Regnault (V.). Phil. Mag. [4] 20 (1860) 275; Comptes rendus, 
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-. Tate (P. G.) and Fairbairn (W.). Proc. Roy. Soc. May 10, 1860, 
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-. Stephan (J.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 110 (1860) 596. 

1861. Kirchhoff (G.). Phil. Mag. 14] 21 (1861) 241, comm. by Roscoe 

1862. Clausius (R.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 46 ii (1862) 402. 

— . Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 1 15 (1862) 1, 512 ; C.'s Ah 

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% CroU (J.). Bept British Assoc. (1862) ii, 2t 




1862. Pairbairn (W.). Phil. Trans. 152 (1862) 591. 

— . Reye (Th.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 116 (1862) 424, 449. 

• — . Thomson (W.). Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 64 (1862) 504; Edinb. 
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1863. Dupr4. Comptes rendus, 56 (1863) 960 ; 57 (1863) 774.— See 

Clausius, same vol. 1115. 

■ — '. Pairbairn (W.) and Tate (P. G.). Phil. Trans. 152 (1863) 591. 

"■■"*^. Reech. Comptes rendus, 57 (1863) 505. 

"■^. Stephan (J.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 47 ii (1863) 81 ; Phil. Mag. 
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""■^ • Zeuner (G.). Civil Ingenieur, 10 ii (1863) 1 ; Comptes rendus, 69 
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^^^* Caligny (De). Instit. (1864) 30. 

^ Clausius (R.). Z. f. Math. u. Phys. (1864) 376. 

Dupr6. Mondes, 6 (1864) 315. — See Clausius, same vol. 423. 
Dupr6*s reply, same vol. 477. 


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Rankine (W. J. M.). Edinb. Trans. 23 (1864) 147. 

Edmonds (T. R.). Phil. Mag. [4] 30 (1865) 1. 

Loschmidt. Z. f. Math. u. Phys. (1865) 511. 

Rankine (W. J. M.). Phil. Mag. [4] 29 (1865) 283. 

. Phil. Mag. [4] 31 (1866) 199 ; Ann. chim. et 

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^^66. Bauschinger (L.). Z. f. Math. u. Phys. 12 (1866) 208. 

-. Maxwell (J. C). Phil. Trans. 156 (1866) 249 ; PhU. Mag. [4] 32 
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. Phil. Trans. 157 (1867) 49 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 35 

(1868) 129, 185. 
1868L Eifohhoff (G.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 134 (1868) 177. 

y. Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 135 (1868) 285. 


1868. Moutier (J.). Comptes rendus, 66 (1868) 344 ; Jahresb. (1868) 


1869. Andrew (T.). Phil. TranB. 159 (1869) 575 (The Bakerian Lec- 

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Phil. Mag. [4] 38 (1869) 76. 

. Blaserna. Comptes rendus, 69 (1869) 134 ; PhiL Mag. [4] 38 

(1869) 326. 

. Cazin (A.). Comptes rendus, Aug. 9, 1869 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 38 

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. Kurz (A.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 136 (1869) 618 ; 138 (1869) 336.— 

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1871. Mohr (F.). Ber. chem. Ges. 4 (1871) 490. 

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. Bourget (J.). Comptes rendus, 74 (1872) 1230. 

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. Moutier (J.). Comptes rendus, 74 (1872) 1095. 

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.R^sal (H.). Comptes rendus, 75 (1872) 1475 ; Phil. Mag. [4] 45 

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1873. Amagat (E. H.). Ann. chim. et php. [4] 29 (1873) 246. 

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1874. Clausius (R.). Ber. d. niederrhein. Ges. Nov. 9, 1874 ; Jahresb. 
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. Moutier (J.). Ann. cjiim. et phys. [5] 1 (1874) 848. 


1874. Recknngel (G.). Anu. Phya. u. Cbem. Ergbd. 6 (1874) 278. 

1875. An.ire»vg (T.). Phit. Mag. [5] I (1876) 78; Proo. Roy.Soo. June 

17. 1875. 

. Aiitoine{Ch.). Comple8reudu8,80(1875)435; 00.81(187-5)574. 

. Boltzraann (L.). Ber. d. Wieuer Akad. 72 u (1875) 427; Phil. 

Mag. [4] 50 (1875) 495. 

. Lockyer (J. N.). Phil. Mag. [4] 40 (1875) 320. 

. Moutier (J.). Bull. Soc. philomat. [6] 12 (1875) 38. 

. Rayleigh (Lord). Phil. Mag. [4] 49 (1875) 311. 

1876. Andrews (T-)- Phil. Trena. 166 (1876) 421 (the Bakerian Lec- 

ture) ; Phil. Mag. [5] 3 (1877) 63 ; Proc. Roy. Soc- April 27, 
1876, nbs. 

. Burbury (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 1 (1876) 61 ; Jaliresh. (1876) 6.S, 

, Holman (S. W.)- Proo. Amer. Acad. June 14, 1876 ; Pliil. Mag. 
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, Manieu (F.). Mem. par divers savants, [2] 22 (IS~Q) 1. 

, Moutier (J.). Bull. Soc philoru. [6] 13 (1876) 5, 11. 49, 51. 60 : 
[7] 1(1877)7,17; 2(1878)247; 3(1878)87; 4 (1880)86, 
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. l^ctetCR.). Campus rendua. 82 (1870) 260; phv^. 
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. Wat»OD (O. E.). Kinetic Theory of Gasea. Oxford, 1876. 8vo 

. HenU. (J. M.). PhiL Mag. [5] 4 (1877) 14. 
. Him (G. A.). Comptcs rendus, 84 (1877) 592, 632. 680. 
. Meycr(O.E.). KiuetischeTheoriederGaae. Brealau, 1877. 8vo. 
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Wiener Akad. 1 Juli, 1878; Pbil. Mug. [5] 6 (1878) 157. 
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Jahrab. (1877) 58. ■ 
PraloD (S. T.). Phil. Mag. [5] 4 (1877) 206 and 364; 6 (1878) 
" 297. 

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1884. Schumann (O.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 23 (1884) 353. 

1885. Boltzmann (L.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. n. F. 24 (1885) 87 ; Jahresb. 

(1885) 116. 

. Meslin. Jour, de Phys. [2] 4 (1885) 132. 

1886. Blondlot. Jour, de Phys. [2] 5 (1886) 548. 

. Burbury (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 481.— See Tait, same 

vol. 343. 

. Cailletet et Matthias. Jour, de phys. [2] 5 (1886) 549. 

. Duhem (P.). Le Potentiel thermodynamique. Paris, 1886. 8vo. 

. Holman (S. W.). Proc. Amer. Acad. n. s. 18 (1886-86) 1 ; Phil, 

Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 199. 

. LangloiB (M.). Comptes rendus, 102 (1886) 1231. 

. Pirogow (A.). Jour. d. russ. phys. chem. Ges. (8) u. (9) 18 (1886), 

u. (1) 19 (1887); Zusatz, pp. 1-70; Beiblatter 18 (1889) 366, 

. Schlidlowsky (F.). Jour. d. russ. phys. chem. Qes. (1886) ; Phil, 

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. Siemens (W.). Phil. Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 453. 

. Tait (P. G.). Edinburgh Trans. 33 i (1885-86) 65 ; 33 ii 1886- 

87) 251. 

. PhiL Mag. [5] 21 (1886) 343 ; 28 (1887) 141. 

. Tammann. Jour, de phys. 5 (1886) 488. 

. Warburg. Jour, de phys. 5 (1886) 467. 

. Wilde. Jour, de phys. 5 (1886) 474. 

. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. de Wiener Akad. 94 n (1887) 891 ; Beib- 
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1887. Bouty. Jour, de phys. 6 (1887) 26 et 28. 

. Burbury (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 24 (1887) 471. 

'. Burton (C. v.). Phil. Mag. [5] 24 (1887) 166; Beibl&tter, 12 


1887. CaUletet et Matthias. Jour, de Phys. 6 (1887) 414. 

. Guglielmo (G.) e Musina (V.). Riv. ScL industr. di Firenze, 1887. 

14 pp. 

. Heiu. Jour, de phys. [2] 6 (1887) 251. 

. Hoff (J. H. van't). Z. f. physikal. Chemie, 1 (1887) 481. 

. Hugoniot. Jour, de phys. 6 (1887) 79. 

. Isambert (F.). Ann. chim. et phys. [7] 11 (1887) 538. 

. Kahlbaum (W. A.). Verhandl. d. naturf. Ges. zu Basel, 1887, 

363, 418. 

. Lorentz (H. A.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 95 ii (1887) 1 15, Separat. 

. Miiller ( W.). Ber. chem. Ges. 20 (1887) 1402 ; Beiblatter, 12 

(1888) 33, abs. 

. Puschl (C). Monatshefte f. Chemie, 8 (1887) 327, 374 ; Beiblatter, 

12 (1888) 33, 338 ; Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 96 ii (1887) 61. 

. Ramsay (W.) and Young (S.). PhiL Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 61, 547 ; 

Nature, 36 (1887) 23. 

. Schwalbe (B.) u. Fischer. Z. f. phys. u. chem. 1 (1887) 115. 

. Thomson (J. J.). PhU. Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 379. Ostwald's reply, 


. Thomson ( W.). PhiL Mag. [5] 23 (1887) 287, 459, 529 ; 24 (1887) 


1888. Amagat (E. H.). Comptes rendus, 107 (1888) 522. 

. Antoine (Ch.). Comptes rendus, 106 (1888) 57, 116 ; 107 (1888) 

778, 836. 

Bakker (G.). Beiblatter, 13 (1889) 371, abs. from Inausrural-Diss. 
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-. Barus (C). Amer. J. Sci. 35 (1888) 407. 

-. Bezold (W. v.). Ber. d. Berliner Akad. (1888) 485. 1189 ; Beib- 
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-. Boggio-Lera (E.). H nuovo Cimento, [3] 23 (1888) 32, 158. 




1888. Boltzmann (L.). Ber. d. Wiener Akad. 96 ii (1888) 891 ; Phil. 
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. Burbury (S. H.). Phil. Mag. [5] 25 (1888) 129. 

-. Cailletet (L.). Comptes rendus, 106 (1888) 333. 
-. Errera (G.). Gazz. chim. Ital. 18 (1888) 226. 

•. Hirn (O. A.). Comptes rendus, 106 (1888) 166.— See Natanson, 
same vol. 164. 

'. Hodgkinson (W. B.) and Lowndes (F. E. 8.). Chem. News, 58 
(1888) 187. 223. 

.. Hoff (J. H. van't). Phil. Mag. [5] 26 (1888) 81. 

.. Meyer (O. E.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 340. Ostwald, 342. 

•. Natanson (L.). Comptes rendus. 106 (1888) 164. Hirn's remarin, 

-. . Ann. Phys. u. Chem. [2] 33 (1888) 683 y 34 (1888) 


Ostwald (W.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 81. 

P6rot (A.). Jour, de Phys. [2] 7 (1888) 129. 

Planck (Max). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 405. 

Puschl (C). Monatshefte f, Chemie, 9 (1888) 93 ; Wiener Anzeiger, 
(1888) 14. 

Raoult (F.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 353 ; Ann. chim. et phys. 
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Bicharz (F.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 338. 

Tait (P. G.). PhiL Mag. [5] 25 (1888) 38, 172. 

Voley (W.). Proc. Roy. Soc. 44 (1888) 239. 

Walker (J.). Z. phys. Chem. 2 (1888) 1602 ; Beiblatter, 13 (1889) 
13, abs. 

[Bee Saturated Vapors.] 



1872. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 146 (1872) 585 ; Phil. Mag. 
[4] 44 (1872) 365. 

. Szily (C). Phil. Mag. [4] 43 (1872) 339, comm. by Author,from 

the Magyar Ertekesei ; Do. 46 (1873) 426 ; Ann. Phys. u^ Chem. 

145 (1872) 295, 302 ; 149 (1873) 74.— See Clausius dagegen. 

146 (1872) 585 ; Jahresb. (1872) 60. 


1835. Ampere. Ann. chim. et phys. [2] 58 (1835) 432 ; Phil. Mag. 7 
(1835) 342.— See Savary, Comptes rendus, 9 (1839) 557. 

1843. Biot. Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 10 (1843) 5, 175, 307, 385 ; 11 
(1844) 82. 

1854. Thomson (W.). Edinb. Trans. 21 (1854) 63 ; 24 (1857) 57 ; PhU. 
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1860. Biot Ann. chim. et phys. [3] 59 (1860) 206. 

1864. Clausius (R.). Ann. Phys. u. Chem. 121 (1864) 1 ; C.'s Abhand- 

lungen, i, 322. 

1865. Thomsen (J.). Phil. Mag. [4] 30 (1865) 2